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Ovarian cancer - Top 30 Publications

An epigenetic signature of adhesion molecules predicts poor prognosis of ovarian cancer patients.

DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for cancer. The epigenetic effects of cell adhesion molecules may affect the therapeutic outcome and the present study examined their effects on survival in ovarian cancer. We integrated methylomics and genomics datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 391) and identified 106 highly methylated adhesion-related genes in ovarian cancer tissues. Univariate analysis revealed the methylation status of eight genes related to progression-free survival. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, four highly methylated genes (CD97, CTNNA1, DLC1, HAPLN2) and three genes (LAMA4, LPP, MFAP4) with low methylation were significantly associated with poor progression-free survival. Low methylation of VTN was an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival after adjustment for age and stage. Patients who carried any two of CTNNA1, DLC1 or MFAP4 were significantly associated with poor progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.05). This prognostic methylation signature was validated in a methylomics dataset generated in our lab (n = 37, hazard ratio: 16.64; 95% confidence interval: 2.68, 103.14) and in another from the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (n = 91, hazard ratio: 2.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 5.36). Epigenetics of cell adhesion molecules is related to ovarian cancer prognosis. A more comprehensive methylomics of cell adhesion molecules is needed and may advance personalized treatment with adhesion molecule-related drugs.

20(S)-Rg3 blocked epithelial-mesenchymal transition through DNMT3A/miR-145/FSCN1 in ovarian cancer.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms mediating cancer progression. MicroRNAs (miRs) are essential regulators of gene expression by suppressing translation or causing degradation of target mRNA. Growing evidence illustrates the crucial roles of miRs dysregulation in cancer development and progression. Here, we have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of Panax ginseng, potently increases miR-145 expression by downregulating methyltransferase DNMT3A to attenuate the hypermethylation of the promoter region in the miR-145 precursor gene. Restoration of DNMT3A reverses the inhibitory effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on EMT. FSCN1 is verified as the target of miR-145 to suppress EMT in human ovarian cancer cells. The results from nude mouse xenograft models further demonstrate the suppressive effect of miR-145 on malignant progression of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)-Rg3 blocks EMT by targeting DNMT3A/miR-145/FSCN1 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)-Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

Therapeutic utility of natural estrogen receptor beta agonists on ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers. Despite success with initial chemotherapy, the majority of patients relapse with an incurable disease. Development of chemotherapy resistance is a major factor for poor long-term survival in ovarian cancer. The biological effects of estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Emerging evidence suggests that ovarian cancer cells express ERβ that functions as a tumor suppressor; however, the clinical utility of ERβ agonists in ovarian cancer remains elusive. We tested the utility of two natural ERβ agonists liquiritigenin (Liq), which is isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and S-equol, which is isolated from soy isoflavone daidzein, for treating ovarian cancer. Both natural ERβ ligands had significant growth inhibition in cell viability and survival assays, reduced migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. Further, ERβ agonists showed tumor suppressive functions in therapy-resistant ovarian cancer model cells and sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment. Global RNA-Seq analysis revealed that ERβ agonists modulate several tumor suppressive pathways, including downregulation of the NF-κB pathway. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ERβ interacts with p65 subunit of NF-κB and ERβ overexpression reduced the expression of NF-κB target genes. In xenograft assays, ERβ agonists reduced tumor growth and promoted apoptosis. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that natural ERβ agonists have the potential to significantly inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic actions, and natural ERβ agonists represent novel therapeutic agents for the management of ovarian cancer.

Jatropha-6(17),11E-diene class derivatives induce apoptosis effects in OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 ovarian cancer cell lines via mitochondrial pathway.

We investigated the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by novel jatropha-6(17),11E-diene class derivatives, compounds A, B, and C extracted from Euphorbia osyridea in Caov-4 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 cell lines were treated with different concentrations of these compounds. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT, clonogenic survival assay and Flow cytometry assays. ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), Caspase 3 and 9 activities were evaluated. Compound A, B, and C reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The IC50 values were calculated as 46.27 ± 3.86 and 38.81 ± 3.30 μM for compound A, 36.48 ± 3.18 and 42.59 ± 4.50 μM for compound B, and 85.86 ± 6.75 and 75.65 ± 2.56 μM for compound C against Caov-4 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cell lines, respectively. Apoptosis evaluation showed jatrophane derivatives increase induction of both early and late apoptosis (P<0.01). These compounds also increased ROS generation, ΔΨm and caspase-3 and -9 activations in treated cells. These results showed that compound A and B have significant inhibitory effects on OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

DICER1 Mutations are Consistently Present in Moderately and Poorly Differentiated Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors.

