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Sjogren’s syndrome - Top 30 Publications

Adult-onset hypophosphatemic osteomalacia associated with Sjogren syndrome: Clinical case report.

Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) is a metabolic bone disease, exhibiting different etiologies such as genetic mutation, tumor induction, dysimmunity, or renal disease. Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a connective tissue disorder commonly involving exocrine glands; however kidney involvement is also encountered, leading to abnormal phosphorus metabolism, even HO.

Acquired factor VIII deficiency: two case reports and a review of literature.

Acquired factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency, or acquired hemophilia A (AHA), is a rare autoimmune disorder involving antibody-mediated depletion of coagulation FVIII, leading to severe, life-threatening bleeding. The condition is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, and its treatment involves replacement of FVIII and various modes of immunosuppression. Recently, a few noteworthy therapeutic advances have been made. We present two cases of severe AHA in Chinese women. One of these women developed this disorder in the setting of possible parvovirus B19 infection, which has not yet been reported in association with AHA. Other notable features of her case included paradoxical venous thrombosis and possible association with Sjogren's syndrome and myositis. The other woman failed to respond to usual first-line therapies despite exhibiting a less severe clinical course, illustrating the varied but potentially stubborn behavior of this disorder.

Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome.

Invasive pneumococcal disease is an uncommon and notifiable disease in Singapore. It is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a rare case of invasive pneumococcal bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. We also present a retrospective review of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia cases in Singapore General Hospital from January 2011 to April 2016.

Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Tear Production in a Mouse Model of Sjögren's Syndrome.

The purpose of the present study was to test the potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BD-MSCs) in improving tear production in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. NOD mice (n = 20) were randomized to receive i.p. injection of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control) or murine BD-MSCs (1 × 10(6) cells). Tears production was measured at baseline and once a week after treatment using phenol red impregnated threads. Cathepsin S activity in the tears was measured at the end of treatment. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and the lacrimal glands were excised and processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA analysis. Following BD-MSC injection, tears production increased over time when compared to both baseline and PBS injected mice. Although the number of lymphocytic foci in the lacrimal glands of treated animals did not change, the size of the foci decreased by 40.5% when compared to control animals. The mRNA level of the water channel aquaporin 5 was significantly increased following delivery of BD-MSCs. We conclude that treatment with BD-MSCs increases tear production in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. This is likely due to decreased inflammation and increased expression of aquaporin 5.

T Cell Polarization toward TH2/TFH2 and TH17/TFH17 in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease.

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibro-inflammatory disorder involving virtually every organ with a risk of organ dysfunction. Despite recent studies regarding B cell and T cell compartments, the disease's pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We examined and characterized subsets of circulating lymphocytes in untreated patients with active IgG4-RD. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven IgG4-RD were included in a prospective, multicentric study. Lymphocytes' subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry, with analysis of TH1/TH2/TH17, TFH cells, and cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results were compared to healthy controls and to patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Patients with IgG4-RD showed an increase of circulating T regulatory, TH2, TH17, and CD4(+)CXCR5(+)PD1(+) TFH cell subsets. Accordingly, increased levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were measured in IgG-RD patients. TFH increase was characterized by the specific expansion of TFH2 (CCR6(-)CXCR3(-)), and to a lesser extent of TFH17 (CCR6(+)CXCR3(-)) cells. Interestingly, CD4(+)CXCR5(+)PD1(+) TFH cells normalized under treatment. IgG4-RD is characterized by a shift of circulating T cells toward a TH2/TFH2 and TH17/TFH17 polarization. This immunological imbalance might be implicated in the disease's pathophysiology. Treatment regimens targeting such T cells warrant further evaluation.

Salivary β2-microglobulin positively correlates with ESSPRI in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Cystatin S-a candidate biomarker for severity of submandibular gland involvement in Sjögren's syndrome.

Salivary cystatin S is a defence protein mainly produced by submandibular glands and involved in innate oral immunity. This study aimed to verify whether cystatin S was diversely expressed in different disease subsets of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) patients, defined on the basis of salivary flow [unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR)], minor salivary gland (MSG) focus score and submandibular gland ultrasonography abnormalities. We also evaluated miR-126 and miR-335-5p expression in MSG biopsies to verify whether an aberrant regulation of cystatin S at the glandular level may influence its salivary expression.

