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Ovarian dysgenesis - Top 30 Publications

17α-HYDROXYLASE DEFICIENCY IS AN UNDERDIAGNOSED DISEASE. HIGH FREQUENCY OF MISDIAGNOSES IN A LARGE COHORT OF BRAZILIAN PATIENTS.

17α-Hydroxylase deficiency (P450c17D) is characterized by hypogonadism and mineralocorticoid hypertension. We aimed to estimate the relative incidence and spectrum of preliminary misdiagnoses in Brazilian P450c17D patients.

The comorbidity of bipolar disorder, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune hypothyroidism in an adult woman with Turner's syndrome: a case report.

Turner's syndrome (TS) is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females and characterized with short stature and ovarian dysgenesis. Patients with TS may also present many other physical diseases and mental disorders. In this case report, we present a 49-year-old woman with TS, who also met criteria for bipolar disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune hypothyroidism. The patient was admitted to the mental health center for depressive symptoms in 1991 and was misdiagnosed as hypopituitarism, which was not corrected until 2005 when her karyotype of 45, X/46, X, i(Xq) was identified. Due to the misdiagnosis and other specific reasons, the patient missed the optimal time for hormone replacement therapy.

Familial Swyer syndrome: a rare genetic entity.

Swyer syndrome is a pure gonadal dysgenesis associated with a 46 XY karyotype and primary amenorrhea in a phenotypic female. Individuals in this syndrome are at an increased risk for development of gonadal malignancies. Swyer syndrome (gonadal dysgenesis) running in families is rare event and few such scenarios were reported in the literature. Here we are presenting this rare entity involving three affected siblings born to a non-consanguineous couple. Index case - A 23-year-old female with primary amenorrhea is presented with a mass per abdomen. The clinical findings and laboratory investigations revealed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism picture and, imaging revealed a left ovarian tumor. Primary surgical debulking of ovarian cancer was done, histopathology of which revealed a dysgerminoma FIGO stage IIIC. The family history of the patient revealed a similar pattern as the elder sister had primary amenorrhea and had succumbed to ovarian cancer and the younger sister also has primary amenorrhea. Karyotype of all the three patients revealed a male genotype with a female phenotype. The early diagnosis of the patients with Swyer syndrome is very important because of the increased risk for the development of malignancy. This is a rare event to have two sisters with ovarian cancers in three siblings affected with familial gonadal dysgenesis syndrome each of them having a different genotype and first of its kind to ever be reported in literature.

Pelvic floor muscle assessment at 3-and 4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound in women with endometriosis, with or without retroperitoneal infiltration: a step towards complete functional assessment.

Previous studies, comparing women with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and healthy controls, underlined an association between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) hypertonic dysfunction and deep lesions. The aim of the study is to compare the morphometry of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) in women affected by ovarian endometriosis with or without DIE, to assess the impact of retroperitoneal infiltration by the disease on PFM function.

Analysis a family with partial Xq deletion.

To analyze partial deletion of the long arm of X chromosome in a family and explore the mechanism underlying its phenotypes.

Turner syndrome caused by rare complex structural abnormalities involving chromosome X.

Turner syndrome (TS) is a phenotypic heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by the loss of an X-chromosome or X-structural abnormalities in the X-chromosome, and affects approximately 1 in every 2,500 females. The affected individuals may develop diverse clinical features, including short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, skeletal dysplasia, facial abnormalities and other disorders. A constitutional karyotype of 45, X accounts for nearly 50% of TS patients, while X-mosaicism and other X-chromosomal structural abnormalities, including deletions, duplications, ring, isodicentric chromosomes, inversions and translocations, have been reported in other cases. The present study reports the results of chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) in two Chinese female TS patients with idiosyncratic karyotypes. The first patient had a karyotype of 46, X, der(X), and the CMA results demonstrated that the derivative chromosome was an abnormal X-chromosome that consisted of three deletions (Xp21.3-p11.23, Xp11.1-q13.1 and Xq21.31-q28), as well as three duplications (Xp22.33-p21.3, Xp11.23-p11.1 and Xq13.1-q21.31). The karyotype of the second patient was 46, X, der(X) t(X;?)(q 22.1;?),inv(11)(q13.5q21), while CMA revealed an Xq21.2-q27.1 duplication and an Xq27.2-q28 deletion. In conclusion, the current study performed genotype-phenotype correlation analysis in two patients and provided novel insight of the genotype of TS.