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are uncommon sex cord-stromal tumors associated with both germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations, the frequency of which has varied widely in different studies (0% to 62.5%). The current World Health Organization Classification includes 3 histologic types of SLCTs (well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated); heterologous elements and/or retiform patterns may be present in moderately and poorly differentiated neoplasms. We investigated the frequency of DICER1 mutations in a series of 38 ovarian tumors initially diagnosed as SLCTs, and explored whether identified mutations were associated with specific morphologic features. Specialist pathology review performed blinded to molecular results confirmed 34 tumors to be SLCTs (22 moderately differentiated, 8 poorly differentiated; 4 well-differentiated), while the remaining 4 neoplasms were considered not to represent SLCTs. Of the 34 cases diagnosed as SLCTs, 30 (88%) harbored ≥1 DICER1 mutation. All 30 moderately differentiated/poorly differentiated SLCTs contained mutations, but we did not find deleterious DICER1 mutations in the 4 well-differentiated SLCTs. Our study reports the highest DICER1 mutation frequency to date in SLCTs, with 100% of moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors being DICER1-mutated. This suggests that DICER1 mutation may be a defining feature of these neoplasms. Although the number of cases is limited, well-differentiated SLCTs appear to be DICER1-independent. Moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated SLCT components often coexist with each other and form part of a spectrum, while well-differentiated SLCTs usually occur in pure form, suggesting that fundamentally, these represent 2 separate and independent tumor types with a different pathogenesis. We suggest that all patients with ovarian SLCTs undergo germ-line DICER1 mutation testing.

Treatment Efficacy, Adherence, and Quality of Life Among Women Younger Than 35 Years in the International Breast Cancer Study Group TEXT and SOFT Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Trials.

Purpose To describe benefits and toxicities of adjuvant endocrine therapies in women younger than 35 years with breast cancer (n = 582) enrolled in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Methods In SOFT, women still premenopausal after surgery with or without chemotherapy were randomly assigned to tamoxifen alone, tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), or exemestane plus OFS. In TEXT, all received OFS with or without concomitant chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to exemestane plus OFS or tamoxifen plus OFS. We summarize treatment efficacy, quality of life, and adherence of the cohort of women younger than 35 years in SOFT and TEXT, alongside data from the cohort of older premenopausal women. Results For 240 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years enrolled in SOFT after receiving chemotherapy, the 5-year breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was 67.1% (95% CI, 54.6% to 76.9%) with tamoxifen alone, 75.9% with tamoxifen plus OFS (95% CI, 64.0% to 84.4%), and 83.2% with exemestane plus OFS (95% CI, 72.7% to 90.0%). For 145 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years in TEXT, 5-year BCFI was 79.2% (95% CI, 66.2% to 87.7%) with tamoxifen plus OFS and 81.6% (95% CI, 69.8% to 89.2%) with exemestane plus OFS. The most prominent quality of life symptom for patients younger than 35 years receiving OFS was vasomotor symptoms, with the greatest worsening from baseline at 6 months (on the order of 30 to 40 points), but loss of sexual interest and difficulties in becoming aroused were also clinically meaningful (≥ 8-point change). The level of symptom burden was similar in older premenopausal women. A total of 19.8% of women younger than 35 years stopped all protocol-assigned endocrine therapy early. Conclusion In women younger than 35 years with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, adjuvant OFS combined with tamoxifen or exemestane produces large improvements in BCFI compared with tamoxifen alone. Menopausal symptoms are significant but are not worse than those seen in older premenopausal women.

Highlights in ovarian cancer from the 2017 Society of Gynecologic Oncology annual meeting on women's cancer: Commentary.

Highlights in ovarian cancer from the 2017 Society of Gynecologic Oncology annual meeting on women's cancer.

Overexpression of WDFY2 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and migration via inactivation of Akt pathway.

