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Perrault syndrome - Top 30 Publications

Marfanoid habitus is a nonspecific feature of Perrault syndrome.

The objective of this study was to report the clinical and biological characteristics of two Perrault syndrome cases in a Moroccan family with homozygous variant c.1565C>A in the LARS2 gene and to establish genotype-phenotype correlation of patients with the same mutation by review of the literature. Whole-exome sequencing was performed. Data analysis was carried out and confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregation. The affected siblings were diagnosed as having Perrault syndrome with sensorineural hearing loss at low frequencies; the female proband had primary amenorrhea and ovarian dysgenesis. Both affected individuals had a marfanoid habitus and no neurological features. Both patients carried the homozygous variant c.1565C>A; p.Thr522Asn in exon 13 of the LARS2 gene. This variant has already been reported as a homozygous variant in three other Perrault syndrome families. Both affected siblings of a Moroccan consanguineous family with LARS2 variants had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, marfanoid habitus, and primary ovarian insufficiency in the affected girl. According to the literature, this variant, c.1565C>A; p.Thr522Asn, can be correlated with low-frequency hearing loss. However, marfanoid habitus was been considered a nonspecific feature in Perrault syndrome, but we believe that it may be more specific than considered previously. This diagnosis allowed us to provide appropriate management to the patients and to provide more accurate genetic counseling to this family.

A homozygous missense variant in HSD17B4 identified in a consanguineous Chinese Han family with type II Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder that manifests with sensorineural hearing loss in both sexes, primary ovarian insufficiency in females and neurological features. The syndrome is heterogeneous both genetically and phenotypically.

A homozygous missense mutation in ERAL1, encoding a mitochondrial rRNA chaperone, causes Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural deafness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and previously mutations have been described in different genes, mostly related to mitochondrial proteostasis. We diagnosed three unrelated females with PS and set out to identify the underlying genetic cause using exome sequencing. We excluded mutations in the known PS genes, but identified a single homozygous mutation in the ERAL1 gene (c.707A > T; p.Asn236Ile). Since ERAL1 protein binds to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and is involved in the assembly of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit, the identified variant represented a likely candidate. In silico analysis of a 3D model for ERAL1 suggested that the mutated residue hinders protein-substrate interactions, potentially affecting its function. On a molecular basis, PS skin fibroblasts had reduced ERAL1 protein levels. Complexome profiling of the cells showed an overall decrease in the levels of assembled small ribosomal subunit, indicating that the ERAL1 variant affects mitochondrial ribosome assembly. Moreover, levels of the 12S rRNA were reduced in the patients, and were rescued by lentiviral expression of wild type ERAL1. At the physiological level, mitochondrial respiration was markedly decreased in PS fibroblasts, confirming disturbed mitochondrial function. Finally, knockdown of the C. elegans ERAL1 homologue E02H1.2 almost completely blocked egg production in worms, mimicking the compromised fertility in PS-affected women. Our cross-species data in patient cells and worms support the hypothesis that mutations in ERAL1 can cause PS and are associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism.

Laser-capture micro dissection combined with next-generation sequencing analysis of cell type-specific deafness gene expression in the mouse cochlea.

Cochlear implantation (CI), which directly stimulates the cochlear nerves, is the most effective and widely used medical intervention for patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The etiology of the hearing loss is speculated to have a major influence of CI outcomes, particularly in cases resulting from mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion region. To elucidate precise gene expression levels in each part of the cochlea, we performed laser-capture micro dissection in combination with next-generation sequencing analysis and determined the expression levels of all known deafness-associated genes in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, lateral wall, and spiral limbs. The results were generally consistent with previous reports based on immunocytochemistry or in situ hybridization. As a notable result, the genes associated with many kinds of syndromic hearing loss (such as Clpp, Hars2, Hsd17b4, Lars2 for Perrault syndrome, Polr1c and Polr1d for Treacher Collins syndrome, Ndp for Norrie Disease, Kal for Kallmann syndrome, Edn3 and Snai2 for Waardenburg Syndrome, Col4a3 for Alport syndrome, Sema3e for CHARGE syndrome, Col9a1 for Sticker syndrome, Cdh23, Cib2, Clrn1, Pcdh15, Ush1c, Ush2a, Whrn for Usher syndrome and Wfs1 for Wolfram syndrome) showed higher levels of expression in the spiral ganglion than in other parts of the cochlea. This dataset will provide a base for more detailed analysis in order to clarify gene functions in the cochlea as well as predict CI outcomes based on gene expression data.

