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Hyperinsulinemia - Top 30 Publications

Mouldable, thermoplastic, glue-on frog-supportive shoes change hoof kinetics in normal and obese Shetland ponies.

Obesity and hyperinsulinaemia are frequently encountered in the equine population and risk factors for the development of laminitis. There are many options for hoof support that claim a beneficial effect, but often the scientific evidence is scarce.

A case of CHARGE syndrome associated with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in infancy.

CHARGE syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple organs. Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein-7 (CHD7) is a major causative gene of CHARGE syndrome. We herein report a male infant born at full term with asphyxia who was diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome based on the typical anomalies. He showed a poor sucking ability and suffered from continuous hypoglycemia in early infancy, ultimately requiring tube feeding. While in a hypoglycemic status, inappropriate high insulin and low growth hormone levels were noticed. Growth hormone replacement therapy partially increased his blood glucose levels, but asymptomatic hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinemia was occasionally noticed. Additional diazoxide treatment stabilized his blood level to within the normal range. A genetic analysis of CHD7 showed the novel heterozygous monoallelic mutation c.2990delT causing a reading frameshift p.Leu997Trpfs*15 in exon 12. This case shows that patients with CHARGE syndrome caused by a CHD7 mutation may present with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, just like other dysmorphic syndromes genetically caused by aberrations in chromatin remodeling.

Effects of gestational and pregestational diabetes mellitus on the foetal heart: a cross-sectional study.

We examined the foetal cardiac structural and functional characteristics in diabetic pregnancies versus non-diabetic, healthy pregnancies. Between August 2015 and April 2016, 32 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 36 pregnant women with gestational diabetes, and 42 healthy pregnant women were scheduled to have foetal echocardiograms to assess cardiac structure and function. In the diabetic groups, the foetal interventricular septum (IVS) thickness was significantly greater than in non-diabetics (p < .05) but none had an IVS >2 SD from normal. The peak velocity of tricuspid E, and the E/A ratio were significantly lower in the diabetic groups (p < .05). Tricuspid valve Ea values and the Ea/Aa ratio were lower in the diabetic group than in the control group (p < .05) but there was no significant difference between the pre-GDM and GDM groups (p > .05). Interventricular septal hypertrophy is the most common structural abnormality in diabetic pregnancies. These changes do not pose a risk to the foetal unless they cause functional impairment. Thus, we believe that it is important for diabetic pregnant women to be monitored for foetal cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Pregestational insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a relatively common condition in pregnancy, affecting up to 0.5% of the pregnant population. Foetuses of diabetic mothers are at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and death. Gestational diabetes mellitus is under-recognised and affects up to 4% of pregnancies. Although diabetes mellitus is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular defects and structural changes (myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction) due to foetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinism, similar data in women with gestational diabetes is scarce. Moreover, the effect of maternal hyperglycaemia on foetal cardiac structure and function is unclear because of discordant results from previous studies. What do the results of this study add? In this study, we have used foetal echocardiography, two-dimensional US, pulsed wave Doppler and TDI to characterise the foetal cardiac structure and function in normal pregnancies as well as in the pregnancies complicated by GDM, and pregestational DM. Interventricular septum thickness is increased in women with pregestational diabetes mellitus and impaired diastolic function. The dominant right ventricle of the foetal circulation was affected earlier than the left ventricle. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Large population-based studies are required to establish the absolute risk of congenital heart defects in patients with pregestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes in the utility of routine screening.

Effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on insulin secretion patterns in morbidly obese patients.

To assess the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on insulin secretion mode and metabolism of glucose and lipid in morbidly obese patients.

Mechanisms Linking Obesity and Thyroid Cancer Development and Progression in Mouse Models.

Recent compelling epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of obesity with thyroid cancer. Obesity has been shown to promote thyroid cancer progression and exacerbate poor outcome in thyroid cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases thyroid cancer risk and facilitates cancer progression are not completely understood. Obesity induces complex pathological changes including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, adipokines, and inflammatory responses. These changes can affect the development and progression of cancer through highly complex interactions in vivo. The deleterious effect of obesity may differ according to the different cancer types. In view of the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in parallel with the widespread occurrence of obesity in the past decades, it is imperative to clarify how obesity affects thyroid carcinogenesis. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms by which obesity aggravates thyroid carcinogenesis as elucidated by mouse models of thyroid cancer.

Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Contribution of parasympathetic muscarinic augmentation of insulin secretion to olanzapine-induced hyperinsulinemia.

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with the development of obesity and diabetes. In particular, olanzapine can induce peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. To determine if this compensatory increase in insulin is mediated by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation, we randomized fifteen healthy subjects 2:1 to receive double-blind olanzapine or placebo for 9 days under diet and activity controlled inpatient conditions. Before and after 7 days of study drug administration, subjects underwent frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests with either saline or atropine infused on subsequent days to assess insulin secretion and hepatic insulin extraction in the absence or presence of muscarinic blockade. We found that olanzapine led to an increase in the acute insulin response to glucose, which was not seen with placebo, and was attenuated in the olanzapine group by atropine. Deconvolution of C-peptide data confirmed an increase in insulin secretion with olanzapine, which was blocked by atropine, with a modest reduction in hepatic insulin extraction with olanzapine. These results support the contribution of muscarinic augmentation of insulin secretion to olanzapine-induced hyperinsulinemia , and provide a mechanism for the compensatory hyperinsulinemia that normally serves to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance under conditions of metabolic challenge.

Insulin signaling displayed a differential tissue specific response to low dose DHT in female mice.

Hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia are believed to play prominent roles in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We explored the effects of low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a PCOS model, on insulin signaling in metabolic and re-productive tissues in a female mouse model. Insulin resistance in the energy storage tissues is associated with type 2 diabetes. Insulin signaling in the ovaries and pituitary either directly or indirectly stimulates androgen production. Energy storage and reproductive tissues were isolated and molecular assays were performed. Livers and WAT from DHT mice displayed lower mRNA and protein expression of insulin signaling intermediates. However, ovaries and pituitaries of DHT mice exhibited higher expression levels of insulin signaling genes/proteins. Insulin-stimulated p-AKT levels were blunted in the livers and WAT of the DHT mice but increased or remained the same in the ovaries and pituitaries compared to controls. Glucose uptake decreased in liver and WAT but was unchanged in pituitary and ovary of DHT mice. Plasma membrane GLUTs were decreased in liver and WAT but increased in ovary and pituitary of DHT mice. Skeletal muscle insulin signaling genes were not lowered in DHT mice compared to control. DHT mice did not display skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport increased in skeletal muscles of DHT mice. DHT mice were hyperinsulinemic (HI). However, the differential mRNA and protein expression pattern was independent of hyperinsulinemia in cultured hepato-cytes and pituitary cells. These findings demonstrate a differential effect of DHT on the insulin-signaling pathway in energy storage versus reproductive tissues independent of hyperinsulinemia.

Type 2 diabetes impairs the ability of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in db/db mice.

Peripheral artery disease is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease that causes limb ischemia and has few effective non-interventional treatments. Stem cell therapy is promising, but concomitant diabetes may limit its effectiveness. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in wild type and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. Wild type C57BL/6J and leptin receptor spontaneous mutation db/db T2DM mice underwent unilateral femoral artery excision to induce limb ischemia. Twenty-four hours after ischemia induction, CD45-CD34-CD146+ skeletal muscle pericytes or vehicle control were transplanted into ischemic hindlimb muscles. At postoperative day 28, pericyte transplantation augmented blood flow recovery in wild type mice (79.3{plus minus}5% vs. 61.9{plus minus}5%; p=0.04), but not in T2DM mice (48.6%{plus minus}6% vs. 46.3{plus minus}5%; p=0.51). Pericyte transplantation augmented collateral artery enlargement in wild type (26.7{plus minus}2 μm vs. 22.3{plus minus}1 μm, p=0.03), but not T2DM mice (20.4{plus minus}1.4 μm vs. 18.5{plus minus}1.2 μm, p=0.14). Pericyte incorporation into collateral arteries was higher in wild type than in T2DM mice (p=0.002). Unexpectedly, pericytes differentiated into Schwann cells in vivo. In vitro, Insulin increased Nox2 expression and decreased tubular formation capacity in human pericytes. These insulin-induced effects were reversed by N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) antioxidant treatment. In conclusion, T2DM impairs the ability of pericytes to augment neovascularization via decreased collateral artery enlargement and impaired engraftment into collateral arteries, potentially via hyperinsulinemia-induced oxidant stress. While pericytes show promise as a unique form of stem cell therapy to increase postischemic neovascularization, characterizing the molecular mechanisms by which T2DM impairs their function is essential to achieve their therapeutic potential.