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and is the second leading deadly reason among male cancer. WDFY2, which is found to be a cancer-specific fusion gene with CDKN2D in ovarian cancer, is a new gene with unknown function in carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of WDFY2 in prostate cancer development. We examined WDFY2 expression in human prostate tissue specimens and prostate cancer cell lines BPH-1, LNCaP, PC3, and DU-145. Overexpression of WDFY2 was performed to evaluate the role of WDFY2 in cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells. We analyzed the clinical impact and prognosis of WDFY2 expression on the progress of prostate cancer through data from online datasets. Our results showed that WDFY2 had lower expression level in prostate tumors than in normal tissues. Overexpression of WDFY2 in prostate cancer cells DU145 and PC-3 led to the suppression of cancer cell migration and colony formation. Furthermore, we found that WDFY2 exerted its role by suppressing the activity of Akt pathway other than the epithelial-mesenchymal transition progression. In conclusion, we have uncovered WDFY2 as a tumor suppressor gene and a new potential biomarker for cancer progression. Our results showed that WDFY2 inhibited cancer cell colony formation and migration via suppressing Akt pathway, making it a potential new therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

MicroRNA-139-5p Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting RHO-Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 in Ovarian Cancer.

Increasing evidence indicates that the dysregulation of microRNAs is associated with the development and progression ofvarious cancers. MicroRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) has been reported to have tumor-suppressive role in many types of cancers. But the role of miR-139-5p in ovarian cancer (OC) is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to explore the expression of miR-139-5p and its function in OC. The results showed that miR-139-5p expression was markedly downregulated in OC tissues and cell lines. Meanwhile, underexpression of miR-139-5p was significantly associated with FIGO stage, lymph mode metastasis, and poor overall survival of OC patients. Functional analyses indicated that overexpression of miR-139-5p significantly inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion of OC cells. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) were identified as a direct target of miR-139-5p using luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot. In addition, ROCK2 expression was upregulated, and was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p level in ovarian cancer tissues. Rescue experiments showed that overexpression of ROCK2 effectively reversed the inhibitory effect of OC cells induced by miR-139-5p. Most interestingly, in vivo studies indicated that miR-139-5p markedly suppressed the growth of tumors by repressing ROCK2 expression in nude mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that miR-139-5p plays an important tumor suppressor role in OC by directly binding to ROCK2, providing a novel target for the molecular treatment of ovarian cancer.

Paraneoplastic antigens as biomarkers for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of rare disorders that can be triggered by an abnormal immune response to proteins from tumors of the lung, ovary, lymphatics, or breast. Paraneoplastic clinical syndromes affect < 1% of patients with cancer; however, the frequency of subclinical levels of paraneoplastic autoantibodies in asymptomatic patients with cancer is unknown. Numerous studies have reported that ovarian cancer patients show signs of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) before or after their cancers are diagnosed. PNSs arise from a tumor-elicited immune response against onconeural antigens that are shared by tissues of nervous system, muscle, and tumor cells. Studies on the serum IgGs obtained from ovarian cancer patients have indicated the presence of onconeural antibodies in the absence of any PNS symptoms. The occurrence of PNSs is low in ovarian cancer patients and it can be accompanied by onconeural antibodies. The diagnosis of PNSs is accompanied by a suspicion of a malignant tumor such that neurologists typically refer such patients for a tumor diagnostic workup. There will be tremendous utility if subclinical levels (without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms or myositis) of these autoantibodies to paraneoplastic antigens can be exploited to screen asymptomatic high-risk patients for ovarian cancer, and used as biomarkers in immunoassays for the early detection or recurrence of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer overall survival is likely to be improved with early detection. Therefore, a panel of onconeural antigens that can detect paraneoplastic autoantibodies in patient sera should provide diagnostic utility for an earlier therapeutic intervention. Here we review the usefulness of PNS and other paraneoplastic syndromes and their association with paraneoplastic antigens to exploit these autoantibody biomarkers to form diagnostic multi-analyte panels for early detection of ovarian cancer.

Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD117 predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients: evidence from meta-analysis.

Cancer stem cells have recently been identified as a key driving factor for tumor metastasis and chemoresistance. CD117 is a well-established cancer stem cell marker, but its clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains controversial. Therefore, we aimed to identify correlations between CD117 expression and clinical features and outcomes in EOC patients in this meta-analysis.

Palbociclib Combined with Fulvestrant in Premenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer and Prior Progression on Endocrine Therapy: PALOMA-3 Results.

