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Parietal epithelial cells - Top 30 Publications

Peritoneal Malignant Psammomatous Mesothelioma.

Psammoma bodies (PBs) are observed most commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma, meningioma, and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary. We report one case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) with massive deposition of PBs. A 72-years-old man presented with abdominal swelling and marked weight loss. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed fluid diffuse in peritoneal recesses, thick septa with micronodules in the greater omentum and adjacent enhancement of the thickened peritoneum. The explorative laparoscopy showed diffuse minute parietal peritoneal nodules. The peritoneal biopsy revealed a superficial papillary growth of malignant epithelial-like cells with diffuse involvement of submesothelial tissues. Massive deposition of PBs was observed. Nuclear and cytoplasmic calretinin immunoreactivity was present in neoplastic cells along with membranous D2-40 and membranous/cytoplasmic cytokeratin 5 staining. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (gemcitabine, vinorelbine, cisplatin). PBs may represent an active biologic process ultimately leading to degeneration/death of tumor cells and retardation of growth of the neoplasm. It may also serve as a barrier against the spread of tumor. Psammomatous malignant mesothelioma may simulate serous psammocarcinoma of the peritoneum. The behavior of serous psammocarcinoma is more closely similar to borderline serous tumor than to serous carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to establish if massive deposition of PBs may define a new variant of psammomatous malignant mesothelioma with a favorable impact to the prognosis of usual psammomatous malignant mesothelioma, as well as in serous psammocarcinoma of the peritoneum.

Injury induced expression of caveolar proteins in human kidney tubules - role of megakaryoblastic leukemia 1.

Caveolae are membrane invaginations measuring 50-100 nm. These organelles, composed of caveolin and cavin proteins, are important for cellular signaling and survival. Caveolae play incompletely defined roles in human kidneys. Induction of caveolin-1/CAV1 in diseased tubules has been described previously, but the responsible mechanism remains to be defined.

Graft Growth and Podocyte Dedifferentiation in Donor-Recipient Size Mismatch Kidney Transplants.

Kidney transplantation is the treatment choice for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Because of good long-term outcome, pediatric kidney grafts are also accepted for transplantation in adult recipients despite a significant mismatch in body size and age between donor and recipient. These grafts show a remarkable ability of adaptation to the recipient body and increase in size in a very short period, presumably as an adaptation to hyperfiltration.

Heterotopic Cutaneous Meningioma: An Unusual Presentation Occurring in a Patient With a Remote History of Intracranial Meningioma.

Meningioma is a neoplasm of the meninges, which usually occurs in intracranial sites. Extracranial meningioma has been frequently reported in the sinonasal tract and skull bone, often as extension of intracranial meningiomas. Isolated heterotopic meningioma without contiguous intracranial lesion is extremely rare. A 56-year-old woman presented in December 2015 with 2 firm subcutaneous scalp masses; one in the left lateral (temporal) and the other in the left superior (parietal) region. The clinical impression was that of lipoma. Pathologic examination revealed an ill-defined proliferation of uniform meningothelial cells in a fibroblastic stroma interspersed within adipose tissue. The excised lesions had similar histologic features. Immunohistochemical stains were performed and the tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for S-100. A diagnosis of extracranial meningioma, WHO grade I was made. The patient's medical history was significant for intracranial meningioma of the frontal lobe in October 2007, which was diagnosed as atypical meningioma, WHO grade II. Comparison of the scalp masses to her previous meningioma revealed a distinctly different morphologic pattern. In light of the 8-year interval between the scalp and intracranial meningioma and the difference in histologic grades, it is unlikely that her most recent tumors represent a recurrence or metastasis of the intracranial tumor.

Endothelial Epas1 Deficiency Is Sufficient To Promote Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and FSGS in Experimental Hypertension.