Novel neuro-audiological findings and further evidence for TWNK involvement in Perrault syndrome.

Hearing loss and ovarian dysfunction are key features of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) but the clinical and pathophysiological features of hearing impairment in PRLTS individuals have not been addressed. Mutations in one of five different genes HSD17B4, HARS2, LARS2, CLPP or TWNK (previous symbol C10orf2) cause the autosomal recessive disorder but they are found only in about half of the patients.

Specific MRI Abnormalities Reveal Severe Perrault Syndrome due to CLPP Defects.

In establishing a genetic diagnosis in heterogeneous neurological disease, clinical characterization and whole exome sequencing (WES) go hand-in-hand. Clinical data are essential, not only to guide WES variant selection and define the clinical severity of a genetic defect but also to identify other patients with defects in the same gene. In an infant patient with sensorineural hearing loss, psychomotor retardation, and epilepsy, WES resulted in identification of a novel homozygous CLPP frameshift mutation (c.21delA). Based on the gene defect and clinical symptoms, the diagnosis Perrault syndrome type 3 (PRLTS3) was established. The patient's brain-MRI revealed specific abnormalities of the subcortical and deep cerebral white matter and the middle blade of the corpus callosum, which was used to identify similar patients in the Amsterdam brain-MRI database, containing over 3000 unclassified leukoencephalopathy cases. In three unrelated patients with similar MRI abnormalities the CLPP gene was sequenced, and in two of them novel missense mutations were identified together with a large deletion that covered part of the CLPP gene on the other allele. The severe neurological and MRI abnormalities in these young patients were due to the drastic impact of the CLPP mutations, correlating with the variation in clinical manifestations among previously reported patients. Our data show that similarity in brain-MRI patterns can be used to identify novel PRLTS3 patients, especially during early disease stages, when only part of the disease manifestations are present. This seems especially applicable to the severely affected cases in which CLPP function is drastically affected and MRI abnormalities are pronounced.

An Application of NGS for Molecular Investigations in Perrault Syndrome: Study of 14 Families and Review of the Literature.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by deafness and gonadic dysgenesis. Recently, mutations in five genes have been identified: C10orf2, CLPP, HARS2, HSD17B4, and LARS2. Probands included are presented with sensorineural deafness associated with gonadic dysgenesis. DNA was sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a panel of 35 deafness genes including the five Perrault genes. Exonic variations known as pathogenic mutations or detected with <1% frequency in public databases were extracted and subjected to segregation analysis within each family. Both mutations and low coverage regions were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fourteen female index patients were included. The screening in four cases has been extended to four family members presenting with PS phenotype. For four unrelated patients (28.6%), causative mutations were identified: three homozygous mutations in C10orf2, CLPP, and HARS2, and one compound heterozygous mutation in LARS2. Three additional heterozygous mutations in LARS2 and HSD17B4 were found in three independent familial cases. All these missense mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. Familial segregation analyses confirmed the molecular diagnosis in all cases carrying biallelic mutations. Because of NGS, molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis of PS in 28.6% of our cohort and four novel mutations were found in four Perrault genes. For the unsolved cases, exome sequencing should be performed to search for a sixth unknown PS gene.