The efficacy and safety of palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was assessed in premenopausal women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ET).

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 promotes tumor cell migration and poor survival in ovarian carcinoma.

Glycerophosphodiesterase EDI3 (GPCPD1; GDE5; GDPD6) has been suggested to promote cell migration, adhesion and spreading, but its mechanisms of action remain uncertain. In this study, we targeted the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase GPAM along with choline kinase-α (CHKA), the enzymes that catabolize the products of EDI3 to determine which downstream pathway is relevant for migration. Our results clearly showed that GPAM influenced cell migration via the signaling lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), linking it with GPAM to cell migration. Analysis of GPAM expression in different cancer types revealed a significant association between high GPAM expression and reduced overall survival in ovarian cancer. Silencing GPAM in ovarian cancer cells decreased cell migration and reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. In contrast to these observations, manipulating CHKA did not influence cell migration in the same set of cell lines. Overall, our findings show how GPAM influences intracellular LPA levels to promote cell migration and tumor growth.

Influence of adjuvant chemotherapy on anti-Müllerian hormone in women below 35 years treated for early breast cancer.

The impact of chemotherapy on fertility appears to be of essential importance for the youngest cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to assess plasma anti-Mullërian hormone (AMH) evolution, using an automated sensitive AMH immunoassay in women younger than 35 years old before and after treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer. We selected 54 women aged less than 35 years old, at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, who received chemotherapy between 2008 and 2014, and with plasma samples collected from the diagnosis, to 1 year, 3 years and 5 years post-diagnosis. The median AMH decreased markedly in the year after the diagnosis compared with the pretreatment values (P < 0.0001), and slightly increased 2 years later (P = 0.007, comparing 1-year and 3-years post-diagnosis concentrations), without any additional AMH recovery 5 years after diagnosis. This recovery did not reach age-dependent AMH expected values (P < 0.0001, comparing AMH measured values to AMH expected values). Addition of taxanes to an anthracyclines + alkylating-based regimen was associated with a worse AMH decrease (P = 0.007). Ovarian tissue cryopreservation before treatment did not influence the AMH recovery. These results highlight the necessity of fertility counselling before treatment, especially in women wanting children.

In vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy during laparoscopy for gynecological surgery: a promising tool.

to investigate the technical feasibility of optical biopsy (probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy or pCLE) during laparoscopy and by the vaginal route in the exploration of pelvic gynecological cancers.

Oxidative stress contributes to hepatocyte growth factor-dependent pro-senescence activity of ovarian cancer cells.

The cancer-promoting activity of senescent peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) has already been well evidenced both in vitro and in vivo. Here we sought to determine if ovarian cancer cells may activate senescence in HPMCs. The study showed that conditioned medium (CM) from ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, A2780) inhibited growth and promoted the development of senescence phenotype (increased SA-β-Gal, γ-H2A.X, 53BP1, and decreased Cx43) in HPMCs. An analysis of tumors isolated from the peritoneum of patients with ovarian cancer revealed an abundance of senescent HPMCs in proximity to cancerous tissue. The presence of senescent HPMCs was incidental when fragments of peritoneum free from cancer were evaluated. An analysis of the cells' secretome followed by intervention studies with exogenous proteins and neutralizing antibodies revealed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as the mediator of the pro-senescence impact of the cancer cells. The activity of cancerous CM and HGF was associated with an induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Signaling pathways involved in the senescence of HPMCs elicited by the cancer-derived CM and HGF included p38 MAPK, AKT and NF-κB. HPMCs that senesced prematurely in response to the cancer-derived CM promoted adhesion of ovarian cancer cells, however this effect was effectively prevented by the cell protection against oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings indicate that ovarian cancer cells can elicit HGF-dependent senescence in HPMCs, which may contribute to the formation of a metastatic niche for these cells within the peritoneal cavity.

Nuclear β-catenin positivity as a predictive marker of long-term survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

Classical features as histomorphology, grade, FIGO stage, and residual tumour mass have strong prognostic value in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinomas (AEOC). Most AEOCs are associated with early recurrence and poor overall survival (OS). Despite of early recurrence, general poor outcome, both high grade tumours or tumours with advanced FIGO stage at the time of diagnosis, in some of such cases, long-term survival (LTS) has been recorded . The aim of this study was to compare the utility of "classical" prognostic factors to molecular factors such as β-catenin- E-cadherin-, mutated TP53-, and MiB-1 (Ki-67) labelling index determination in predicting long-term survival.

