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Mycoplasma genitalium - Top 30 Publications

Mutations in ParC and GyrA of moxifloxacin-resistant and susceptible Mycoplasma genitalium strains.

Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR) of parC and gyrA in cultured M. genitalium strains. In addition, we examined the prevalence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone resistance mediating mutations in specimens collected from Japanese male patients with urethritis in two time-periods between 2005-2009 and 2010-2017, respectively, by sequencing the QRDR of parC and gyrA and domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, azithromycin and clarithromycin were determined in 23 M. genitalium strains. Three cultured strains had elevated MICs for moxifloxacin at 16, 4 and 2 mg/L and had SNPs with the amino-acid change Ser83→Ile in ParC (p<0.001) and 3 kinds of SNPs with amino-acid changes Asp99→Asn, Gly93→Cys and Met95→Ile in GyrA, respectively. Among a total of 148 M. genitalium positive urine specimens, the prevalence of A2058G and A2059G SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and any SNPs in ParC increased from 4.8% and 22.6% in 2005-2009 to 42.2% and 53.1% in 2010-2017, respectively. If M. genitalium is considered multi-drug resistant in clinical specimens carrying SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and Ser83→Ile in ParC, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance is 12.5% in 2010-2017 in Japan. In conclusion, the SNP resulting in Ser83→Ile in ParC is closely related to moxifloxacin resistance even though other factors may also affect treatment outcomes by moxifloxacin. The prevalence of circulating multi-drug resistant M. genitalium strains with macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistance is dramatically increasing in Japan.

Outcomes of resistance-guided sequential treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a prospective evaluation.

Rising macrolide and quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium necessitate new treatment approaches. We evaluated outcomes of sequential antimicrobial therapy for M.genitalium guided by a macrolide-resistance assay.

Does the Sex Risk Quiz Predict Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Urban Adolescents and Young Adult Women?

Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) but there are limited strategies to identify individuals at risk of MG. Previously a sex risk quiz was used to predict STIs including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). The original quiz categorized individuals ≤25 years old as at risk of STIs, but the Centers for Disease Control identifies females <25 years old as at risk of STIs. In this study, the quiz was changed to categorize females <25 years old as high risk. The objective was to determine if the age-modified risk quiz predicted MG infection.

Detection of urinary Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and human papilloma virus in the first trimester of pregnancy by PCR method.

Miscarriage and preterm delivery are the most important challenges of pregnancy. Different bacterial and viral infection may cause miscarriage and preterm delivery. Among bacterial factors, Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis have the most important role and human papilloma virus (HPV) is the leading viral factor in this regard.

Mycoplasma genitalium and antibiotic resistance in Spain; the need for an effective response against an emerging problem.

Sexually transmitted Mycoplasma genitalium infection is difficult to treat.

Mycoplasma genitalium infection is sexually transmitted, and it is almost as common as chlamydia in most European settings. Symptoms are indistinguishable from those of chlamydia, and late sequelae are believed to be similar. Treatment of M. genitalium infection is complicated due to widespread antimicrobial resistance not only to first-line azithromycin but now also increasingly to second-line moxifloxacin, leaving no other antibiotics registered in Denmark available for effective treatment. In the absence of available antimicrobials, screening of asymptomatic individuals should be avoided.

In vitro activity of the novel triazaacenaphthylene gepotidacin (GSK2140944) against MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Increased antimicrobial resistance surveillance and new effective antimicrobials are crucial to maintain treatable gonorrhoea. We examined the in vitro activity of gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene, and the effect of efflux pump inactivation on clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains (n = 252) and compared gepotidacin with antimicrobials currently or previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment.

Evaluation of Symptomatic Patients with Resistant Discharge.

The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma (M.) hominis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma (U.) urealyticum, and Trichomonas (T.) vaginalis in patients with resistant discharge. The study also evaluated the concordance of the diagnostic tests. Samples from 156 patients were tested by direct microscopy and culture for T. vaginalis and Mycoplasma IES for M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of six agents. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS program. Out of 156 patients, 38 had positive result for the agents tested. Of these 38 patients, 28 (73.7%) had single agent positivity and 10 (26.3%) had multiple agent positivity. The detection rate of U. urealyticum, M. hominis, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, M. genitalium specifically was 10.3%, 9.6%, 6.4%, 3.2%, 2.6%, 0.6% respectively. N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum were the most common in male patients, while M. hominis and U. urealyticum were mostly found in female patients. Different methods used for detecting T. vaginalis were compared to find that interrater reliability was perfect for culture-direct microscopy (κ:0.85; P<0.001) and also for culture-PCR (κ:0.89; P<0.001). The interrater reliability was moderate (κ:0.53; P<0.001) for PCR-Mycoplasma IES test for M. hominis and fair (κ:0.21; P<0.007) for U. urealyticum. U. urealyticum and M. hominis were among the most commonly found sexually transmitted infections (STI) agents in patients with resistant discharge. Multiple agent positivity was high and should be kept in mind in every STI case.

Genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in cervicovaginal self-collected samples of reproductive-age women: prevalence and risk factors.