Insulin Resistance in Kidney Disease: Is There a Distinct Role Separate from That of Diabetes or Obesity?

Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas. However, insulin also has distinct actions in kidney tissue that regulate growth, hypertrophy, as well as microcirculatory and fibrotic pathways which, in turn, impact glomerular filtration, including that governed by tubuloglomerular feedback. However, it is often difficult to discern the distinct effects of excess circulating insulin and impaired insulin actions, as exist in the insulin resistance individual, from the associated effects of obesity or elevated systolic blood pressure on the development and progression of kidney disease over time. Therefore, we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the distinct impact of insulin resistance on kidney function and disease.

Differential insulin and steroidogenic signaling in insulin resistant and non- insulin resistant human luteinized granulosa cells - a study in PCOS patients.

Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the significant aberrations in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), however is only observed in 70%-80% of obese PCOS and 20%-25% of lean PCOS. Hyperinsulinemia accompanies PCOS-IR along with hyperandrogenemia against normal insulin and androgen levels in PCOS-non insulin resistance (NIR). This could possibly be due to defects in the downstream signaling pathways. The study thus aims to unravel insulin and steroidogenic signaling pathways in luteinized granulosa cells isolated from PCOS -IR and NIR vs matched controls. Luteinized granulosa cells from 30 controls and 39 PCOS were classified for IR based on a novel method of down regulation of protein expression of insulin receptor-β (INSR- β) as shown in our previous paper. We evaluated expression of molecules involved in insulin, steroidogenic signaling and lipid metabolism in luteinized granulosa cells followed by analysis of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in follicular fluid. Protein expression of INSR- β, pIRS (ser 307), PI(3)K, PKC-ζ, pAkt, ERK1/2, pP38MAPK and gene expression of IGF showed differential expression in the two groups. Increased protein expression of PPAR-γ was accompanied by up regulation in SREBP1c, FAS, CPT-1 and ACC-1 genes in PCOS-IR group. Expression of StAR, CYP19A1, 17 β- HSD and 3 β- HSD demonstrated significant decrease along with increase in CYP11A1, FSH-R and LH-R in both the groups. Follicular fluid testosterone increased and progesterone decreased in PCOS-IR group. This study shows how candidate molecules that were differentially expressed, aid in designing targeted therapy against the two phenotypes of PCOS.

Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: Coprediction and Time Trajectories.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension overlap in the population. In many subjects, development of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in plasma glucose values. Whether a similar phenomenon occurs during the development of hypertension is not known. We analyzed the pattern of blood pressure (BP) changes during the development of hypertension in patients with or without diabetes mellitus using data from the MCDS (Mexico City Diabetes Study; a population-based study of diabetes mellitus in Hispanic whites) and in the FOS (Framingham Offspring Study, a community-based study in non-Hispanic whites) during a 7-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus at baseline was a significant predictor of incident hypertension (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-4.54) independently of sex, age, body mass index, and familial diabetes mellitus. Conversely, hypertension at baseline was an independent predictor of incident diabetes mellitus (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.50-4.44). In >60% of the converters, progression from normotension to hypertension was characterized by a steep increase in BP values, averaging 20 mm Hg for systolic BP within 3.5 years (in MCDS). In comparison with the nonconverters group, hypertension and diabetes mellitus converters shared a metabolic syndrome phenotype (hyperinsulinemia, higher body mass index, waist girth, BP, heart rate and pulse pressure, and dyslipidemia). Overall, results were similar in the 2 ethnic groups. We conclude that (1) development of hypertension and diabetes mellitus track each other over time, (2) transition from normotension to hypertension is characterized by a sharp increase in BP values, and (3) insulin resistance is one common feature of both prediabetes and prehypertension and an antecedent of progression to 2 respective disease states.

