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Mycoplasma genitalium - Top 30 Publications

Comparative genomics of four Mycoplasma species of the human urogenital tract: Analysis of their core genomes and virulence genes.

The variation in Mycoplasma lipoproteins attributed to genome rearrangements and genetic insertions leads to phenotypic plasticity that allows for the evasion of the host's defence system and pathogenesis. This paper compared for the first time the genomes of four human urogenital Mycoplasma species (M. penetrans HF-2, M. fermentans JER, M. genitalium G37 and M. hominis PG21) to categorise the metabolic functions of the core genes and to assess the effects of tandem repeats, phage-like genetic elements and prophages on the virulence genes. The results of this comparative in silico genomic analysis revealed that the genes constituting their core genomes can be separated into three distinct categories: nuclear metabolism, protein metabolism and energy generation each making up 52%, 31% and 23%, respectively. The genomes have repeat sequences ranging from 3.7% in M. hominis PG21 to 9.5% in M. fermentans JER. Tandem repeats (mostly minisatellites) and phage-like proteins (including DNA gyrases/topoisomerases) were randomly distributed in the Mycoplasma genomes. Here, we identified a coiled-coil structure containing protein in M. penetrans HF-2 which is significantly similar to the Mem protein of M. fermentans ɸMFV1. Therefore, a Mycoplasma prophage seems to be embedded within M. penetrans HF-2 unannotated genome. To the best of our knowledge, no Mycoplasma phages or prophages have been detected in M. penetrans. This study is important not only in understanding the complex genetic factors involved in phenotypic plasticity and virulence in the relatively understudied Mycoplasma species but also in elucidating the effective arrangement of their redundant minimal genomes.

Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016.

Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new CE/IVD Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016.

High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia.

The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR. Available M. genitalium PCR-positive (n=67) and negative (n=281) samples from the years 2011 to 2017 were tested using the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit. In total, 63.6 % M. genitalium-positive samples were indicated to harbour MRMMs. The ResistancePlus MG method provided sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 99.6 % respectively compared to in-house PCR for M. genitalium detection. Such high levels of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium raise further concerns over future use of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection.

Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark.

Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown a strong association between M. genitalium and HIV infection, therefore screening and treatment for M. genitalium has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women, recruited from Danish HIV centres as part of a larger observational study on aspects of living with HIV as a woman (the SHADE study), were included.

Mycoplasma genitalium macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance detection and clinical implications in a selected cohort in New Zealand.

Mycoplasma genitalium has been associated with infections of the genitourinary tract and prevalence is secondary to Chlamydia trachomatis The clinical observation of increasing treatment failure indicating antibiotic resistance, especially in cases of recurrent urethritis, has been confirmed by molecular testing. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene can cause macrolide resistance and topoisomerase/gyrase mutations can cause fluoroquinolone resistance. In this study, 115 M. genitalium DNA positive samples were analysed. Eighty nine (77.4%) samples had a 23S rRNA mutation present and 26 (22.6%) were wild type (no resistance mutation). Fluoroquinolone mutation screening was performed on 86 (74.8%) of the 115 samples which 20 (23.3%) samples had a mutation(s) associated with increased resistance. This study shows the increasing antibiotic resistance in New Zealand and the need for appropriate guidelines to treat at risk patients.

Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and other sexually transmitted infections causing urethritis among high-risk heterosexual male patients in Estonia.

We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) among high-risk heterosexual male patients and to clarify their potency to cause complaints and inflammation.

Developing a Public Health Response to Mycoplasma genitalium.

Although Mycoplasma genitalium is increasingly recognized as a sexually transmitted pathogen, at present there is no defined public health response to this relatively newly identified sexually transmitted infection. Currently available data are insufficient to justify routinely screening any defined population for M. genitalium infection. More effective therapies, data on acceptability of screening and its impact on clinical outcomes, and better information on the natural history of infection will likely be required before the value of potential screening programs can be adequately assessed. Insofar as diagnostic tests are available or become available in the near future, clinicians and public health agencies should consider integrating M. genitalium testing into the management of persons with sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromes associated with the infection (ie urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease) and their sex partners. Antimicrobial-resistant M. genitalium is a significant problem and may require clinicians and public health authorities to reconsider the management of STI syndromes in an effort to prevent the emergence of ever more resistant M. genitalium infections.

Mycoplasma genitalium in Women: Current Knowledge and Research Priorities for This Recently Emerged Pathogen.