X chromosome inactivation in a female carrier of a 1.28 Mb deletion encompassing the human X inactivation centre.

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a mechanism specifically initiated in female cells to silence one X chromosome, thereby equalizing the dose of X-linked gene products between male and female cells. XCI is regulated by a locus on the X chromosome termed the X-inactivation centre (XIC). Located within the XIC is XIST, which acts as a master regulator of XCI. During XCI, XIST is upregulated on the inactive X chromosome and chromosome-wide cis spreading of XIST leads to inactivation. In mouse, the Xic comprises Xist and all cis-regulatory elements and genes involved in Xist regulation. The activity of the XIC is regulated by trans-acting factors located elsewhere in the genome: X-encoded XCI activators positively regulating XCI, and autosomally encoded XCI inhibitors providing the threshold for XCI initiation. Whether human XCI is regulated through a similar mechanism, involving trans-regulatory factors acting on the XIC has remained elusive so far. Here, we describe a female individual with ovarian dysgenesis and a small X chromosomal deletion of the XIC. SNP-array and targeted locus amplification (TLA) analysis defined the deletion to a 1.28 megabase region, including XIST and all elements and genes that perform cis-regulatory functions in mouse XCI. Cells carrying this deletion still initiate XCI on the unaffected X chromosome, indicating that XCI can be initiated in the presence of only one XIC. Our results indicate that the trans-acting factors required for XCI initiation are located outside the deletion, providing evidence that the regulatory mechanisms of XCI are conserved between mouse and human.This article is part of the themed issue 'X-chromosome inactivation: a tribute to Mary Lyon'.

Case Report of Clitoral Hypertrophy in 2 Extremely Premature Girls With an Ovarian Cyst.

Neonatal clitoromegaly is mainly attributed to in utero androgen exposure secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report on 2 extremely premature girls with clitoromegaly, increased androgen levels, no salt wasting syndrome, and ovarian cyst. In case 1, the cyst liquid was aspired during ovarian hernia surgery and revealed high androgen levels. After aspiration, serum androgen levels decreased, as did clitoral size. In case 2, an ovarian cyst was seen on pelvic ultrasound. Aspiration was not indicated. The cyst regressed spontaneously on iterative pelvic ultrasounds, and her clitoromegaly decreased. Case 1 demonstrates the ovarian origin of this transient virilization. Cyst formation seems to be linked to the physiologic maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Thirteen cases of clitoromegaly with hyperandrogenism, without salt wasting syndrome, have been reported in extremely premature infants. In the context of clitoromegaly, we recommend ruling out in utero androgen exposure, adrenal hyperandrogenism, and disorders of sex development. We further recommend affirming hyperandrogenism by androgen assay and confirming ovarian origin with gonadotrophin assays and pelvic ultrasound. Drug therapy abstention and clinical and ultrasound monitoring are recommended because spontaneous regression of clitoral hypertrophy seems to be the most common outcome in the literature, as it was in our 2 observations.

Increased psychiatric morbidity in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or complete gonadal dysgenesis.

Knowledge concerning mental health outcomes is important to optimize the health of individuals with disorders or differences of sex development (DSD). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate if the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adult women diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or complete gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD and 46,XX GD) differs from that in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or age-matched population controls.

Marfanoid habitus is a nonspecific feature of Perrault syndrome.

The objective of this study was to report the clinical and biological characteristics of two Perrault syndrome cases in a Moroccan family with homozygous variant c.1565C>A in the LARS2 gene and to establish genotype-phenotype correlation of patients with the same mutation by review of the literature. Whole-exome sequencing was performed. Data analysis was carried out and confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregation. The affected siblings were diagnosed as having Perrault syndrome with sensorineural hearing loss at low frequencies; the female proband had primary amenorrhea and ovarian dysgenesis. Both affected individuals had a marfanoid habitus and no neurological features. Both patients carried the homozygous variant c.1565C>A; p.Thr522Asn in exon 13 of the LARS2 gene. This variant has already been reported as a homozygous variant in three other Perrault syndrome families. Both affected siblings of a Moroccan consanguineous family with LARS2 variants had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, marfanoid habitus, and primary ovarian insufficiency in the affected girl. According to the literature, this variant, c.1565C>A; p.Thr522Asn, can be correlated with low-frequency hearing loss. However, marfanoid habitus was been considered a nonspecific feature in Perrault syndrome, but we believe that it may be more specific than considered previously. This diagnosis allowed us to provide appropriate management to the patients and to provide more accurate genetic counseling to this family.