Mutations of SGO2 and CLDN14 collectively cause coincidental Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in females and sensorineural hearing loss in males and females. In many PS subjects, causative variants have not been found in the five reported PS genes. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic cause of PS in an extended consanguineous family with six deaf individuals. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was completed on four affected members of a large family, and variants and co-segregation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All hearing impaired individuals, including the proband, are homozygous for a pathogenic variant of CLDN14, but this only explains the deafness. The PS proband is also homozygous for a frameshift variant (c.1453_1454delGA, p.(Glu485Lysfs*5)) in exon 7 of SGO2 encoding shugoshin 2, which is the likely cause of her concurrent ovarian insufficiency. In mouse, Sgol2a encoding shugoshin-like 2a is necessary during meiosis in both sexes to maintain the integrity of the cohesin complex that tethers sister chromatids. Human SGO2 has not previously been implicated in any disorder, but in this case of POI and perhaps others, it is a candidate for unexplained infertility.

Unresolved questions regarding human hereditary deafness.

Human hearing loss is a common neurosensory disorder about which many basic research and clinically relevant questions are unresolved. This review on hereditary deafness focuses on three examples considered at first glance to be uncomplicated, however, upon inspection, are enigmatic and ripe for future research efforts. The three examples of clinical and genetic complexities are drawn from studies of (i) Pendred syndrome/DFNB4 (PDS, OMIM 274600), (ii) Perrault syndrome (deafness and infertility) due to mutations of CLPP (PRTLS3, OMIM 614129), and (iii) the unexplained extensive clinical variability associated with TBC1D24 mutations. At present, it is unknown how different mutations of TBC1D24 cause non-syndromic deafness (DFNB86, OMIM 614617), epilepsy (OMIM 605021), epilepsy with deafness, or DOORS syndrome (OMIM 220500) that is characterized by deafness, onychodystrophy (alteration of toenail or fingernail morphology), osteodystrophy (defective development of bone), mental retardation, and seizures. A comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted roles of each gene associated with human deafness is expected to provide future opportunities for restoration as well as preservation of normal hearing.

A Novel Missense Mutation in the CLPP Gene Causing Perrault Syndrome Type 3 in a Turkish Family.

Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) is a heterogeneous group of clinical and genetic disorders characterized by sensory neuronal hearing loss in both sexes and premature ovarian failure or infertility in females. Neurological and hearing loss symptoms appear early in life, but female infertility cannot be detected before puberty. Spastic limbs, muscle weakness, delayed puberty and irregular menstrual cycles have also been observed in PRLTS patients. Mutations in five genes, i.e. HSD17B4, HARS2, CLPP, LARS2, and C10orf2, have been reported in five subtypes of PRLTS. Here, we report a milder phenotype of PRLTS in a Turkish family in which two affected patients had no neurological findings. However, both were characterized by sensory neuronal hearing loss and the female sibling had secondary amenorrhea and gonadal dysgenesis. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping using 300K single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis together with iScan platform (Illumina, USA) followed by candidate gene Sanger sequencing with ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer (Life Technologies, USA) were used for molecular diagnosis. We found a novel missense alteration c.624C>G; p.Ile208Met in exon 5 of the CLPP at chromosome 19p13.3. This study expands the mutation spectrum of CLPP pathogenicity in PRLTS type 3 phenotype.

Expanding the genotypic spectrum of Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in both sexes and primary ovarian insufficiency in 46, XX karyotype females. Biallelic variants in five genes are reported to be causative: HSD17B4, HARS2, LARS2, CLPP and C10orf2. Here we present eight families affected by Perrault syndrome. In five families we identified novel or previously reported variants in HSD17B4, LARS2, CLPP and C10orf2. The proband from each family was whole exome sequenced and variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A female was compound heterozygous for a known, p.(Gly16Ser) and novel, p.(Val82Phe) variant in D-bifunctional protein (HSD17B4). A family was homozygous for mitochondrial leucyl aminocyl tRNA synthetase (mtLeuRS) (LARS2) p.(Thr522Asn), previously associated with Perrault syndrome. A further family was compound heterozygous for mtLeuRS, p.(Thr522Asn) and a novel variant, p.(Met117Ile). Affected individuals with LARS2 variants had low frequency SNHL, a feature previously described in Perrault syndrome. A female with significant neurological disability was compound heterozygous for p.(Arg323Gln) and p.(Asn399Ser) variants in Twinkle (C10orf2). A male was homozygous for a novel variant in CLPP, p.(Cys144Arg). In three families there were no putative pathogenic variants in these genes confirming additional disease-causing genes remain unidentified. We have expanded the spectrum of disease-causing variants associated with Perrault syndrome.