FSGS, the most common primary glomerular disorder causing ESRD, is a complex disease that is only partially understood. Progressive sclerosis is a hallmark of FSGS, and genetic tracing studies have shown that parietal epithelial cells participate in the formation of sclerotic lesions. The loss of podocytes triggers a focal activation of parietal epithelial cells, which subsequently form cellular adhesions with the capillary tuft. However, in the absence of intrinsic podocyte alterations, the origin of the pathogenic signal that triggers parietal epithelial cell recruitment remains elusive. In this study, investigation of the role of the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1), a regulatory α subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor complex, during angiotensin II-induced hypertensive nephropathy provided novel insights into FSGS pathogenesis in the absence of a primary podocyte abnormality. We infused angiotensin II into endothelial-selective Epas1 knockout mice and their littermate controls. Although the groups presented with identical high BP, endothelial-specific Epas1 gene deletion accentuated albuminuria with severe podocyte lesions and recruitment of pathogenic parietal glomerular epithelial cells. These lesions and dysfunction of the glomerular filtration barrier were associated with FSGS in endothelial Epas1-deficient mice only. These results indicate that endothelial EPAS1 has a global protective role during glomerular hypertensive injuries without influencing the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II. Furthermore, these findings provide proof of principle that endothelial-derived signaling can trigger FSGS and illustrate the potential importance of the EPAS1 endothelial transcription factor in secondary FSGS.

Alcohol exposure induces chick craniofacial bone defects by negatively affecting cranial neural crest development.

Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that ethanol treatment downregulated Ap-2ɑ, Pax7 and HNK-1 expressions by cranial NCCs. Using double-immunofluorescent stainings for Ap-2ɑ/pHIS3 and Ap-2ɑ/c-Caspase3, we showed that ethanol treatment inhibited cranial NCC proliferation and increased NCC apoptosis, respectively. Moreover, ethanol treatment of the dorsal neuroepithelium increased Laminin, N-Cadherin and Cadherin 6B expressions while Cadherin 7 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization also revealed that ethanol treatment up-regulated Cadherin 6B expression but down-regulated slug, Msx1, FoxD3 and BMP4 expressions. In summary, our experimental results demonstrated that ethanol treatment interferes with the production of cranial NCCs by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of these cells. In addition, ethanol affected the delamination, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration of cranial NCCs, which may have contributed to the etiology of the craniofacial defects.

Urinary WT1-positive cells as a non-invasive biomarker of crescent formation.

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between urinary WT1-positive cells (podocytes and active parietal epithelial cells) and WT1-positive cells in renal biopsy to investigate whether urinary WT1-positive cells are useful for detection of crescent formation.

The cytoprotective protein clusterin is overexpressed in hypergastrinemic rodent models of oxyntic preneoplasia and promotes gastric cancer cell survival.

The cytoprotective protein clusterin is often dysregulated during tumorigenesis, and in the stomach, upregulation of clusterin marks emergence of the oxyntic atrophy (loss of acid-producing parietal cells)-associated spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). The hormone gastrin is important for normal function and maturation of the gastric oxyntic mucosa and hypergastrinemia might be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Gastrin induces expression of clusterin in adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns and gastrin-mediated regulation of clusterin in gastric tissue from: humans; rats treated with proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) inhibitors and/or a gastrin receptor (CCK2R) antagonist; H+/K+-ATPase β-subunit knockout (H/K-β KO) mice; and Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori and given a CCK2R antagonist. Biological function of secretory clusterin was studied in human gastric cancer cells. Clusterin was highly expressed in neuroendocrine cells in normal oxyntic mucosa of humans and rodents. In response to hypergastrinemia, expression of clusterin increased significantly and its localization shifted to basal groups of proliferative cells in the mucous neck cell-chief cell lineage in all animal models. That shift was partially inhibited by antagonizing the CCK2R in rats and gerbils. The oxyntic mucosa of H/K-β KO mice contained areas with clusterin-positive mucous cells resembling SPEM. In gastric adenocarcinomas, clusterin mRNA expression was higher in diffuse tumors containing signet ring cells compared with diffuse tumors without signet ring cells, and clusterin seemed to be secreted by tumor cells. In gastric cancer cell lines, gastrin increased secretion of clusterin, and both gastrin and secretory clusterin promoted survival after starvation- and chemotherapy-induced stress. Overall, our results indicate that clusterin is overexpressed in hypergastrinemic rodent models of oxyntic preneoplasia and stimulates gastric cancer cell survival.