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Primary Ovarian Cancer: Ultrasound Detection and Comparison with Computed Tomography.

We retrospectively compared detection rates and consistency for diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of primary ovarian cancer (OC) between ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans in 41 patients whose PC of OC (stages IIC-IV) had been diagnosed by histopathology findings. Compared with CT detection rates, those for US were significantly higher for metastases to the pelvic area (92.3% vs. 43.6%, p < 0.001) and bowel surface (64.0% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.002); however, they did not significantly differ for other sites: omentum, diaphragm, lateral peritoneum, mesenteric, hepatic and splenic surfaces. Diagnostic consistency between US and CT scans were fair to moderate for splenic (κ = 0.806), hepatic (κ = 0.485), lateral peritoneum (κ = 0.450) and diaphragm (κ = 0.338) surfaces, but poorly consistent for other parts (κ = 0.144-0.229). In summary, US can complement CT scans, especially for detecting PC of primary OC metastases in pelvic and bowel surfaces.

Angiogenesis and cancer stem cells: New perspectives on therapy of ovarian cancer.

Failure in ovarian cancer therapy, following cytoreduction and chemotherapy, is related to the presence of cancer stem cells - a small subpopulation of cells resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation - in the tumour which may cause cancer relapse and manifestation of metastases. Therapies targeted at Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), such as those employing metformin (a drug used in the treatment of diabetes type II) and salinomycin, an antibiotic isolated from Streptococcus albus bacteria, seem promising. Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab was found to be effective in all phases of ovarian cancer treatment. The presence of CSCs has been associated with angiogenesis. Several CSC biomarkers correlate with the markers of angiogenesis and some signalling pathways, e.g. Notch, and are used by both CSCs and by pro-angiogenic factors.

Development and validation of a variant detection workflow for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and its clinical application based on the Ion Torrent technology.

Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide, and ovarian cancer is the most difficult gynecological tumor to diagnose and with the lowest chance of cure. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of ovarian cancer by 60% and breast cancer by up to 80% in women. Molecular tests allow a better orientation for patients carrying these mutations, affecting prophylaxis, treatment, and genetic counseling.

Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a inhibits ovarian carcinoma metastasis via the extracellular HMGA2-mediated ERK/EMT pathway.

Local migration and long-distance metastasis is the main reason for higher mortality of ovarian cancer. Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1/angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein is associated with tumor initiation and progression and exerts anti-tumor effects. High mobility group AT-hook 2 is overexpressed in majority of metastatic carcinomas, which contributes to carcinomas metastasis through Snail-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signal pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the signal pathway of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1/angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein-mediated anti-tumor effects. Our data observed that ovarian carcinoma cells exhibited lower expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a and higher expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2 compared to normal ovarian cells. Restoration of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a expression in ovarian carcinoma cells inhibited high mobility group AT-hook 2 expression and exhibited anti-proliferative effects. In addition, angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in ovarian carcinoma cells. We also observed that angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a restoration downregulated expression of Snail, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, and Vimentin in ovarian carcinoma cells, whereas angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a knockdown enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In vivo assay indicated that angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a inhibited ovarian tumor growth and elevated survival of tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice. Tumor histological analysis indicated that Snail, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, and Vimentin expression levels were downregulated via decreasing high mobility group AT-hook 2 expression. Furthermore, upregulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a impaired the phenotype of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian carcinoma cells and tumor tissues. Taken together, angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 3a presents potential in suppressing the proliferation and aggressiveness of ovarian carcinoma cells through the high mobility group AT-hook 2-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase/epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signal pathway.

KPNA2 is a potential diagnostic serum biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer and correlates with poor prognosis.

This study aimed to determine whether serum karyopherin alpha 2 levels can be used as a diagnostic biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Karyopherin alpha 2 protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples from 162 epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients and 48 healthy controls. Serum karyopherin alpha 2 levels in epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls ( p < 0.001). When a karyopherin alpha 2 serum level of 2.52 µg/mL was used as a cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for diagnosing epithelial ovarian carcinoma were 71.4% and 81.2%, respectively. High serum karyopherin alpha 2 levels (>485 µg/mL) correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage ( p < 0.0001), lymphatic metastasis ( p = 0.045), overall survival ( p = 0.001), and disease-free progression ( p = 0.006). Serum karyopherin alpha 2 represents a potential diagnostic biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

Thymidine kinase 1 expression in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma is superior to Ki-67: A new prognostic biomarker.