First independent replication of the involvement of LARS2 in Perrault syndrome by whole-exome sequencing of an Italian family.

Perrault syndrome (MIM #233400) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and primary ovarian insufficiency in females, and progressive hearing loss in both genders. Recently, mutations in five genes (HSD17B4, HARS2, CLPP, LARS2 and C10ORF2) were found to be responsible for Perrault syndrome, although they do not account for all cases of this genetically heterogeneous condition. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify pathogenic variants responsible for Perrault syndrome in an Italian pedigree with two affected siblings. Both patients were compound heterozygous for two novel missense variants within the mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS2): NM_015340.3:c.899C>T(p.Thr300Met) and c.1912G>A(p.Glu638Lys). Both variants cosegregated with the phenotype in the family. p.Thr300 and p.Glu638 are evolutionarily conserved residues, and are located, respectively, within the editing domain and immediately before the catalytically important KMSKS motif. Homology modeling using as template the E. coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase provided further insights on the possible pathogenic effects of the identified variants. This represents the first independent replication of the involvement of LARS2 mutations in Perrault syndrome, contributing valuable information for the further understanding of this disease.

Barrel-shaped ClpP Proteases Display Attenuated Cleavage Specificities.

ClpP is a self-compartmentalizing protease with crucial roles in bacterial and mitochondrial protein quality control. Although the ClpP homocomplex is composed of 14 equivalent active sites, it degrades a multitude of substrates to small peptides, demonstrating its capability to carry out diverse cleavage reactions. Here, we show that ClpP proteases from E. coli, S. aureus, and human mitochondria exhibit preferences for certain amino acids in the P1, P2, and P3 positions using a tailored fluorogenic substrate library. However, this high specificity is not retained during proteolysis of endogenous substrates as shown by mass spectrometric analysis of peptides produced in ClpXP-mediated degradation reactions. Our data suggest a mechanism that implicates the barrel-shaped architecture of ClpP not only in shielding the active sites to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis but also in providing high local substrate concentrations to enable efficient proteolytic processing. Furthermore, we introduce customized fluorogenic substrates with unnatural amino acids that greatly surpass the sensitivity of previously used tools. We used these to profile the activity of cancer-patient- and Perrault-syndrome-derived ClpP mutant proteins.

LARS2 Variants Associated with Hydrops, Lactic Acidosis, Sideroblastic Anemia, and Multisystem Failure.

Pathogenic variants in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases result in a broad range of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders despite their shared role in mitochondrial protein synthesis. LARS2 encodes the mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase, which attaches leucine to its cognate tRNA. Sequence variants in LARS2 have previously been associated with Perrault syndrome, characterized by premature ovarian failure and hearing loss (OMIM #615300). In this study, we report variants in LARS2 that are associated with a severe multisystem metabolic disorder. The proband was born prematurely with severe lactic acidosis, hydrops, and sideroblastic anemia. She had multisystem complications with hyaline membrane disease, impaired cardiac function, a coagulopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and progressive renal disease and succumbed at 5 days of age. Whole exome sequencing of patient DNA revealed compound heterozygous variants in LARS2 (c.1289C>T; p.Ala430Val and c.1565C>A; p.Thr522Asn). The c.1565C>A (p.Thr522Asn) LARS2 variant has previously been associated with Perrault syndrome and both identified variants are predicted to be damaging (SIFT, PolyPhen). Muscle and liver samples from the proband did not display marked mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme deficiency. Immunoblotting of patient muscle and liver showed LARS2 levels were reduced in liver and complex I protein levels were reduced in patient muscle and liver. Aminoacylation assays revealed p.Ala430Val LARS2 had an 18-fold loss of catalytic efficiency and p.Thr522Asn a 9-fold loss compared to wild-type LARS2. We suggest that the identified LARS2 variants are responsible for the severe multisystem clinical phenotype seen in this baby and that mutations in LARS2 can result in variable phenotypes.