Therapeutic Mechanism of Glucocorticoids on Cellular Crescent Formation in Patients With Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

This study aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids (GCs) in antiglomerular basement membrane disease.

Lrig1+ gastric isthmal progenitor cells restore normal gastric lineage cells during damage recovery in adult mouse stomach.

Lrig1 is a marker of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in the skin and intestine. We examined whether Lrig1-expressing cells are long-lived gastric progenitors in gastric glands in the mouse stomach. We also investigated how the Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells contribute to the regeneration of normal gastric mucosa by lineage commitment to parietal cells after acute gastric injury in mice.

MST4 kinase phosphorylates ACAP4 protein to orchestrate apical membrane remodeling during gastric acid secretion.

Digestion in the stomach depends on acidification of the lumen. Histamine-elicited acid secretion is triggered by activation of the PKA cascade, which ultimately results in the insertion of gastric H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of parietal cells. Our recent study revealed the functional role of PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis in histamine-elicited acid secretion. However, it remains uncharacterized how the PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis operates the insertion of H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of gastric parietal cells. Here we show that MST4 phosphorylates ACAP4, an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein, at Thr(545) Histamine stimulation activates MST4 and promotes MST4 interaction with ACAP4. ACAP4 physically interacts with MST4 and is a cognate substrate of MST4 during parietal cell activation. The phosphorylation site of ACAP4 by MST4 was mapped to Thr(545) by mass spectrometric analyses. Importantly, phosphorylation of Thr(545) is essential for acid secretion in parietal cells because either suppression of ACAP4 or overexpression of non-phosphorylatable ACAP4 prevents the apical membrane reorganization and proton pump translocation elicited by histamine stimulation. In addition, persistent overexpression of MST4 phosphorylation-deficient ACAP4 results in inhibition of gastric acid secretion and blockage of tubulovesicle fusion to the apical membranes. Significantly, phosphorylation of Thr(545) enables ACAP4 to interact with ezrin. Given the location of Thr(545) between the GTPase-activating protein domain and the first ankyrin repeat, we reason that MST4 phosphorylation elicits a conformational change that enables ezrin-ACAP4 interaction. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking the PKA-MST4-ACAP4 signaling cascade to polarized acid secretion in gastric parietal cells.

The Role of Angiotensin II in Parietal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Crescent Formation in Glomerular Diseases.

Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis, in the development of those lesions. Herein, we elucidated sequential events and cellular and molecular interactions occurring during crescentic lesion onset and evolution. By analyzing kidney biopsy specimens of patients with extracapillary GN, divided according to the grade of glomerular lesions, we found that the accumulation of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinase-12 started manifesting in glomeruli affected by early-stage lesions, whereas AT1 receptor expression could not be detected. In glomeruli with advanced lesions, AT1 receptor expression increased markedly, and the up-regulation of SDF-1, and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 7, was documented on podocytes and PECs, respectively. In vitro studies were instrumental to demonstrating the role of ang II in inducing podocyte SDF-1 production, which ultimately activates PECs. The present findings support the possibility that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment might limit PEC activation and reduce the frequency and extension of crescents in extracapillary GN.

Is CD44 in glomerular parietal epithelial cells a pathological marker of renal function deterioration in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis?

The search for risk factors for chronic kidney disease in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is important in defining prognosis and individualized treatment. This study preliminarily investigated whether CD44 immunostaining in glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a prognostic marker in pediatric FSGS.

Retinoic acid improves nephrotoxic serum-induced glomerulonephritis through activation of podocyte retinoic acid receptor α.

Proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, including podocytes, is a key histologic feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis. We previously found that retinoic acid (RA) inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of podocytes by activating RA receptor-α (RARα) in a murine model of HIV-associated nephropathy. Here, we examined whether RA would similarly protect podocytes against nephrotoxic serum-induced crescentic glomerulonephritis and whether this effect was mediated by podocyte RARα. RA treatment markedly improved renal function and reduced the number of crescentic lesions in nephritic wild-type mice, while this protection was largely lost in mice with podocyte-specific ablation of Rara (Pod-Rara knockout). At a cellular level, RA significantly restored the expression of podocyte differentiation markers in nephritic wild-type mice, but not in nephritic Pod-Rara knockout mice. Furthermore, RA suppressed the expression of cell injury, proliferation, and parietal epithelial cell markers in nephritic wild-type mice, all of which were significantly dampened in nephritic Pod-Rara knockout mice. Interestingly, RA treatment led to the coexpression of podocyte and parietal epithelial cell markers in a small subset of glomerular cells in nephritic mice, suggesting that RA may induce transdifferentiation of parietal epithelial cells toward a podocyte phenotype. In vitro, RA directly inhibited the proliferation of parietal epithelial cells and enhanced the expression of podocyte markers. In vivo lineage tracing of labeled parietal epithelial cells confirmed that RA increased the number of parietal epithelial cells expressing podocyte markers in nephritic glomeruli. Thus, RA attenuates crescentic glomerulonephritis primarily through RARα-mediated protection of podocytes and in part through the inhibition of parietal epithelial cell proliferation and induction of their transdifferentiation into podocytes.

Genetic ablation of carbonic anhydrase IX disrupts gastric barrier function via claudin-18 downregulation and acid backflux.

This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for the parietal cell loss and fundic hyperplasia observed in gastric mucosa of mice lacking the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX).

FSGS as an Adaptive Response to Growth-Induced Podocyte Stress.

Glomerular sclerotic lesions develop when the glomerular filtration surface area exceeds the availability of podocyte foot process coverage, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely characterized. We evaluated potential mechanisms using a transgenic (podocin promoter-AA-4E-BP1) rat in which podocyte capacity for hypertrophy in response to growth factor/nutrient signaling is impaired. FSGS lesions resembling human FSGS developed spontaneously by 7 months of age, and could be induced earlier by accelerating kidney hypertrophy by nephrectomy. Early segmental glomerular lesions occurred in the absence of a detectable reduction in average podocyte number per glomerulus and resulted from the loss of podocytes in individual glomerular capillary loops. Parietal epithelial cell division, accumulation on Bowman's capsule, and tuft invasion occurred at these sites. Three different interventions that prevented kidney growth and glomerular enlargement (calorie intake reduction, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex, and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme) protected against FSGS lesion development, even when initiated late in the process. Ki67 nuclear staining and unbiased transcriptomic analysis identified increased glomerular (but not podocyte) cell cycling as necessary for FSGS lesion development. The rat FSGS-associated transcriptomic signature correlated with human glomerular transcriptomes associated with disease progression, compatible with similar processes occurring in man. We conclude that FSGS lesion development resulted from glomerular growth that exceeded the capacity of podocytes to adapt and adequately cover some parts of the filtration surface. Modest modulation of the growth side of this equation significantly ameliorated FSGS progression, suggesting that glomerular growth is an underappreciated therapeutic target for preservation of renal function.

Congenital lingual cyst: Expression of MUC protein and report of a new case.

Lingual congenital cysts are uncommon lesions that alter the functions of speech, swallowing and breathing when they have considerable dimension. They usually appear from birth and increase in size gradually in childhood and adolescence. While there are a considerable number of case reports, the nomenclature and origin of this lesion are controversial. Congenital lingual cysts are composed of an epithelial lining that can show heterogeneous histological features, such as globed, ciliated, squamous and parietal cells, while the wall presents mature connective tissue and eventually smooth muscle. In the present manuscript, we report a case of a congenital lingual cyst in a 13-year-old boy, as well as the immunoexpression of MUC family proteins (MUC-1 and MUC-5AC), hoping to provide data that will help to clarify the possible etiology of this lesion.

Caffeine induces gastric acid secretion via bitter taste signaling in gastric parietal cells.