Cardiopulmonary Bypass for a Patient With Congenital Hyperinsulinemia.

Congenital hyperinsulinism is a clinical syndrome of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction characterized by failure to suppress insulin secretion in the presence of hypoglycemia. Here, we describe the concerns, the techniques used to ameliorate these potential problems, and the outcomes for a child with this condition undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for correction of an atrial septal defect.

Anaesthetic Management Of Nesidioblastosis In Two Infants.

Nesidioblastosis is the most common cause of non-transient, recurrent and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and infants. It is a disorder of diffuse proliferation of beta cells of the pancreas leading to hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycaemia. The main aim is to prevent the severe episodes of hypoglycaemia which can cause damage to the brain and/or mental retardation. In this case report we present two cases of nesidioblastosis and their perioperative anaesthetic course for near-total pancreatectomy. First case was a 7 months old female who had repeated episodes of convulsions since birth. Second case was a 4-month-old female child who again presented with seizures. The challenges faced in the perioperative period were the management of perioperative blood glucose levels and haemodynamic stability.

Metabolic and molecular changes associated with the increased skeletal muscle insulin action 24-48 h after exercise in young and old humans.

The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, this response is altered in older individuals for up to 48 h post exercise and is associated with molecular changes in skeletal muscle tissue that are indicative of reduced lipid oxidation, increased lipogenesis, increased inflammation and a relative inflexibility of changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Reduced insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance) is generally related to IMCL content, particularly in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region, and both are associated with increasing age. Recent research has demonstrated that ageing per se appears to cause an exacerbated lipolytic response to exercise that may result in SSL IMCL accumulation. Further research is required to determine if increased IMCL content affects HKII expression in the days after exercise in older individuals, and the effect of this on skeletal muscle insulin action.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism and Hypopituitarism Attributable to a Novel Mutation in FOXA2.

Persistent hypoglycemia in the newborn period most commonly occurs due to hyperinsulinism. The phenotype of hypoketotic hypoglycemia can also result from pituitary hormone deficiencies, including growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) is a transcription factor shown in mouse models to influence insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, Foxa2 is involved in regulation of pituitary development, and deletions of FOXA2 have been linked to panhypopituitarism.

Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Enriched Rice Bran Diet Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Balances Energy Expenditure via Modification of Gut Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

In this study, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp., and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by downregulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, and Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated. Serum lipid compositions showed ERB supplement exhibited a more efficient effect on lowering serum sphingolipids, which was closely associated with the status of insulin resistance. Consistently, genes of Ppp2r3b and Prkcg, involved in the function of ceramides in blocking insulin action, were also downregulated following ERB intervention. Enriched GABA and phenolic acids were supposed to be responsible for the health-beneficial effects.

Hippocampal insulin resistance links maternal obesity with impaired neuronal plasticity in adult offspring.

Maternal obesity and a disturbed metabolic environment during pregnancy and lactation have been shown to result in many long-term health consequences for the offspring. Among them, impairments in neurocognitive development and performance belong to the most dreaded ones. So far, very few mechanistic approaches have aimed to determine the responsible molecular events.

Beneficiary effect of Commiphora mukul ethanolic extract against high fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in wistar rats.

The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin elthanolic extract treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: two of these groups (group C and C+CM) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (group F and F+CM) were fed with high fructose (66 %) diet. C. mukul suspension in 5% Tween-80 in distilled water (200 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CM and group F+CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. mukul treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F decreased significantly with C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that C. mukul treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms by the extract which was further supported by histopathological results from liver samples which showed regeneration of the hepatocytes. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

Distinct roles of systemic and local actions of insulin on pancreatic β-cells.