A homozygous missense variant in HSD17B4 identified in a consanguineous Chinese Han family with type II Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder that manifests with sensorineural hearing loss in both sexes, primary ovarian insufficiency in females and neurological features. The syndrome is heterogeneous both genetically and phenotypically.

Implications of the FMR1 Premutation for Children, Adolescents, Adults, and Their Families.

Given the nature of FMR1 gene expansions, most biological mothers, and often multiple other family members of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), will have a premutation, which may increase individual and family vulnerabilities. This article summarizes important gaps in knowledge and notes potential implications for pediatric providers with regard to developmental and medical risks for children and adolescents with an FMR1 premutation, including possible implications into adulthood.

Modified human uterus transplantation using ovarian veins for venous drainage: the first report of surgically successful robotic-assisted uterus procurement and follow-up for 12 months.

To report the 12-month results of the first human uterus transplantation case using robot-assisted uterine retrieval. This type of transplantation may become a treatment for permanent uterine factor infertility.

45,X/46,XY ovotesticular disorder of sex development revisited: undifferentiated gonadal tissue may be mistaken as ovarian tissue.

The 45,X/46,XY karyotype has been associated with mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) and ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD). Our aim was to revise the diagnosis of ovotesticular DSD in two patients in the context of a retrospective study of 45,X/46,XY subjects with genital ambiguity.

Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings.

Biallelic mutations in the ubiquitin ligase RFWD3 cause Fanconi anemia.

The WD40-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase RFWD3 has been recently linked to the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination (HR). Here we have shown that an RFWD3 mutation within the WD40 domain is connected to the genetic disease Fanconi anemia (FA). An individual presented with congenital abnormalities characteristic of FA. Cells from the patient carrying the compound heterozygous mutations c.205_206dupCC and c.1916T>A in RFWD3 showed increased sensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents in terms of increased chromosomal breakage, reduced survival, and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase. The cellular phenotype was mirrored in genetically engineered human and avian cells by inactivation of RFWD3 or introduction of the patient-derived missense mutation, and the phenotype was rescued by expression of wild-type RFWD3 protein. HR was disrupted in RFWD3-mutant cells as a result of impaired relocation of mutant RFWD3 to chromatin and defective physical interaction with replication protein A. Rfwd3 knockout mice appear to have increased embryonic lethality, are subfertile, show ovarian and testicular atrophy, and have a reduced lifespan resembling that of other FA mouse models. Although RFWD3 mutations have thus far been detected in a single child with FA, we propose RFWD3 as an FA gene, FANCW, supported by cellular paradigm systems and an animal model.

Cantú Syndrome Associated with Ovarian Agenesis.

Cantú syndrome is a very rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by generalized congenital hypertrichosis, neonatal macrosomia, coarse face, cardiomegaly, and occasionally, skeletal abnormalities. The syndrome has been attributed to mutated ABCC9 or KCNJ8 genes. We present a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay, distinctive coarse facial features, and generalized hypertrichosis apparent since birth. The investigation revealed absent ovaries and a hypoplastic uterus which have not been previously described. Conventional karyotyping was normal. DNA sequencing analysis of the ABCC9 gene was performed, and a heterozygous point mutation c.3460C>T (p.Arg1154Trp) was revealed. This missense gain-of-function mutation was located in exon 27 of the ABCC9 gene and has been reported in patients with the full phenotype of Cantú syndrome. However, the absence of the ovaries could be an expansion of the phenotype and not attributed to mutations in other genes important for ovarian development. Unfortunately, it has not been proven so far if the ABCC9 gene is expressed in the ovarian tissue.

Laparoscopically Removed Streak Gonad Revealed Gonadoblastoma in Frasier Syndrome.

Frasier syndrome (FS) is characterized by gonadal dysgenesis and progressive nephropathy caused by mutation in the Wilm's tumor gene (WT1). We report a case of FS in which diagnosis was based on amenorrhea with nephropathy, and laparoscopically-removed streak gonad which revealed gonadoblastoma.