Caffeine, generally known as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion (GAS), is a bitter-tasting compound that activates several taste type 2 bitter receptors (TAS2Rs). TAS2Rs are expressed in the mouth and in several extraoral sites, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, in which their functional role still needs to be clarified. We hypothesized that caffeine evokes effects on GAS by activation of oral and gastric TAS2Rs and demonstrate that caffeine, when administered encapsulated, stimulates GAS, whereas oral administration of a caffeine solution delays GAS in healthy human subjects. Correlation analysis of data obtained from ingestion of the caffeine solution revealed an association between the magnitude of the GAS response and the perceived bitterness, suggesting a functional role of oral TAS2Rs in GAS. Expression of TAS2Rs, including cognate TAS2Rs for caffeine, was shown in human gastric epithelial cells of the corpus/fundus and in HGT-1 cells, a model for the study of GAS. In HGT-1 cells, various bitter compounds as well as caffeine stimulated proton secretion, whereby the caffeine-evoked effect was (i) shown to depend on one of its cognate receptor, TAS2R43, and adenylyl cyclase; and (ii) reduced by homoeriodictyol (HED), a known inhibitor of caffeine's bitter taste. This inhibitory effect of HED on caffeine-induced GAS was verified in healthy human subjects. These findings (i) demonstrate that bitter taste receptors in the stomach and the oral cavity are involved in the regulation of GAS and (ii) suggest that bitter tastants and bitter-masking compounds could be potentially useful therapeutics to regulate gastric pH.

An In Vitro Model of Gastric Inflammation and Treatment with Cobalamin.

Pernicious anaemia (PA) is an autoimmune condition where antibodies target intrinsic factor and parietal cells, reducing the patient's ability to absorb cobalamin promoting atrophic gastritis. Treatment guidelines are based on excretion data of hydroxocobalamin from healthy individuals obtained 50 years ago. This manuscript describes the use of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to stimulate low grade inflammation in an epithelial colorectal cell line to assess the efficacy of methylcobalamin and hydroxocobalamin. Nitric oxide increased significantly in cells exposed to higher doses of PMA (100 ng/ml, 150 ng/ml, and 200 ng/ml) accompanied by a loss of the characteristic cobblestone morphology with no negative effect on cell activity or viability. A significant reduction in nitric oxide production was associated with the addition of 200 pg/ml hydroxocobalamin, alongside a return to the characteristic cobblestone morphology. This study highlights the use of PMA to promote low grade inflammation in human cell lines to model gastric inflammation associated with autoimmunity; furthermore it raises questions regarding the concentration of cobalamin administered clinically to restore cell functionality, feasibly allowing the patient to receive reduced quantity of the vitamin more regularly, providing the patient with levels which are akin to dietary intake.

PAX2 is dispensable for in vitro nephron formation from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

The kidney is formed by reciprocal interactions between the nephron progenitor and the ureteric bud, the former of which gives rise to the epithelia of nephrons consisting of glomeruli and renal tubules. The transcription factor PAX2 is essential for this mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of nephron progenitors, as well as ureteric bud lineage development, in mice. PAX2 mutations in humans cause renal coloboma syndrome. We previously reported the induction of nephron progenitors and three-dimensional nephron structures from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here we generate iPS cells lacking PAX2, and address the role of PAX2 in our in vitro induction protocol. While PAX2-null human nephron progenitors were properly formed, they unexpectedly became epithelialised to form glomeruli and renal tubules. However, the mutant glomerular parietal epithelial cells failed to transit to the squamous morphology, retaining the shape and markers of columnar epithelia. Therefore, PAX2 is dispensable for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of nephron progenitors, but is required for morphological development of glomerular parietal epithelial cells, during nephron formation from human iPS cells in vitro.

Ischemia-induced glomerular parietal epithelial cells hyperplasia: Commonly misdiagnosed cellular crescent in renal biopsy.

Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control. Appropriate clinical data, morphology, and immunohistochemical features of all cases were retrieved. Results showed that the basement membrane of glomerulus with IPCC appeared as a concentric twisted ball, and glomerular cells of the lesion were reduced even entirely absent, and the adjacent afferent arterioles showed sclerosis or luminal stenosis. Furthermore, immune globulin deposition, vasculitis, and fibrinous exudate have not been observed in IPCC. While the cellular crescents showed diverse characteristics in both morphology and immunostaining in the control group. Therefore, these results indicated that IPCC is a sort of ischemic reactive hyperplasia and associated with sclerosis, stenosis, or obstruction of adjacent afferent arterioles, which is clearly different from cellular crescents result from glomerulonephritis.