Pancreatic β-cell mass and function are critical in glucose homeostasis. Their regulatory mechanisms have been studied principally under experimental conditions of reduced β-cell numbers, such as β-cell ablation and partial pancreatectomy. In the present study, we generated an opposite mouse model with an excessive amount of ectopic β-cells, and analyzed its consequence on β-cell mass and survival.

Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Correlates with Impaired Mitochondrial Dynamics, Mitophagy and Apoptosis, in Liver and Adipose Tissue, but Not in Muscles in EMS Horses.

Nowadays, endocrine disorders have become more frequent in both human and veterinary medicine. In horses, reduced physical activity combined with carbohydrate and sugar overload may result in the development of the so-called equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, elevated blood triglyceride concentrations and usually obesity. Although the phenotypic features of EMS individuals are well known, the molecular mechanism underlying disease development remains elusive. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed insulin-sensitive tissues, i.e., muscles, liver and adipose tissue in order to evaluate insulin resistance and apoptosis. Furthermore, we assessed mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in those tissues, because mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome. We established the expression of genes related to insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondria clearance by mitophagy using RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell ultrastructure was visualized using electron transmission microscopy. The results indicated that adipose tissue and liver of EMS horses were characterized by increased mitochondrial damage and mitophagy followed by triggering of apoptosis as mitophagy fails to restore cellular homeostasis. However, in muscles, apoptosis was reduced, suggesting the existence of a protective mechanism allowing that tissue to maintain homeostasis.

Development and Characterization of a Novel Congenic Rat Strain for Obesity and Cancer Research.

The association between a Western Diet and colon cancer suggests that dietary factors and/or obesity may contribute to cancer progression. Our objective was to develop a new animal model of obesity and the associated pathophysiology to investigate human cancer independent of dietary components that induce obesity. A novel congenic rat strain was established by introducing the fa allele from the Zucker rat into the Rowett Nude rat to generate a "fatty nude rat". The obese phenotype was first characterized in the new model. To then examine the utility of this model, lean and obese rats were implanted with HT-29 human colon cancer xenografts and tumor growth monitored. Fatty nude rats were visibly obese and did not develop fasting hyperglycemia. Compared to lean rats, fatty nude rats developed fasting hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Colon cancer tumor growth rate and final weight were increased (P < 0.05) in fatty nude compared to lean rats. Final tumor weight was associated with p38 kinase phosphorylation (P < 0.01) in fatty nude rats. We have established a novel model of obesity and pre-type 2 diabetes that can be used to investigate human cancer and therapeutics in the context of obesity and its associated pathophysiology.

Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

Severely obese adolescents harbor numerous cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RFs), which improve after metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS). However, predictors of change in CVD-RFs among adolescents have not yet been reported.

Congenital hyperinsulinism: diagnostic and management challenges in a developing country - case report.

Management of congenital hyperinsulinemia of infancy (CHI) is challenging. A 4-month-old female infant with persistent hypoglycemia and elevated insulin levels was diagnosed with CHI. Gallium-68 DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan (68Ga-labeled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-octreotide) demonstrated focal disease in the body of the pancreas. Genetic studies indicated paternal inheritance, making focal disease likely. She was started on diazoxide therapy with partial improvement in blood glucose levels. Due to a suboptimal response to diazoxide and the likelihood of focal disease amenable to surgery, a laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy with preservation of the head of the pancreas was performed. The biopsy demonstrated diffuse hyperplastic pancreatic islet cells on immunohistochemistry, indicative of diffuse rather than focal disease. Paternal inheritance is a recognized indicator of focal disease. Gallium-68 DOTANOC PET/CT scan is the only available imaging modality in South India as 18F-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET/CT scan is not available at present. A laparoscopic approach reduces the postoperative recovery time and morbidity in such patients. The absence of 18F-L-DOPA PET/CT scan and the limited supply of diazoxide makes the management of this complex condition more challenging in developing countries.

Molecular Therapy of Melanocortin-4-Receptor Obesity by an Autoregulatory BDNF Vector.