The purpose of this study was to characterise the prevalence and risk factors associated with genital mycoplasmas ( Mycoplasma hominis [MH], M. genitalium [MG]) and ureaplasmas ( Ureaplasma urealyticum [UU], U. parvum [UP]) in Portuguese women of reproductive age. The cross-sectional study included 612 cervicovaginal self-collected samples from women aged 15-44 years, tested for MH, MG, UU, UP by polymerase chain reaction. Y chromosome (Yc) DNA was detected as a biomarker of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. The prevalences of UU, UP, MH and MG were 28.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0-32.1), 22.4% (95% CI 19.3-25.9), 8.5% (95% CI 6.5-11.0) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.4-1.9), respectively. Overall, women aged 20-29 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.78; P = 0.010) and the presence of Yc-DNA (OR 2.33; P = 0.038) were associated with an increased risk of UU. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a predictor of UU, UP and MH (OR 2.46; P < 0.001, OR 2.78; P < 0.001 and OR 1.55; P < 0.001, respectively, for more than one versus one partner). The prevalence of MG was low, while UU, UP and MH were common in Portuguese women of reproductive age. The presence of UU, UP and MH was associated with sexual activity (number of sexual partners), although the consequences of its prevalence are not fully understood and should be further investigated.

Mycoplasma genitalium infections in Cuba: surveillance of urogenital syndromes, 2014-2015.

Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women. The prevalence of M. genitalium infections in Cuban patients with urogenital syndromes is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of M. genitalium infection in sexually-active Cuban men and women with urogenital syndromes as a part of aetiological surveillance of urogenital syndromes in Cuba. Samples from men and women with urogenital syndromes submitted to the Mycoplasma Reference Laboratory for mycoplasma diagnosis from 1 January 2014 to 1 June 2015 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of M. genitalium. A total of 971 samples were received and processed. Of the patients tested, 5.7% (47/824) of women and 27.9% (41/147) of men were positive for M. genitalium. This paper presents the largest study of M. genitalium infections among Cuban patients with urogenital syndromes and is Cuba's first M. genitalium survey. We suggest that M. genitalium should be considered in the Cuban sexually transmitted infection management protocols as an important pathogen, particularly in men.

An integrative investigation of the therapeutic mechanism of Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. in cervicitis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on a rat plasma metabolomics strategy.

Cervicitis is an extremely common gynecological disease and can be induced by diverse factors such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Long-term unhealed cervicitis may lead to a series of diseases including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and chorioamnionitis. However, the pathogenesis of cervicitis remains unknown. Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. (AFC) has been widely used in clinical treatment of cervicitis. In the present study, we performed an integrative investigation involving histopathology analysis and non-target plasma metabolomics analysis in a cervicitis rat model induced by phenol mucilage, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach. Based on the integrative investigation, marked metabolomic differences were identified between the cervicitis and control groups using multivariate analysis. As a result, 32 potential biomarkers were identified in the response to cervicitis, and were involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. After treatment, a total of 27 potential biomarkers exhibited altered levels in the AFC group compared to the model group, and 12 metabolites including 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol, bolasterone, lysoPC(16:0), lysoPC(20:4), lysoPC(P-16:0), lysoPC(P-18:0), lysoPC(P-18:1), stearoylcarnitine, taurine, lysoPC(17:0), 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and 1-arachidonoylglycerophosphoinositol returned to their normal levels. This study suggested that the therapeutic mechanism of AFC is related to those altered endogenous metabolites.

The vaginal microbiota and its association with human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

The vaginal microbiota may modulate susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Persistent infection with a carcinogenic HPV is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, and C. trachomatis, N. gonorrheae and M. genitalium genital infections are all associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility issues.

Three polypeptides screened from phage display random peptide library may be the receptor polypeptide of Mycoplasma genitalium adhesion protein.

Mycoplasma genitalium adhesion protein (MgPa) is a major adhesin of M. genitalium, a human pathogen associated with a series of genitourinary tract diseases. MgPa plays a very important role in M. genitalium adhering to the host cells. However, the exact receptor peptides or proteins of MgPa are still poorly understood so far. Three polypeptides (V-H-W-D-F-R-Q-W-W-Q-P-S), (D-W-S-S-W-V -Y-R-D-P-Q-T) and (H-Y-I-D-F-R-W) were previously screened from a phage display random peptide library using recombinant MgPa (rMgPa) as a target molecule. In this study, three polypeptides were artificially synthesized and investigated as to whether they are potential receptors of MgPa. We found that rMgPa specifically bound to three synthesized polypeptides as determined via an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, three polypeptides were further identified by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM). We confirmed that rMgPa and M. genitalium can adhere to SV-HUC-1 cells in vitro and that anti-rMgPa antibody and three synthesized polypeptides can partially inhibit the adherence of rMgPa and M. genitalium to SV-HUC-1 cells. In summary, these three polypeptides may be the essential receptor peptides of MgPa, and may aid in enhancing the understanding of biological function of MgPa and the possible pathogenic mechanism of M. genitalium.

Management of sexually transmissible infections in the era of multiplexed molecular diagnostics: a primary care survey.