Lgr5-expressing chief cells drive epithelial regeneration and cancer in the oxyntic stomach.

The daily renewal of the corpus epithelium is fuelled by adult stem cells residing within tubular glands, but the identity of these stem cells remains controversial. Lgr5 marks homeostatic stem cells and 'reserve' stem cells in multiple tissues. Here, we report Lgr5 expression in a subpopulation of chief cells in mouse and human corpus glands. Using a non-variegated Lgr5-2A-CreERT2 mouse model, we show by lineage tracing that Lgr5-expressing chief cells do not behave as corpus stem cells during homeostasis, but are recruited to function as stem cells to effect epithelial renewal following injury by activating Wnt signalling. Ablation of Lgr5(+) cells severely impairs epithelial homeostasis in the corpus, indicating an essential role for these Lgr5(+) cells in maintaining the homeostatic stem cell pool. We additionally define Lgr5(+) chief cells as a major cell-of-origin of gastric cancer. These findings reveal clinically relevant insights into homeostasis, repair and cancer in the corpus.

Metaplasia in the Stomach Arises From Gastric Chief Cells.

The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and the induction of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. For example, mouse models have shown that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia can develop following oxyntic atrophy through transdifferentiation of zymogen-secreting chief cells. Evolution of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia from chief cells occurs via a coordinated dismantling of their secretory apparatus and reprogramming of their transcriptome. Increasing evidence suggests that the process of chief cell reprogramming requires the influence of inflammatory cytokines and requires both zymogen granule autophagy and alterations in gene transcription. It is likely that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia is a physiological repair mechanism that is similar to those that occur in other tissues (eg, pancreas) for recruiting reparative progenitor cells in response to mucosal wounds. Chronic inflammation can induce a recurring pattern of persistent reprogramming/metaplasia that increases the risk for neoplasia.

Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years). Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008) compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007). However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03). The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

Multiplex autoantibody detection for autoimmune liver diseases and autoimmune gastritis.

Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory.

Gastric Acid Secretion from Parietal Cells Is Mediated by a Ca(2+) Efflux Channel in the Tubulovesicle.

Gastric acid secretion by parietal cells requires trafficking and exocytosis of H/K-ATPase-rich tubulovesicles (TVs) toward apical membranes in response to histamine stimulation via cyclic AMP elevation. Here, we found that TRPML1 (ML1), a protein that is mutated in type IV mucolipidosis (ML-IV), is a tubulovesicular channel essential for TV exocytosis and acid secretion. Whereas ML-IV patients are reportedly achlorhydric, transgenic overexpression of ML1 in mouse parietal cells induced constitutive acid secretion. Gastric acid secretion was blocked and stimulated by ML1 inhibitors and agonists, respectively. Organelle-targeted Ca(2+) imaging and direct patch-clamping of apical vacuolar membranes revealed that ML1 mediates a PKA-activated conductance on TV membranes that is required for histamine-induced Ca(2+) release from TV stores. Hence, we demonstrated that ML1, acting as a Ca(2+) channel in TVs, links transmitter-initiated cyclic nucleotide signaling with Ca(2+)-dependent TV exocytosis in parietal cells, providing a regulatory mechanism that could be targeted to manage acid-related gastric diseases.

Characterization by Lectin Histochemistry of Two Subpopulations of Parietal Cells in the Rat Gastric Glands.

Parietal cells undergo a differentiation process while they move from the isthmus toward the pits and the base region of the gastric gland. The aim of this work was to analyze the rat gastric glands by lectin histochemistry to show the glycans expressed by upper (young) and lower (old) parietal cells. We used lectins recognizing the most frequent sugar moieties in mammals. Each lectin was assayed alone and in combination with several deglycosylation pretreatments: (1) β-elimination, which removes O-linked oligosaccharides; (2) incubation with Peptide-N-glycosidase F, to remove N-linked glycans; (3) acid hydrolysis, which removes terminal sialic acid moieties; (4) methylation-saponification, to remove sulfate groups from sugar residues; and (5) glucose oxidase, a technique carried out with the lectin concanavalin A to convert glucose into gluconic acid. The lectins from Helix pomatia, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (soybean), Maclura pomifera, Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (lectin I-B4), and Datura stramonium showed a different glycan expression in the parietal cells throughout the gastric gland. This difference supports that parietal cells undergo a maturation/degeneration process while the cells descend along the gland. The role of DBA as a marker of parietal cells previously reported should be taken with caution because these cells showed different reactivity for the lectin, ranging from negative to strong labeling.

Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor and Adenosine Deaminase in Rabbit Gastric Mucosa ECL Cells.

Adenosine is readily available to the glandular epithelium of the stomach. Formed continuously in intracellular and extracellular locations, it is notably produced from ATP released in enteric cotransmission. Adenosine analogs modulate chloride secretion in gastric glands and activate acid secretion in isolated parietal cells through A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) binding. A functional link between surface A2BR and adenosine deaminase (ADA) was found in parietal cells, but whether this connection is a general feature of gastric mucosa cells is unknown. Here we examine whether A2BR is expressed at the membrane of histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, the major endocrine cell type in the oxyntic mucosa, and if so, whether it has a vicinity relationship with ADA. We used a highly homogeneous population of rabbit ECL cells (size 7.5-10 µm) after purification by elutriation centrifugation. The surface expression of A2BR and ADA proteins was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our findings demonstrate that A2BR and ADA are partially coexpressed at the gastric ECL cell surface and that A2BR is functional, with regard to binding of adenosine analogs and adenylate cyclase activation. The physiological relevance of A2BR and ADA association in regulating histamine release is yet to be explained.

Gastrin induces parathyroid hormone-like hormone expression in gastric parietal cells.

Parietal cells play a fundamental role in stomach maintenance, not only by creating a pathogen-free environment through the production of gastric acid, but also by secreting growth factors important for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous gene expression profiling studies of mouse stomach identified parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) as a potential gastrin-regulated gastric growth factor. Although PTHLH is commonly overexpressed in gastric tumors, its normal expression, function, and regulation in the stomach are poorly understood. In this study we used pharmacologic and genetic mouse models as well as human gastric cancer cell lines to determine the cellular localization and regulation of this growth factor by the hormone gastrin. Analysis of Pthlh(LacZ/+) knock-in reporter mice localized Pthlh expression to parietal cells in the gastric corpus. Regulation by gastrin was demonstrated by increased Pthlh mRNA abundance after acute gastrin treatment in wild-type mice and reduced expression in gastrin-deficient mice. PTHLH transcripts were also observed in normal human stomach as well as in human gastric cancer cell lines. Gastrin treatment of AGS-E gastric cancer cells induced a rapid and robust increase in numerous PTHLH mRNA isoforms. This induction was largely due to increased transcriptional initiation, although analysis of mRNA half-life showed that gastrin treatment also extended the half-life of PTHLH mRNA, suggesting that gastrin regulates expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that the growth factor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is expressed in acid-secreting parietal cells of the mouse stomach. We define the specific PTHLH mRNA isoforms expressed in human stomach and in human gastric cancer cell lines and show that gastrin induces PTHLH expression via transcription activation and mRNA stabilization. Our findings suggest that PTHLH is a gastrin-regulated growth factor that might contribute to gastric epithelial cell homeostasis.

What can target kidney fibrosis?

Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors. These cells are not only matrix-producing cells, but are also important innate immune surveillance cells that regulate the inflammatory process, exacerbate tissue damage by release of radicals and cytokines, and contribute to parenchymal and microvascular dysfunction by aberrant wound-healing responses. Innate immune signaling in fibroblasts and their precursors is intimately intertwined with the process of fibrogenesis. In addition, genomic and genetic studies also point to defective responses in loci close to genes involved in solute transport, metabolism, autophagy, protein handling and vascular homeostasis, principally in the epithelium and endothelium, as upstream drivers of the fibrotic process, indicating that cellular crosstalk is vital for development of fibrosis. As we move beyond TGFβ inhibition as a central target for fibrosis, targeting innate immune signaling and metabolic dysfunction appear increasingly tenable alternative targets for novel therapies.