Mutations in the melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) comprise the most common monogenic form of severe early-onset obesity, and conventional treatments are either ineffective long-term or contraindicated. Immediately downstream of MC4R-in the pathway for regulating energy balance-is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our previous studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated hypothalamic BDNF gene transfer alleviates obesity and diabetes in both diet-induced and genetic models. To facilitate clinical translation, we developed a built-in autoregulatory system to control therapeutic gene expression mimicking the body's natural feedback systems. This autoregulatory approach leads to a sustainable plateau of body weight after substantial weight loss is achieved. Here, we examined the efficacy and safety of autoregulatory BDNF gene therapy in Mc4r heterozygous mice, which best resemble MC4R obese patients. Mc4r heterozygous mice were treated with either autoregulatory BDNF vector or YFP control and monitored for 30 weeks. BDNF gene therapy prevented the development of obesity and metabolic syndromes characterized by decreasing body weight and adiposity, suppressing food intake, alleviating hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia, improving glucose and insulin tolerance, and increasing energy expenditure, without adverse cardiovascular function or behavioral disturbances. These safety and efficacy data provide preclinical evidence that BDNF gene therapy is a compelling treatment option for MC4R-deficient obese patients.

Genetic Evidence That Carbohydrate-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Leads to Obesity.

A fundamental precept of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity is that insulin secretion drives weight gain. However, fasting hyperinsulinemia can also be driven by obesity-induced insulin resistance. We used genetic variation to isolate and estimate the potentially causal effect of insulin secretion on body weight.

Reduction of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of obese patients after bariatric surgery-mediated weight loss.

Obesity is associated with several detrimental health consequences, among them an increased risk for development of cancer, and an overall elevated mortality. Multiple factors like hyperinsulinemia, chronic microinflammation and oxidative stress may be involved. The comet assay has been proven to be very sensitive for detection of DNA damage and has been used to explore the relationship between overweight/obesity and DNA damage, but results are controversial. Very few investigations have been performed to correlate weight loss of obese individuals and possible reduction of DNA damage and these studies have not provided clear results. As currently, only surgical interventions (metabolic/bariatric surgery) enable substantial and sustained weight loss in the vast majority of morbidly obese patients, we analyzed whole blood samples of 56 subsequent patients prior, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery. No reduction of DNA damage was observed in comet assay analysis after 6 months despite efficient weight loss, but a significant reduction was observed 12 months after surgery. Concurrently, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay showed a significant reduction after 6 and 12 months. The level of oxidised glutathione and lipid peroxidation products were increased at 6 months but normalised at 12 months after surgery. As conclusion, a significant weight reduction in obese patients may help to diminish existing DNA damage besides improving many other health aspects in these patients.

Combined oral contraceptives and/or antiandrogens versus insulin sensitizers for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Androgen excess is a key pathogenetic mechanism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although hyperinsulinism also contributes to androgen secretion. Therapeutic approaches for adult patients not seeking fertility include combined oral contraceptives (COC), antiandrogens (AA) and/or insulin sensitizers, although these practices are supported by limited high-quality evidence.

Low serum uric acid concentration augments insulin effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

Insulin and uric acid were shown affect the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), but no studies examine their interaction. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine their biological interaction in subjects from central Mexico.

Gestational diabetes from A to Z.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of hyperglycaemia that is recognized for the first time during pregnancy. This definition includes cases of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) identified early in pregnancy and true GDM which develops later. GDM constitutes a greater impact on diabetes epidemic as it carries a major risk of developing T2DM to the mother and foetus later in life. In addition, GDM has also been linked with cardiometabolic risk factors such as lipid abnormalities, hypertensive disorders and hyperinsulinemia. These might result in later development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the different risk factors, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the genetic factors of GDM, will help us to identify the women at risk, to develop effective preventive measures and to provide adequate management of the disease. Clinical trials have shown that T2DM can be prevented in women with prior GDM, by intensive lifestyle modification and by using pioglitazone and metformin. However, a matter of controversy surrounding both screening and management of GDM continues to emerge, despite several recent well-designed clinical trials tackling these issues. The aim of this manuscript is to critically review GDM in a detailed and comprehensive manner, in order to provide a scientific analysis and updated write-up of different related aspects.