Health consequences of sexually transmitted diseases disproportionately affect women, making it important to determine whether newly emerged pathogens cause sequelae. Although the pathogenic role of Mycoplasma genitalium in male urethritis is clear, fewer studies have been conducted among women to determine its pathogenic role in the female reproductive tract. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an important cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy, and Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are recognized microbial causes. Emerging data demonstrate an association between M. genitalium and PID, and limited data suggest associations with infertility and preterm birth, yet the attributable risk for female genital tract infections remains to be defined. Further investigations are needed to better define the impact of M. genitalium on women's reproductive health. Importantly, prospective studies evaluating whether screening programs and targeted treatment of M. genitalium improve reproductive outcomes in women are necessary to guide public health policy for this emerging pathogen.

The Unique Microbiology and Molecular Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium.

Mycoplasma genitalium is increasingly appreciated as a common cause of sexually transmitted disease syndromes, including urethritis in men and cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly preterm birth, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women. Despite these disease associations, which parallel those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mechanisms by which this pathogen elicits inflammation, causes cellular damage, and persists in its only natural host (humans) are unique and are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to briefly provide a historical background on the discovery, microbiology, and recognition of M. genitalium as a pathogen, and then summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this unique urogenital organism. Collectively, the basic scientific discussions herein should provide a framework for understanding the clinical and epidemiological outcomes described in the accompanying articles in this supplemental issue.

Mycoplasma genitalium From Basic Science to Public Health Implications: Results of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Technical Consultation.

Mycoplasma genitalium From Basic Science to Public Health: Summary of the Results From a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disesases Technical Consultation and Consensus Recommendations for Future Research Priorities.

This article lays out the research priorities for Mycoplasma genitalium research agreed upon by the participants in a 2016 National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded Technical Consultation focused on this organism. The state of current knowledge concerning the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations of infection, treatment, and public health significance of M. genitalium reviewed at the meeting is described in detail in the individual articles included in this supplemental edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Here we summarize the points made in these articles most relevant to the formulation of the research priorities listed in this article. The most important recommendation resulting from this Technical Consultation is the initiation of clinical trials designed to determine definitively whether screening for and treatment of M. genitalium infections in women and their sexual partners improve reproductive health in women and/or prevent human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Men.

Mycoplasmagenitalium is one of the major causes of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) worldwide but an uncommon sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the general population. The risk of sexual transmission is probably lower than for Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection in men is usually asymptomatic and it is likely that most men resolve infection without developing disease. The incubation period for NGU caused by Mycoplasma genitalium is probably longer than for NGU caused by C. trachomatis. The clinical characteristics of symptomatic NGU have not been shown to identify the pathogen specific etiology. Effective treatment of men and their sexual partner(s) is complicated as macrolide antimicrobial resistance is now common in many countries, conceivably due to the widespread use of azithromycin 1 g to treat STIs and the limited availability of diagnostic tests for M. genitalium. Improved outcomes in men with NGU and better antimicrobial stewardship are likely to arise from the introduction of diagnostic M. genitalium nucleic acid amplification testing including antimicrobial resistance testing in men with symptoms of NGU as well as in their current sexual partner(s). The cost effectiveness of these approaches needs further evaluation. The evidence that M. genitalium causes epididymo-orchitis, proctitis, and reactive arthritis and facilitates human immunodeficiency virus transmission in men is weak, although biologically plausible. In the absence of randomized controlled trials demonstrating cost effectiveness, screening of asymptomatic men cannot be recommended.

New Horizons in Mycoplasma genitalium Treatment.

Mycoplasmagenitalium is an important sexually transmitted pathogen responsible for both male and female genital tract disease. Appreciation of its significance in human disease has been hampered by its slow growth in culture, difficulty in isolating it, and lack of commercial molecular-based tests for rapid detection. Comparatively few in vitro data on antimicrobial susceptibility are available due to the scarcity of clinical isolates and difficulty in performing susceptibility tests to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for M. genitalium. Antimicrobial agents that inhibit protein synthesis such as macrolides, along with fluoroquinolones that inhibit DNA replication, have been the treatments of choice for M. genitalium infections. Even though international guidelines recommend azithromycin as first-line treatment, rapid spread of macrolide resistance as well as emergence of quinolone resistance has occurred. Increasing rates of treatment failure have resulted in an urgent need for new therapies and renewed interest in other classes such as aminocyclitols, phenicols, and streptogramins as treatment alternatives. Limited data for new investigational antimicrobials such as the ketolide solithromycin suggest that this drug may eventually prove useful in management of some resistant M. genitalium infections, although it is not likely to achieve cure rates >80% in macrolide-resistant strains, in a similar range as recently reported for pristinamycin. However, agents with completely new targets and/or mechanisms that would be less likely to show cross-resistance with currently available drugs may hold the greatest promise. Lefamulin, a pleuromutilin, and new nonquinolone topoisomerase inhibitors are attractive possibilities that require further investigation.