Mixed Gonadal Germ Cell Tumor Composed of a Spermatocytic Tumor-Like Component and Germinoma Arising in Gonadoblastoma in a Phenotypic Woman With a 46, XX Peripheral Karyotype: Report of the First Case.

We report a unique case of gonadal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) composed of a predominantly spermatocytic tumor (ST)-like component and a minor component of germinoma arising in gonadoblastoma in a phenotypic woman with a 46, XX peripheral karotype. The patient was a 24-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 1) found to have a 7 cm pelvic mass during routine obstetric ultrasound examination at 20 weeks gestational age. She underwent a left salpingo-gonadectomy at gestational age 23 and 2/7 weeks. She recovered well and delivered a healthy baby at full term. The resected gonadal tumor measured 7.5 cm and microscopically was composed of 3 morphologically distinct components: gonadoblastoma (1%), germinoma (1%) and a ST-like component (98%). The ST-like component was composed of 3 populations of tumor cells: small cells, intermediate and large sized cells, similar to testicular ST. Scattered binucleated and multinucleated cells were present. Immunohistochemically the ST-like component was positive for pan-GCT markers SALL4 and LIN28 but with weaker staining than the germinoma. It was negative for OCT4 and TCL1. Only rare tumor cells were positive for SOX17. In contrast, the germinoma cells were diffusely and strongly positive for SALL4, LIN28, OCT4, SOX17, and TCL1. CD117 was positive in both the germinoma and ST-like component but with fewer tumor cells positive in the latter. Flurorescence in situ hybridization study demonstrated isochromosome 12p in the germinoma component but not in the gonadoblastoma and ST-like component. This patient did not receive further chemoradiation therapy after the surgery. She has been free of disease for 10 years and 1 month since her surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a ST-like GCT in a phenotypic female.

SMARCA4 inactivating mutations cause concomitant Coffin-Siris syndrome, microphthalmia and small-cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type.

SMARCA4 chromatin remodelling factor is mutated in 11% of Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) patients and in almost all small-cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT) tumours. Missense mutations with gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects are associated with CSS, whereas inactivating mutations, leading to loss of SMARCA4 expression, have been exclusively found in SCCOHT. We applied whole-exome sequencing to study a 15-year-old patient with mild CSS who concomitantly developed SCCOHT at age 13 years. Interestingly, our patient also showed congenital microphthalmia, which has never previously been reported in CSS patients. We detected a de novo germline heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 19 of SMARCA4 (c.2935C > T;p.Arg979*), and a somatic frameshift mutation in exon 6 (c.1236_1236delC;p.Gln413Argfs*88), causing complete loss of SMARCA4 immunostaining in the tumour. The immunohistochemical findings are supported by the observation that the c.2935C > T mutant transcript was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at a much lower level than the wild-type allele in whole blood and the lymphoblastoid cell line of the proband, confirming nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Accordingly, immunoblotting demonstrated that there was approximately half the amount of SMARCA4 protein in the proband's cells as in controls. This study suggests that SMARCA4 constitutional mutations associated with CSS are not necessarily non-truncating, and that haploinsufficiency may explain milder CSS phenotypes, as previously reported for haploinsufficient ARID1B. In addition, our case supports the dual role of chromatin remodellers in developmental disorders and cancer, as well as the involvement of SMARCA4 in microphthalmia, confirming previous findings in mouse models and the DECIPHER database. Finally, we speculate that mild CSS might be under-recognized in a proportion of SCCOHT patients harbouring SMARCA4 mutations. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

The BMP4-Smad signaling pathway regulates hyperandrogenism development in a female mouse model.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder and a major cause of anovulatory sterility in women at reproductive age. Most patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have hyperandrogenism, caused by excess androgen synthesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is an essential regulator of embryonic development and organ formation, and recent studies have also shown that BMP4 may be involved in female steroidogenesis process. However, the effect of BMP4 on hyperandrogenism remains unknown. Here, using a female mouse model of hyperandrogenism, we found that ovarian BMP4 levels were significantly decreased in hyperandrogenism. Elevated androgens inhibited BMP4 expression via activation of androgen receptors. Moreover, BMP4 treatment suppressed androgen synthesis in theca cells and promoted estrogen production in granulosa cells by regulating the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A, HSD3B2, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1 Consistently, knockdown of BMP4 augmented androgen levels and inhibited estrogen levels. Mechanistically, Smad signaling rather than the p38 MAPK pathway regulated androgen and estrogen formation, thereby mediating the effect of BMP4. Of note, BMP4-transgenic mice were protected against hyperandrogenism. Our observations clarify a vital role of BMP4 in controlling sex hormone levels and offer new insights into intervention for managing hyperandrogenism by targeting the BMP4-Smad signaling pathway.