Cancer is a disease with abnormally proliferating cells and therefore proliferation rate is an important index for assessing tumour growth. Ki-67 is a commonly used proliferation marker considered to be an unfavourable prognostic marker in some tumors, while Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an interesting proliferation marker because its levels are highly dependent on the growth stage of cells. To define the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of the TK1 in patients with ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and establish its potential role as a new biomarker for progressive disease, we analyzed the expression patterns of TK1 and Ki-67 in 109 patients with ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. TK1 and Ki-67 expression both showed a statistically significant correlation to MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) grade, but not to age, tumour size, lymph node metastasis or pathological TNM (pTNM) stages. TK1 expression, MDACC grades, pathological stages and lymph node metastasis correlate to relapse incident rate and overall survival, but Ki-67 does not. Although TK1 expression, MDACC grade, pTNM stage and lymph node metastasis significantly correlate to relapse in the Cox univariate analysis, in the multivariate Cox analysis only TK1 expression and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors. The overall survival also correlated significantly to TK1 expression, MDACC grade, pTNM stage and lymph node metastasis in the Cox univariate analysis. However, only the pTNM stage was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in the Cox multivariate analysis. Therefore, though TK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for relapse, but not for survival, TK1 is a more informative expression than Ki-67 for LI, relapse and overall survival rates. Thus, when TK1 is combined with MDACC grading, pTNM staging and lymph node metastasis, IHC determination of TK1 expression may improve the overall prediction of prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

New 6(17)-epoxylathyrane diterpene: aellinane from Euphorbia aellenii induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in ovarian cancer cell line.

Euphorbia species have been used in traditional medicine in many countries for the treatment of cancer. This paper aims to evaluate the capability of a new lathyrane diterpene isolated from Euphorbia aellenii to induce apoptosis in the Caov-4 cell line to determine the underlying mechanism of its anticancer effects. A new 6(17)-epoxylathyrane diterpenes: aellinane from Euphorbia aellenii was evaluated for viability of Caov-4 cells by MTT method. Apoptosis induction by lathyrane diterpene was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and caspase-6 activation. The Bcl2 and Bax protein content were detected by Western blot analysis. Finally, we employed the fluorescent ROS detection kit and fluorochrome JC-1 to determine ROS levels and loss of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) in Caov-4 cells, respectively. The results show that lathyrane diterpene has significant cytotoxic effect against Caov-4 cells. The IC50 value was 45 µM. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and caspase-6 activity assay confirmed that lathyrane diterpene is able to induce apoptosis in Caov-4 cells. The results also demonstrate that lathyrane diterpene up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2 proteins. Moreover, apoptotic effect of lathyrane diterpene was also related to ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). This study demonstrated that lathyrane diterpene has profound activity against Caov-4 cells. Analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that lathyrane diterpene triggered the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis pathway, which led to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and activation of caspase 6. Therefore, we believe that lathyrane diterpene might be a promising natural compound in ovarian cancer therapy.

Monitoring of Biodistribution and Persistence of Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus in a Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer Using Capsid-Incorporated mCherry and Expression of Human Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Gene.

A significant limiting factor to the human clinical application of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd)-based virotherapy is the inability to noninvasively monitor these agents and their potential persistence. To address this issue, we proposed a novel imaging approach that combines transient expression of the human somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype 2 reporter gene with genetic labeling of the viral capsid with mCherry fluorescent protein. To test this dual modality system, we constructed the Ad5/3Δ24pIXcherry/SSTR CRAd and validated its capacity to generate fluorescent and nuclear signals in vitro and following intratumoral injection. Analysis of (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE biodistribution in mice revealed reduced uptake in tumors injected with the imaging CRAd relative to the replication-incompetent, Ad-expressing SSTR2 but significantly greater uptake compared to the negative CRAd control. Optical imaging demonstrated relative correlation of fluorescent signal with virus replication as determined by viral genome quantification in tumors. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies demonstrated that we can visualize radioactive uptake in tumors injected with imaging CRAd and the trend for greater uptake by standardized uptake value analysis compared to control CRAd. In the aggregate, the plasticity of our dual imaging approach should provide the technical basis for monitoring CRAd biodistribution and persistence in preclinical studies while offering potential utility for a range of clinical applications.