Mycoplasma genitalium: Accurate Diagnosis Is Necessary for Adequate Treatment.

Mycoplasma genitalium is very difficult to grow in culture but has been more able to be studied for disease associations since the advent of research molecular amplification assays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other molecular assays have demonstrated an association with adverse disease outcomes, such as urethritis or nongonococcal urethritis in men and adverse reproductive sequelae in women-for example, cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), including an association with risk for human immunodeficiency virus. The lack of commercially available diagnostic assays has limited widespread routine testing. Increasing reports of high rates of resistance to azithromycin detected in research studies have heightened the need available commercial diagnostic assays as well as standardized methods for detecting resistance markers. This review covers available molecular methods for the diagnosis of M. genitalium and assays to predict the antibiotic susceptibility to azithromycin.

The detection of microorganisms related to urethritis from the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis.

To investigate the presence of microorganisms related to urethritis in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis and the efficacies of antimicrobials for urethritis on microorganisms in the oral cavity.

French prospective clinical evaluation of the Aptima® Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE-IVD) and macrolide resistance detection using three distinct assays.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Aptima® Mycoplasma genitalium CE-IVD (MG-TMA) assay for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical male and female samples in comparison with the in-house real-time PCR (in-house PCR) assay routinely used in our laboratory. A total of 1,431 clinical specimens obtained from 1,235 patients were prospectively collected at the Bacteriology Department of Bordeaux University Hospital (France). Additional research-use-only Aptima® M. genitalium TMA assays, Alt1-TMA and Alt2-TMA, were performed on discordant specimens to determine the M. genitalium infection status. All confirmed M. genitalium-positive specimens were tested for macrolide resistance using three assays: the in-house 23S FRET PCR assay, the SpeeDx ResistancePlus™ MG assay and the nested reverse-transcription (RT) PCR sequencing assay. The comparison of the MG-TMA assay with the in-house PCR results showed a moderate correlation (kappa value 0.69). The MG-TMA assay had higher clinical sensitivity compared to that of the in-house PCR assay (100% versus 59.74%, respectively) and similar specificity (99.10% versus 100%, respectively) for M. genitalium detection. In this study, the prevalence of M. genitalium infection was 5.90% (72/1,220 patients). The nested RT-PCR sequencing assay was the most sensitive but the most laborious assay for detecting macrolide resistance-associated mutations. The prevalence of resistance was 8.33% (6/72). To our knowledge, this is the first clinical evaluation of the MG-TMA CE-IVD assay. The MG-TMA assay performed on the automated Panther® system is a very sensitive and specific method for the detection of M. genitalium in clinical specimens.

In Vitro Activities of Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Human Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas.

Gepotidacin, a novel first-in-class triazaacenaphthylene topoisomerase II inhibitor, was tested against 85 type strains and clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in comparison to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, azithromycin or clindamycin, and tetracycline. Gepotidacin MIC90s (μg/ml) were 0.125 (M. pneumoniae), 0.032 (M. genitalium), 2 (M. hominis), and 8 (Ureaplasma species). Gepotidacin activity was not affected by resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, or macrolides in the strains tested. Gepotidacin merits further study for treating infections caused by these organisms.

Mycoplasma genitalium, an agent of reemerging sexually transmitted infections.

M. genitalium is a reemerging microorganism, responsible for sexually transmissible infections (STIs), with prevalence which varies depending on the country and population group studied. We report here M. genitalium prevalence among the specimens received for STI diagnosis in our routine microbiological laboratory in the university hospital in Marseille, France. We tested 4 624 samples from 3 793 patients using qPCR for M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrheae, T. pallidum. Of these samples, 528 (13.6%) patients were tested positive for at least one pathogen and 126 (3.3%) were positive for M. genitalium. M. genitalium is the second most prevalent micro-organism detected in women after C. trachomatis (10.4%) and the third most prevalent in men after C. trachomatis (5.1%) and N. gonorrhoeae (4.4%). We observed no significant differences between the prevalence of M. genitalium in vaginal, urethral and urine specimens (p = 0.9). Prevalence of M. genitalium is significantly higher in patients aged between 10-30 years (4.1%) compared to those aged between 30 and 50 years (2.7%) (p = 0.02, RR = 1.54 [1.06-2.24]) and patients over 50 years of age (1.1%) (p = 0.003, RR= 3.98 [1.47-10.8]). M. genitalium is a common agent of STI, therefore we suggest that this micro-organism should be systematically tested during chronic, recurrent, or antibiotic resistant genital infections and in populations at high-risk of STIs.

