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PAP test - Top 30 Publications

Decisional balance and self-efficacy mediate the association among provider advice, health literacy and cervical cancer screening.

Health literacy has emerged as a potential determinant of cancer screening, yet limited literature has investigated the pathways which health literacy influences Pap tests among immigrant women who experience a higher incidence of cervical cancer. This study aimed to test a health literacy-focused sociocognitive model which proposes motivational (knowledge, decisional balance) and volitional (self-efficacy) factors mediating the association between health literacy and triennial Pap tests.

Presence of histopathological premalignant lesions and infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in patients with suspicious cytological and colposcopy results: A prospective study.

In patients with premalignant cervical lesions, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, at any moment, may be spontaneously eliminated, or may persist or transform cervical epithelium from a lower to a higher degree. Due to that, it is necessary to wisely select the patients who are at high risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to establish the interdependence between a suspicious Papanicolaou (Pap) test and colposcopy with the infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the presence of premalignant cervical lesions.

Knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap smear among Uyghur women from Xinjiang, China.

Cervical cancer is a significant public health issue in Xinjiang China. In order to provide scientific basis for cervical cancer intervention in Xinjiang, women's knowledge of cervical cancer was investigated in this study. Besides, relations between Uyghur women's awareness and their age, educational background, yearly household were evaluated.

Stability, integrity, and recovery rate of cellular nucleic acids preserved in a new liquid-based cytology medium.

Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced the conventional Papanicolaou test in cervical cancer screening. The cervical swab specimens collected in LBC media can also be used for additional analyses including high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) test, DNA methylation analysis, and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test.

Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity.

Cognitive determinants of cervical cancer screening behavior amongst housewife women in Iran: an application of Health Belief Model.

Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to assess the cognitive determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior (CCSB) among housewife women in Islamabad County, Iran. Through multistage random sampling we recruited and interviewed 280 housewife women. The women who perceived more benefits of performing the Pap test (OR = 1.11), and perceived fewer barriers (OR = 0.915), and higher self-efficacy to perform the test (OR = 1.12) were more likely to have a CCSB in the previous three years. Our findings are informative for the development of targeted interventions to foster CCSB among housewife women.

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Pap Smear Samples from South Khorasan Province of Iran.

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), leads to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and chronic pelvic pain in women as well as an increased risk of vertical transmission, conjunctivitis and pneumonitis in infants. It may also be a co-factor along with human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer progression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CT genotypes in genital specimens of women from South Khorasan, Iran and to test the association between CT and cytology statistics.

The limited role of serum galactomannan assay in screening for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients on micafungin prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

We evaluated the outcomes of serum galactomannan (GM) assay for the screening of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) recipients while on primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP).

Comparative Analysis of Women With Notable Subjective Health Indicators Compared With Participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Cross-Sectional Survey.

At least six communities with unusually good health and longevity have been identified, but their lifestyles aren't adopted widely. Informal evidence suggests that women associated with Universal Medicine (UM), a complementary medicine health care organization in Eastern Australia and the United Kingdom with normal lifestyles, also have several unusual health indicators.

Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 and Roche cobas 4800 HPV tests for detection of CIN2+ in a referral population in Japan.

To examine validity of the hybrid capture-2 and cobas 4800 HPV tests, 396 women including 188 women visiting for cancer screening, and 208 referral cases were examined with both HPV tests and the liquid-based cervical Pap test. Concordant results between the HPV assays were observed in 333 cases (coincident rates; 84.1%, kappa value; 0.682). The sensitivity for CIN2+ was 98.6% (69/70) and 82.9% (58/70) for HC2 and cobas 4800 (McNemar's test; P = 0.0026). The sensitivity for CIN3+ was 97.2% (35/36) and 83.3% (30/36) (Not significant, P =0.0736). The specificities for CIN2+ or CIN3+ did not differ between the tests. The HPV16, 52, 18, 31, and 58 were the most common types in CIN2+ cases. Reasonable sensitivity for HPV52, and cross-hybridization with some probable high-risk HPV type such as HPV82 explain the higher sensitivity of HC2 than cobas 4800 in detection of CIN2+ in a referral population in Japan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Intra-abdominal sepsis following a Papanicolaou test.