Exome analysis identified a novel missense mutation in the CLPP gene in a consanguineous Saudi family expanding the clinical spectrum of Perrault Syndrome type-3.

Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Both male and female patients suffer from sensory neuronal hearing loss in early childhood, and female patients are characterized by premature ovarian failure and infertility after puberty. Clinical diagnosis may not be possible in early life, because key features of PRLTS, for example infertility and premature ovarian failure, do not appear before puberty. Limb spasticity, muscle weakness, and intellectual disability have also been observed in PRLTS patients. Mutations in five genes, HSD17B4, HARS2, CLPP, LARS2, and C10orf2, have been reported in five subtypes of PRLTS. We discovered a consanguineous Saudi family with the PRLTS3 phenotype showing an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The patients had developed profound hearing loss, brain atrophy, and lower limb spasticity in early childhood. For molecular diagnosis, we complimented genome-wide homozygosity mapping with whole exome sequencing analyses and identified a novel homozygous mutation in exon 6 of CLPP at chromosome 19p13.3. To our knowledge, early onset with regression is a unique feature of these PRLTS patients that has not been reported so far. This study broadens the clinical spectrum of PRLTS3.

Perrault syndrome - a rare case report.

Perrault syndrome is a rare disease comprising pure gonadal dysgenesis (46 XX) and sensorineural hearing loss in females and deafness alone in affected males. It is an autosomal recessive disorder. Over the years many additional features like marfanoid habitus and central nervous system findings have also been reported. Herein we report a case of sporadic Perrault syndrome in 18-year-old female who presented to our hospital with deaf mutism and primary amenorrhoea. On evaluation, the patient had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, streak gonads and a normal karyotype (46 XX). Audiologic evaluation showed sensorineural deafness. The patient was started on hormone replacement therapy. She is on regular follow up. We present this case for its infrequent incidence and also to add to the ever expanding clinical spectrum of this disease.

Spectrum of combined respiratory chain defects.

Inherited disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism form a large and heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases. More than 250 gene defects have been reported to date and this number continues to grow. Mitochondrial diseases can be grouped into (1) disorders of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits and their assembly factors, (2) defects of mitochondrial DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, (3) defects in the substrate-generating upstream reactions of OXPHOS, (4) defects in relevant cofactors and (5) defects in mitochondrial homeostasis. Deficiency of more than one respiratory chain enzyme is a common finding. Combined defects are found in 49 % of the known disease-causing genes of mitochondrial energy metabolism and in 57 % of patients with OXPHOS defects identified in our diagnostic centre. Combined defects of complexes I, III, IV and V are typically due to deficiency of mitochondrial DNA replication, RNA metabolism or translation. Defects in cofactors can result in combined defects of various combinations, and defects of mitochondrial homeostasis can result in a generalised decrease of all OXPHOS enzymes. Noteworthy, identification of combined defects can be complicated by different degrees of severity of each affected enzyme. Furthermore, even defects of single respiratory chain enzymes can result in combined defects due to aberrant formation of respiratory chain supercomplexes. Combined OXPHOS defects have a great variety of clinical manifestations in terms of onset, course severity and tissue involvement. They can present as classical encephalomyopathy but also with hepatopathy, nephropathy, haematologic findings and Perrault syndrome in a subset of disorders.

Perrault syndrome with growth hormone deficiency: a rare autosomal recessive disorder.