Biallelic TRIP13 mutations predispose to Wilms tumor and chromosome missegregation.

Through exome sequencing, we identified six individuals with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TRIP13. All six developed Wilms tumor. Constitutional mosaic aneuploidies, microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures, which are features of mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome, were more variably present. Through functional studies, we show that TRIP13-mutant patient cells have no detectable TRIP13 and have substantial impairment of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), leading to a high rate of chromosome missegregation. Accurate segregation, as well as SAC proficiency, is rescued by restoring TRIP13 function. Individuals with biallelic TRIP13 or BUB1B mutations have a high risk of embryonal tumors, and here we show that their cells display severe SAC impairment. MVA due to biallelic CEP57 mutations, or of unknown cause, is not associated with embryonal tumors and cells from these individuals show minimal SAC deficiency. These data provide insights into the complex relationships between aneuploidy and carcinogenesis.

Pollutants Induced Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and Cellular Deformities in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from River Yamuna in Delhi Region, India.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of pollution impact at two extreme sites of river Yamuna in Delhi region utilizing oxidative stress, genotoxic and histopathological biomarkers in gonad (ovary) of Clarias gariepinus. To evaluate oxidative stress, TBAR's and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were employed while comet assay and classic histology were used to estimate genotoxicity and cellular damage respectively. The results indicated significant increase (p < 0.001) in TBARs level (µmol/g wet tissue); significant decrease (p < 0.001) in FRAP value (U/mg tissue), significant increase (p < 0.001) in DNA damage and extensive abnormal histoarchitecture in ovarian samples procured from Okhla as compared to Wazirabad barrage. Thus, exposure to the increasing toxicity downstream the river is altering the activity of cellular total antioxidant capacity persuading oxidative stress and cellular damage, eventually distressing the heath of fish fauna directly and humans indirectly.

Is foetal hyperexposure to androgens a cause of PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence. They are also thought to re-programme the female reproductive axis to induce the features of PCOS in later life: oligo/anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance (IR). Support for this developmental theory for the aetiology of PCOS is gathering momentum, following results from first animal studies and now human data, which lend credence to many aspects of this hypothesis.

Environmental influences on ovarian dysgenesis - developmental windows sensitive to chemical exposures.

A woman's reproductive health and ability to have children directly affect numerous aspects of her life, from personal well-being and socioeconomic standing, to morbidity and lifespan. In turn, reproductive health depends on the development of correctly functioning ovaries, a process that starts early during fetal life. Early disruption to ovarian programming can have long-lasting consequences, potentially manifesting as disease much later in adulthood. A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemicals early in life, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals, can cause a range of disorders later in life, such as those described in the ovarian dysgenesis syndrome hypothesis. In this Review, we discuss four specific time windows during which the ovary is particularly sensitive to disruption by exogenous insults: gonadal sex determination, meiotic division, follicle assembly and the first wave of follicle recruitment. To date, most evidence points towards the germ cell lineage being the most vulnerable to chemical exposure, particularly meiotic division and follicle assembly. Environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals, such as bisphenols or mild analgesics (including paracetamol), can also affect the somatic cell lineages. This Review summarizes our current knowledge pertaining to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and their potential contributions to the development of ovarian dysgenesis syndrome. We also highlight knowledge gaps that need addressing to safeguard female reproductive health.