Assessing the Need for Routine Screening for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Low-risk Female Population: A Prevalence and Co-infection Study on Women from Croatia.

There is an ongoing debate regarding possible cost and benefits, but also harm of universal screening for the emerging sexually transmitted pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium.

Molecular Diagnostics Update for the Emerging (if not already widespread) Sexually-transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma genitalium: Just About Ready for Prime Time.

Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection in both females and males, carrying the potential for post-infection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays is available commercially. This mini-review describes the format and performance indices of a number of M. genitalium DNA- and RNA-based amplification assays; many of these assays have contributed to an improved clinical and epidemiologic understanding of this organism.

Detection of markers predictive of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium from patients attending sexual health services in England.

Resistance to both macrolides and fluoroquinolones has been reported in Mycoplasma genitalium; however, due to limited diagnostics, studies are often small and confined to specific geographical areas. This study sought to determine the rate of predicted resistance in M. genitalium-positive specimens referred for diagnostic testing.

Which azithromycin regimen should be used for treating Mycoplasma genitalium? A meta-analysis.

There is increasing evidence that azithromycin 1 g is driving the emergence of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium worldwide. We undertook a meta-analysis of M. genitalium treatment studies using azithromycin 1 g single dose and azithromycin 500 mg on day 1 then 250 mg daily for 4 days (5-day regimen) to determine rates of treatment failure and resistance in both regimens.

Prevalence of cervical colonization by Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in childbearing age women by a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR: An Italian observational multicentre study.

Mycoplasmas are frequently isolated from the genital tract. New molecular PCR-based methods for the detection of mycoplasmas can better define the real epidemiology of these microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mycoplasmas in a population of childbearing age women by means of PCR.

Urinary Meatal Swabbing Detects More Men Infected With Mycoplasma genitalium and Four Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Than First Catch Urine.

Urinary meatal swabs compared with urine showed higher infection rates for Mycoplasma genitalium (15.3% vs 12.6%, P = 0.035), Chlamydia trachomatis (11.3% vs 9.3%, P = 0.039), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.4% vs 1.1%, P = 1.00), Trichomonas vaginalis (8.0% vs 1.7%, P < 0.001), and high-risk human papillomavirus (5.9% vs 3.4%, P = 0.078) respectively.

Mycoplasma genitalium on the Loose: Time to Sound the Alarm.

Mycoplasma genitalium Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among a 2013-2014 Cohort of Patients in Barcelona, Spain.

Macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance is alarmingly emerging in M. genitalium worldwide. This article provides the first estimates of the current prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-mediating mutations in Barcelona, Spain, and identifies risk factors associated with the acquisition of these resistances.

Mycoplasma genitalium: yet another challenging STI.

Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma genitalium among STI clinic attendees in Western Canada: a cross-sectional analysis.

To determine the prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection among men and women, determine the prevalence of gene mutations conferring resistance and compare test performance of female specimen types.

UriSwab: an effective transport medium for nucleic acid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Background: Patient self-sampling allows for remote collection and return to clinic or laboratory by post. Urine samples, although convenient, are challenging to post. This study evaluated UriSwab (Copan, Brescia, Italy) as a collection and transport vessel for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) detection by polymerase chain reaction, compared with flocked swab and neat urine. Methods: Five replicates of each specimen type were prepared from previously characterised urine samples (n=330), stored at room temperature (RT) or 37°C, then extracted on day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 16 (VERSANT kPCR Sample Prep System, Siemens, Munich, Germany). Crossing thresholds (Cq) from CT and NG detection (VERSANT CT/GC DNA 1.0 assay kit, Siemens) and MG detection (real-time polymerase chain reaction assay) were compared using logistic regression, stratified by sample type, temperature and analyte. Mixed-model statistical techniques were used to assess correlation between repeated observations. Results: UriSwab showed an increasing trend in Cq values at RT and 37°C for CT and NG, and RT for MG (all P<0.01). UriSwab was not statistically significantly different to neat urine, except CT at RT (0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-1.15). Flocked swab similarly showed increasing Cq values at 37°C for CT, a significant decreasing trend at RT for MG and increasing trend at 37°C for MG. Flocked swab was not statistically significantly different from neat urine at RT and 37°C for CT and MG. Conclusion: UriSwab allows transport of urine for CT, NG and MG detection regardless of storage time or temperature, suggesting that CT and NG are stable for up to 16 days and MG up to 10 days.

Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in the Vaginal Microbiota and Persistent High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection.

Recent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.