Perrault syndrome is a rare genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive group of disorders described in 1951 by Perrault as gonadal dysgenesis with deafness. Here we present a rare case of sporadic Perrault syndrome with short stature and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Although there was a report on partial GHD in Perrault, our case is a first of its kind with documented GHD (Nishi Y, Hamamoto K, Kajiyama M, Kawamura I. The Perrault syndrome: clinical report and review. Am J Med Genet 1988;31:623-9). We report this case because of the rarity of keeping this condition as a differential diagnosis while evaluating for short stature with amenorrhea.

Clinical review of 95 patients with 46,XX disorders of sex development based on the new Chicago classification.

The aim of our study was to determine the etiologic distribution of 46,XX disorder of sexual development (DSD) according to the new DSD classification system and to evaluate the clinical features of this DSD subgroup in our patient cohort.

Serendipity or prepared mind? Recollections of the KOP translocation (1967) and of one form of Perrault syndrome.

The human X/autosome translocation, designated KOP, was discovered by Dr. Philip D. Pallister in Montana in 1967 in a young man with apparent Klinefelter syndrome. Collaboratively it was possible to elucidate the genetic nature of his unprecedented chromosome rearrangement and its developmental effects in mother and son. In retrospect, these clinical and genetic studies at the height of the somatic cell genetics era (Ruddle, Siniscalco, etc.) presented human genetics with a highly productive opportunity to begin gene mapping of autosomes and the X chromosome. The late Victor McKusick considered the discovery of the KOP translocation, as he determined personally in Montana, one of the major transforming events in human genetics. The Perrault syndrome evaluated in two families in Montana and one in Sicily for familial deafness, primary amenorrhea and neurologic impairment (progressive in some), turned out to be heterogeneous. In the "hands" of Dr. M.-C. King of Seattle four forms of Perrault syndrome have been identified. The autosomal recessive mutation present in the P family studied with Dr. Pallister in Helena, turned out to affect the mitochondrial histidyl tRNA synthetase gene present in prokaryotes, annelids, fungi and mammals, hence, must already have been present in LUCA some 3.8 billion years ago.

Mutations in Twinkle primase-helicase cause Perrault syndrome with neurologic features.

To identify the genetic cause in 2 families of progressive ataxia, axonal neuropathy, hyporeflexia, and abnormal eye movements, accompanied by progressive hearing loss and ovarian dysgenesis, with a clinical diagnosis of Perrault syndrome.

Next generation sequencing with copy number variant detection expands the phenotypic spectrum of HSD17B4-deficiency.

D-bifunctional protein deficiency, caused by recessive mutations in HSD17B4, is a severe, infantile-onset disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Few affected patients survive past two years of age. Compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4 have also been reported in two sisters diagnosed with Perrault syndrome (MIM # 233400), who presented in adolescence with ovarian dysgenesis, hearing loss, and ataxia.

Severe manifestation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy due to 11778G>A mtDNA mutation in a female with hypoestrogenism due to Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition with ovarian dysgenesis, hearing deficit and neurological abnormalities in female patients. The molecular basis of the syndrome is heterogeneous, mutations in the HSD17B4 gene have been identified in one family and mutations in the HARS2 gene have been found in another one. We have excluded pathogenic changes in the HSD17B4 gene and in the HARS2 gene by a direct sequencing of all coding exons in a female with clinical hallmarks of PS, ataxia and mild mental retardation. In addition, the patient suffers from severe Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) due to 11778G>A mtDNA mutation. This case is the first reported patient with PS and LHON. Possible influence of hypoestrogenism on the manifestation of optic neuropathy in this patient is discussed in the context of recent findings concerning the crucial role of estrogens in supporting the vision capacity in LHON-related mtDNA mutation carriers.

Mutations in LARS2, encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase, lead to premature ovarian failure and hearing loss in Perrault syndrome.