Anticancer activity of hydroxy- and sulfonamide-azobenzene platinum(II) complexes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

The syntheses of three platinum(II) complexes bearing sulfonamide- ( (E)-2-(4-methylphenylsulfonamido)-2',6'-difluoroazobenzene, HL1) and hydroxy-azo-2,6-difluorobenzene ((E)-2-((2,6-difluorophenyl)diazenyl)phenol, HL2) bidentate ligands is described. These complexes, [Pt(L1)(DMSO)Cl] (1), [Pt(L2)(DMSO)Cl] (2), and [Pt(L2)2] (3), were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Despite bearing azobenzene functional groups, none of the three complexes undergo photoisomerization. The anticancer activities of these complexes were evaluated in wild-type (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780CP70) ovarian cancer cells. All three complexes exhibited IC50 values below 10μM and displayed similar activity in both A2780 and A2780CP70 cell lines, indicating that they are not cross-resistant with cisplatin. The DNA-binding properties of 1-3 were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both studies suggest that 1 and 2 form monofunctional DNA adducts.

Association of CCR2 (+190 G/A) Gene Variants and Ovarian Cancer Severity.

Chemokines and their receptors play an important role in tumor progression. In the current study, we aimed to determine the association between the CCR2 gene (+190 G/A) polymorphism and ovarian cancer severity.

MKP-1 suppresses PARP-1 degradation to mediate cisplatin resistance.

Understanding the mechanisms of platinum compound resistance, including cisplatin resistance, has important implications for improving cancer treatments. Previous studies identified a potential role for mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in cisplatin resistance. This work focuses on the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) expression by MKP-1. We found that MKP-1 overexpression stimulates PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) protein expression and cisplatin resistance while its downregulation suppresses PARP-1 and PAR protein expression and cisplatin resistance. Silencing MKP-1 promoted PARP-1 ubiquitination, which decreased PARP-1 protein levels. We also found that silencing c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) decreased PARP-1 ubiquitination while increasing total PARP-1 protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that acquired cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells expressed high levels of MKP-1 and PARP-1 proteins, and that silencing MKP-1 or PARP-1 increased cisplatin sensitivity in resistant cells. Notably, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP activity restored cisplatin sensitivity in MKP-1 overexpressing cells. Thus, this work indicates that suppression of JNK1/2 activity by MKP-1 maintains PARP-1 levels and suggests that MKP-1-mediated cisplatin resistance can be bypassed by PARP-1 inhibition.Oncogene advance online publication, 26 June 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.197.

β-catenin downregulates Dicer to promote ovarian cancer metastasis.

Ovarian cancer is a nearly uniform lethal disease and its highly aggressive metastatic phenotype portends a poor prognosis. Lack of a well-controlled, relevant experimental model has been a major obstacle to identifying key molecules causing metastasis. Here we describe the creation of a new isogenic model of spontaneous human ovarian cancer metastasis exhibiting opposite phenotypes-highly metastatic (HM) and non-metastatic (NM)-both in vitro and in vivo. HM was unique in its ability to metastasize consistently to the peritoneum, mimicking the major dissemination route of human ovarian cancer. In contrast, NM failed to form detectable metastases, although it was equally tumorigenic. Using comparative label-free quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified β-catenin, which we demonstrated for the first time as having a direct role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer metastasis. Our studies also revealed a previously unrecognized role of β-catenin in the downregulation of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) through attenuating miRNA biogenesis by targeting Dicer, a key component of the miRNA-processing machinery. One such downregulated miRNAs was miR-29s involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and subsequent stem cell traits. Silencing β-catenin or overexpressing Dicer or miR-29 mimics in HM significantly reduced the ability of these cells to migrate. β-catenin-knockdown cells also failed to metastasize in an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer. Meta-analysis revealed an increase in CTNNB1 and a decrease in DICER1 expression levels in the high-risk group. These results uncover β-catenin as a critical factor in promoting ovarian cancer aggressiveness and a new mechanism linking between β-catenin and miRNA downregulation underlying this process.Oncogene advance online publication, 26 June 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.185.