Variations in Progression and Regression of Precancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix on Cytology Testing Among Women of Different Races.

Although not incorporated into current cervical cancer screening guidelines, racial differences are known to persist in both occurrence of and outcomes related to cervical cancer.

Postactivation potentiation effect of overloaded cycling on subsequent cycling Wingate performance.

This study examined the postactivation potentiation effects of overloaded cycling on subsequent Wingate performance.

Long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 application to restore a balanced vaginal ecosystem: a promising solution against HPV-infection.

Over recent years, a growing interest has developed in microbiota and in the concept of maintaining a special balance between Lactobacillus and other bacteria species in order to promote women's well-being. The aim of our study was to confirm that vaginal Lactobacilli long-lasting implementation in women with HPV-infections and concomitant bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis might be able to help in solving the viral infection, by re-establishing the original eubiosis.

Impact of Patient Reminders on Papanicolaou Test Completion for High-Risk Patients Identified by a Clinical Decision Support System.

A clinical decision support system (CDSS) for cervical cancer screening identifies patients due for routine cervical cancer screening. Yet, high-risk patients who require more frequent screening or earlier follow-up to address past abnormal results are not identified. We aimed to assess the effect of a complex CDSS, incorporating national guidelines for high-risk patient screening and abnormal result management, its implementation to identify patients overdue for testing, and the outcome of sending a targeted recommendation for follow-up.

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women from quilombo communities in northeastern Brazil.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a member of the Papillomaviridae family. The prevalence of HPV genotypes may vary according to the region and the population studied. Quilombo communities are ethnic and racial groups with difficult access to health services compared to the general population in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify specific HPV types correlating with sociodemographic/behavioral characteristics and cervical smear cytological abnormalities in Quilombola women.

Limited Understanding of Pap Smear Testing among Women, a Barrier to Cervical Cancer Screening in the United Arab Emirates

Global data indicate that cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Important factors that affect interventions for early diagnosis of cervical cancer include social beliefs and values and poor knowledge. These may contribute to women’s participation in screening for cervical cancer and have a significant impact on decisions to take preventive action. The present study was conducted with 599 women in the UAE between September 2016 and March 2017. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and perceived barriers. Knowledge about the Pap smear test was limited, and awareness that they should undergo the Pap smear test every three years even with an initial negative/normal Pap smear result was abysmal. In spite of the positive attitude of the women towards the Pap smear test, almost 80% of the women surveyed had no knowledge of precancerous lesions. Having higher income (21/29, 72%, p=0.027) and more miscarriages were associated with better practice of Pap smears (19/26, 73%, p=0.010). Knowledge levels were significantly higher (66.3±22.2,) that values for attitude (60.5±20.9, p= 0.03, 95% CI {0.22-11.3}, Chi-square 4.38) and practice (53.7 24.1, p= 0.001, 95% CI {6.9-18.1}, Chi-square 19.7). A well-designed health education programme on cervical cancer and benefits of screening should increase the awareness among women in UAE. One point to stress is that better communication with health professionals and improvement of access to health care services should increase the rate of cervical cancer screening.

Attitudes of women after the age of 50 towards preventive screening.

Prevention is one of the major branches of the health sector. The National Health Programme encompasses main risk factors, elimination of which may lead to a reduced incidence of illnesses in the society. At the same time, the criteria of selecting people eligible for preventive screening are established according to risk groups determined by sex, as well as age in the population of women. The perimenopausal and menopausal period contributes to occurrence of numerous systemic diseases and to an increased risk of illnesses, especially cancers.

Cancer Screening Awareness and Practice in a Middle Income Country; A Systematic Review from Iran