The genetic causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) are highly heterogeneous, and causative mutations have been identified in more than ten genes so far. In two families affected by POF accompanied by hearing loss (together, these symptoms compose Perrault syndrome), exome sequencing revealed mutations in LARS2, encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase: homozygous c.1565C>A (p.Thr522Asn) in a consanguineous Palestinian family and compound heterozygous c.1077delT and c.1886C>T (p.Thr629Met) in a nonconsanguineous Slovenian family. LARS2 c.1077delT leads to a frameshift at codon 360 of the 901 residue protein. LARS2 p.Thr522Asn occurs in the LARS2 catalytic domain at a site conserved from bacteria through mammals. LARS2 p.Thr629Met occurs in the LARS2 leucine-specific domain, which is adjacent to a catalytic loop critical in all species but for which primary sequence is not well conserved. A recently developed method of detecting remote homologies revealed threonine at this site in consensus sequences derived from multiple-species alignments seeded by human and E. coli residues at this region. Yeast complementation indicated that LARS2 c.1077delT is nonfunctional and that LARS2 p.Thr522Asn is partially functional. LARS2 p.Thr629Met was functional in this assay but might be insufficient as a heterozygote with the fully nonfunctional LARS2 c.1077delT allele. A known C. elegans strain with the protein-truncating alteration LARS-2 p.Trp247Ter was confirmed to be sterile. After HARS2, LARS2 is the second gene encoding mitochondrial tRNA synthetase to be found to harbor mutations leading to Perrault syndrome, further supporting a critical role for mitochondria in the maintenance of ovarian function and hearing.

Perrault syndrome is caused by recessive mutations in CLPP, encoding a mitochondrial ATP-dependent chambered protease.

Perrault syndrome is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure. By a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in CLPP as the likely cause of this phenotype. In each family, affected individuals were homozygous for a different pathogenic CLPP allele: c.433A>C (p.Thr145Pro), c.440G>C (p.Cys147Ser), or an experimentally demonstrated splice-donor-site mutation, c.270+4A>G. CLPP, a component of a mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, is a highly conserved endopeptidase encoded by CLPP and forms an element of the evolutionarily ancient mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (UPR(mt)) stress signaling pathway. Crystal-structure modeling suggests that both substitutions would alter the structure of the CLPP barrel chamber that captures unfolded proteins and exposes them to proteolysis. Together with the previous identification of mutations in HARS2, encoding mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetase, mutations in CLPP expose dysfunction of mitochondrial protein homeostasis as a cause of Perrault syndrome.

Genotype and phenotype heterogeneity in perrault syndrome.

The hallmarks of Perrault syndrome are progressive sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian dysgenesis, but the disorder is both clinically and genetically heterogenous.

On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP) deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2) protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m), V(max) and k(cat)) of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

A rare cause for primary amenorrhoea.

Gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis with normal chromosomes (46, XX), XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder. In 1951, Perrault reported the association of gonadal dysgenesis and deafness, now referred to as Perrault's syndrome. Perrault syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition affecting both females and males; only females have gonadal dysgenesis associated with sensorineural deafness, which is present in both sexes. We present a case of sporadic Perrault syndrome in a 35-year-old female with primary amenorrhea, sensorineural deafness, marfanoid features and normal karyotype. There are very few case reports describing the condition, even lesser reports of association with marfanoid habitus. We report this case for its rarity and add to the spectrum of the disease that remains undetermined.

A rare cause for primary amenorrhea: Sporadic perrault syndrome.

Gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis with normal chromosomes (46, XX), XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder. In 1951, Perrault reported the association of gonadal dysgenesis and deafness, now referred to as Perrault syndrome. Perrault syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition affecting both females and males, only females have gonadal dysgenesis associated with sensorineural deafness which is present in both sexes. We present a case of Sporadic Perrault syndrome in a 35-year-old female with primary amenorrhea, sensorineural deafness, marfanoid features, and normal karyotype. There are very few case reports describing the condition, even lesser reports of association with marfanoid habitus. We report this case for its rarity and add to the spectrum of the disease that remains undetermined.