A homozygous missense mutation in ERAL1, encoding a mitochondrial rRNA chaperone, causes Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural deafness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and previously mutations have been described in different genes, mostly related to mitochondrial proteostasis. We diagnosed three unrelated females with PS and set out to identify the underlying genetic cause using exome sequencing. We excluded mutations in the known PS genes, but identified a single homozygous mutation in the ERAL1 gene (c.707A > T; p.Asn236Ile). Since ERAL1 protein binds to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and is involved in the assembly of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit, the identified variant represented a likely candidate. In silico analysis of a 3D model for ERAL1 suggested that the mutated residue hinders protein-substrate interactions, potentially affecting its function. On a molecular basis, PS skin fibroblasts had reduced ERAL1 protein levels. Complexome profiling of the cells showed an overall decrease in the levels of assembled small ribosomal subunit, indicating that the ERAL1 variant affects mitochondrial ribosome assembly. Moreover, levels of the 12S rRNA were reduced in the patients, and were rescued by lentiviral expression of wild type ERAL1. At the physiological level, mitochondrial respiration was markedly decreased in PS fibroblasts, confirming disturbed mitochondrial function. Finally, knockdown of the C. elegans ERAL1 homologue E02H1.2 almost completely blocked egg production in worms, mimicking the compromised fertility in PS-affected women. Our cross-species data in patient cells and worms support the hypothesis that mutations in ERAL1 can cause PS and are associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism.

Natural variation of piRNA expression affects immunity to transposable elements.

In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs) are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements. The permissivity to I-element activity of R females, called reactivity, varies considerably in natural R populations, indicating the existence of a strong natural polymorphism in defense systems targeting transposons. To reveal the nature of such polymorphisms, we compared ovarian small RNAs between R strains with low and high reactivity and show that reactivity negatively correlates with the ancestral I-element-specific piRNA content. Analysis of piRNA clusters containing remnants of I-elements shows increased expression of the piRNA precursors and enrichment by the Heterochromatin Protein 1 homolog, Rhino, in weak R strains, which is in accordance with stronger piRNA expression by these regions. To explore the nature of the differences in piRNA production, we focused on two R strains, weak and strong, and showed that the efficiency of maternal inheritance of piRNAs as well as the I-element copy number are very similar in both strains. At the same time, germline and somatic uni-strand piRNA clusters generate more piRNAs in strains with low reactivity, suggesting the relationship between the efficiency of primary piRNA production and variable response to TE invasions. The strength of adaptive genome defense is likely driven by naturally occurring polymorphisms in the rapidly evolving piRNA pathway proteins. We hypothesize that hyper-efficient piRNA production is contributing to elimination of a telomeric retrotransposon HeT-A, which we have observed in one particular transposon-resistant R strain.

A rare FANCA gene variation as a breast cancer susceptibility allele in an Iranian population.

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele with tandem duplication of 13 base pair sequence in promoter region was identified. To investigate whether the 13 base pair sequence of tandem duplication in promoter region of the FANCA gene is of high penetrance in patients with breast cancer and to determine if the presence of the duplicated allele was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer, the present study screened DNA in blood samples from 304 breast cancer patients and 295 normal individuals as controls. The duplication allele had a frequency of 35.4 and 21.2% in patients with breast cancer and normal controls, respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of the duplication allele in patients with familial breast cancer compared with controls (45.1%, P=0.001). Furthermore, the estimated risk of breast cancer in individuals with a homozygote [odds ratio (OR), 4.093; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.957‑8.561] or heterozygote duplicated genotype (OR, 3.315; 95% CI, 1.996‑5.506) was higher compared with the corresponding normal homozygote genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the higher the frequency of the duplicated allele, the higher the risk of breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report FANCA gene duplication in patients with breast cancer.

Discriminating between virilizing ovary tumors and ovary hyperthecosis in postmenopausal women: clinical data, hormonal profiles and image studies.

The presence of virilizing signs associated with high serum androgen levels in postmenopausal women is rare. Virilizing ovarian tumors (VOTs) and ovarian stromal hyperthecosis (OH) are the most common etiologies in virilized postmenopausal women. The differential diagnosis between these two conditions is often difficult.

A 28-Year-Old Woman With Branching Opacity and Chest Pain.

A 28-year-old female patient presented through her primary care physician with symptoms of atypical chest pain and chronic cough. Her pain was described as pleuritic and intermittently radiating to the right arm. Her medical history was significant for recurrent respiratory infections, gastritis, and a left ovarian cyst treated with ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She denied any history of smoking, known lung disease, or extrapulmonary infections.