Objective: Ageing population and noticeable changes in lifestyle in developing countries like Iran caused an increase in cancer incidence. This requires organized cancer prevention and screening programs in population level, but most importantly community should be aware of these programs and willing to use them. This study explored existing evidence on public awareness and practice, as well as, adherence to cancer screening in Iranian population. Methods: Major English databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and domestic Persian databases i.e., SID, Magiran, and Barakat search engines were searched. All publications with focus on Iranian public awareness about cancer prevention, screening, and early detection programs which were published until August 2015, were explored in this systematic review. For this purpose, we used sensitive Persian phrases/key terms and English keywords which were extracted from medical subject headings (MeSH). Taking PRISMA guidelines into considerations eligible documents, were evaluated and abstracted by two separate reviewers. Results: We found 72 articles relevant to this topic. Screening tests were known to, or being utilized by only a limited number of Iranians. Most Iranian women relied on physical examination particularly self-examination, instead of taking mammogram, as the most standard test to find breast tumors. Less than half of the average-risk adult populations were familiar with colorectal cancer risk factors and its screening tests, and only very limited number of studies reported taking at least one time colonoscopy or FOBT, at most 5.0% and 15.0%, respectively. Around half of women were familiar with cervical cancer and Pap-smear test with less than 45% having completed at least one lifetime test. The lack of health insurance coverage was a barrier to participate in screening tests. Furthermore some people would not select to be screened only because they do not know how or where they can receive these services. Conclusion: Low awareness and suboptimal use of screening tests in Iran calls for effective programs to enhance intention and compliance to screening, improving the patient-physician communication, identifying barriers for screening and providing tailored public awareness and screening programs.

Patterns and correlates of cervical cancer screening initiation in a large integrated healthcare system.

The latest 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening guidelines recommended screening initiation at age 21 years. Little is known about the cervical cancer screening initiation practices in the community, and whether there are critical gaps with respect to adherence to current clinical guidelines. Despite an overall decline in cervical cancer incidence across women of all ages, the incidence rate has not declined among 24-25 year-olds between 2000 (2.79 per 100,000) and 2013 (2.93 per 100,000). Thus, it is important to understand cervical cancer screening initiation in young women and how woman- and provider-level factors affect the timing of screening initiation to identify areas for improving cervical cancer prevention.

Primary HPV testing: U.S. women's awareness and acceptance of an emerging screening modality.

Primary HPV testing (without the Pap test) has recently been recommended as a cervical cancer screening option in the United States. U.S. women's awareness and acceptance of primary HPV testing were evaluated.

Racial/ethnic differences in HPV 16/18 genotypes and integration status among women with a history of cytological abnormalities.

HPV genotype distribution varies by race/ethnicity, but is unclear whether there are racial/ethnic variations in HPV 16/18 integration in the host genome. We describe HPV16/18 infection and integration status in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women with a recent abnormal Pap test.

Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power.

This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Genital Tract Infections in an Isolated Community: 100 Women of the Príncipe Island.

To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe).

Screening for cervical cancer in imprisoned women in Brazil.

Incarcerated women are more vulnerable to developing cervical cancer than women in general; therefore, screening and intervention programs must be included in their healthcare provision. We therefore aimed to investigate the state of cervical cancer screening for imprisoned women in Mato Grosso do Sul, and to analyze the interventions geared toward the control of cervical cancer.

Risk Factors for Abnormal Cervical Cytology in Women Undergoing Kidney Transplant Evaluation.

Cervical cytology screening has been successful in reducing deaths from cervical cancer. We sought to determine risk factors for abnormal Pap test results in women undergoing kidney transplant evaluation.

Cervical cancer screening among Lebanese women.

Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics.

High proportion of abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia in women with cystic fibrosis.

Insufficient gynecological follow-up and cervical screening has been reported in women with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some of these patients will require a pulmonary transplantation, known to be associated with a higher risk of cervical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to explore the results of cervical screening in adult women with CF, and to report the prevalence of abnormal pap smear tests in this population.

Comparison of volume control and pressure control ventilation in patients undergoing single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery.

Pressure control and volume control ventilation are the most preferred modes of ventilator techniques available in the intraoperative period. The study compared the intraoperative ventilator and blood gas variables of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) in patients undergoing single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

Spritzer: For diagnostic cytopathology.

Exfoliative cytology is an easy, economical, noninvasive, and feasible method for early detection and screening program of any premalignant or malignant lesion. In case of routine cytological procedure, classical Papanicolaou (PAP) stain is widely used while Romanowsky stains are sparingly used. Leishman-Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a easier, cost effective staining technique, has not been used in exfoliative cytology. Therefore, this pilot study was carried out to compare and contrast the role of LG stain in routine cytological procedure which is very cost-effective, less time-consuming and requires less infrastructural support.