MicroRNA expression profiles identify disease-specific alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their critical role in genetic control opened new avenues in understanding of various biological processes including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However, a given miRNA may have hundreds of different mRNA targets and a target might be regulated by multiple miRNAs, thus the characterisation of dysregulated miRNA expression profiles could give a better insight into the development of immunological disturbances in autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in miRNA expression profiles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Eight SLE patients, 8 pSS patients and 7 healthy subjects were enrolled in the investigation. MiRNAs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and expression patterns were determined with Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. Since the immunopathogenesis of pSS and SLE encompasses pronounced B cell hyperactivity along with specific autoantibody production, we paid a special attention on the association between miRNA expression levels and altered peripheral B cell distribution. In SLE patients 135, while in pSS patients 26 miRNAs showed altered expression. Interestingly, the 25 miRNAs including miR-146a, miR-16 and miR-21, which were over-expressed in pSS patients, were found to be elevated in SLE group, as well. On the contrary, we observed the down-regulation of miR-150-5p, which is a novel and unique finding in pSS. Levels of several miRNAs over-expressed in SLE, were not changed in pSS, such as miR-148a-3p, miR-152, miR-155, miR-223, miR-224, miR-326 and miR-342. Expression levels of miR-223-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-342-3p, which miRNAs are potentially linked to B cell functions, showed associations with the B cell proportions within peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The observed differences in miRNA expression profiles and the better understanding of immune regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of SLE and pSS.

One year in review 2017: primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Last year, a great deal of basic and clinical research was carried out in pSS. Following the previous reviews of this publishing series, we will herewith provide a critical digest of the most recent literature on pSS pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment. More specifically, we will focus on the heterogeneity of the disease, on the underlying pathogenetic pathways and on the possible new targeted treatments on the horizon.

Comparison of performance of the 2016 ACR-EULAR classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome with other sets of criteria in Japanese patients.

To compare the performance of the new 2016 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)-European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) with 1999 revised Japanese Ministry of Health criteria for diagnosis of SS (JPN), 2002 American-European Consensus Group classification criteria for SS (AECG) and 2012 ACR classification criteria for SS (ACR) in Japanese patients.

Insight into pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome: Dissection on autoimmune infiltrates and epithelial cells.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with broad clinical spectrum, extending from benign exocrinopathy to severe systemic disease and lymphoma development. The glandular and extraglandular dysfunction of SS is associated with lymphocytic infiltrates that invade the epithelial structures of affected organs. The in-depth study of autoimmune lesions in the minor salivary glands (MSG), which are the major target-organ of SS responses, revealed that the lymphocytic infiltrates vary in severity and composition among SS-patients, are full-blown at diagnosis and remain unchanged thereafter. Although the pathogenetic pathways underlying SS have not yet elucidated, it is well-established that glandular epithelial cells are central regulators of local autoimmune responses. Moreover, chronic inflammation affects epithelial function and phenotype, which strengthens or weakens their immunoregulatory/secretory function, leading to deterioration of autoimmune phenomena. Herein, the current findings regarding the autoimmune lesions, the role of epithelial cells and their interaction with infiltrating lymphocytic cells are discussed.

Dental implantation in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome: a case report.

We reported one case of a patient with Sjögren's syndrome and dental implant. This patient was followed up for more than one year. The patient was diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome for 5 years and treated with long-term corticosteroid. Four implant-tissue interface hydrophilic implants were placed on 15, 16, 44, and 46 of the mandibular and maxillary areas. After the surgery was completed, the patient was treated with oral antibiotic and "shenggu pills" to prevent infection and glucocorticoid to manage Sjögren's syndrome. Consequently, six implants were placed in other parts of the mandibular and maxillary areas. After more than one year of follow-up, the implants and prosthesis remained stable and had no complications. Cone beam CT reconstruction showed good implant-bone combination.

A Potential of sFasL in Preventing Gland Injury in Sjogren's Syndrome.

Fas and its ligand FasL, members of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, have been implicated in the process of cell apoptosis. FasL consists of two forms, membrane FasL (mFasL) and soluble FasL (sFasL). sFasL can be produced by mFasL cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and also reveals a role for binding to Fas which is expressed on cell surface. Although Fas/FasL axis has been implicated in a variety of diseases, its role in Sjogren's syndrome still remains ill defined. In this study, we investigated the potential of sFasL in the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). We found that the serum levels of sFasL in SS patients were significantly lower than healthy subjects. Moreover, serum levels of sFasL in patients with mild disease activity were higher than patients with severe disease activity. There is a positive correlation of the serum level of sFasL with uptake index of parotid gland in our expectation. In addition, liver injury involvement in SS patients showed decreased level of sFasL. Furthermore, we here also observed that the protective cytokine IL-10 expression was positively correlated with sFasL expression. Thus, our results here suggest a potential of sFasL in maintaining gland organ homeostasis.

Prevalence and characterization of non-sicca onset primary Sjögren syndrome with interstitial lung involvement.

Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) involved about 10-20% of patients. In 20% of cases, ILD can be diagnosed before pSS; anyway, few studies have investigated the frequency of ILD as the first clinically relevant manifestation of pSS, generally referred to retrospective studies. Aim of our prospective study was to describe prevalence, clinical, serological, and instrumental features of non-sicca onset pSS patients with interstitial lung involvement. During a period of 48 months, all consecutive patients diagnosed as pSS were enrolled. For all patients, the reason for the first visit was recorded. When present, ILD was categorized as definite, possible, or inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, according to the current criteria. ILD was the main presenting symptom in 13/77 new diagnoses of pSS patients; in particular, 6/13 patients were initially diagnosed as idiopathic ILD, and only later developed clinical manifestations suggestive for pSS; ILD-pSS patients were older than others and showed a higher EULAR primary Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index. A radiologic definite or possible UIP pattern was detected in 12/13 pSS. For the first time, we prospectively observed a prevalence of 16.8% of non-sicca onset pSS patients with ILD. Interestingly, UIP pattern was the most frequently detected, while typical autoantibodies were often absent. These features stressed the importance of differential diagnosis in the first stage of the disease, considering the possible poorer prognosis in this subgroup of patients. Multidisciplinary approach is crucial for a correct and early diagnosis, at both onset and follow-up.

Diffusional kurtosis imaging of parotid glands in Sjögren's syndrome: Initial findings.

To explore the role of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) of parotid glands in diagnosing Sjögren's syndrome (SS).

Predictive factors for the placebo effect in clinical trials for dry eye: a pooled analysis of three clinical trials.

Placebo effect is one of the methodological difficulties in dry eye clinical trials. If we could elucidate the tendencies of the placebo response and find predictors, we could reduce the placebo response in clinical trials for dry eye. In this study, we investigated the predictive factors for the placebo effect in dry eye clinical trials.

Erratum to: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoride varnish in preventing dental caries of Sjögren's syndrome patients.

Frontal fibrosing alopecia in association with Sjögren's syndrome: more than a simple coincidence.

Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a distinctive form of scarring alopecia considered to be a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris. It predominantly occurs in postmenopausal women and has a slowly progressive course. It was first described by Kossard in 1994. Since then the number of reported cases has increased significantly. Coexistence of frontal fibrosing alopecia and autoimmune disorders - such as discoid erythematosus lupus and Sjögren's syndrome - may suggest a common pathogenic background among the diseases.

Recent advances in understanding and managing IgG4-related disease.

IgG4-related disease was only recently discovered, so its description, management, and new discoveries related to its etiology are rapidly evolving. Because IgG4 itself is a unique antibody which is intimately related to the diagnosis of the disease, the role of plasmablasts in the pathophysiology remains an active area of discussion. Recent studies have uncovered a possible role for CD4-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T follicular helper cells, and M2 macrophages. The clinical presentation is variable and can be vague, as this disease affects many organs and new presentations are continuing to be described. The diagnosis depends on clinical and histopathological assessment. The mainstay of treatment is with glucocorticoids, but rituximab has recently shown promise. Monitoring disease activity using imaging modalities (including positron emission tomography) and serum markers is imperative, as relapses are common. IgG4-related disease spans many medical disciplines but is a treatable condition with which all clinicians should be familiar.

Randomized Controlled Trial of Rituximab and cost-effectiveness analysis in treating fatigue and oral dryness in primary Sjogren's Syndrome.

We investigated whether rituximab, an anti-B-cell therapy, improved symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness in patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (PSS).

Rituximab in the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome: Is it the wrong drug?

Extrahepatic Manifestations of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to cholestasis. PBC is known to have both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in up to 73% of patients with PBC, with the most common being Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid dysfunction and systemic sclerosis. It is thought that patients with PBC are at increased risk of developing these extrahepatic manifestations, almost all of which are autoimmune, because patients with autoimmune disease are at higher risk of developing another autoimmune condition. Due to the high prevalence of extrahepatic diseases in patients with PBC, it is important to complete a thorough medical history at the time of diagnosis. Prompt recognition of extrahepatic disease can lead to improved patient outcomes and quality of life. The following review summarizes the most common extrahepatic conditions associated with PBC.

Criteria sets for primary Sjogren's syndrome are not adequate for those presenting with extraglandular organ involvements as their dominant clinical features.

Patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) may go undiagnosed or be misclassified due to the insidious nature and wide spectrum of the disease. The available several classification criteria emphasize glandular findings. We aimed to analyze the efficiency of various classification criteria sets in patients diagnosed on the clinical basis by expert opinion and to compare those pSS patients who fulfilled these criteria with those who did not. This is a multicenter study in which 834 patients from 22 university-based rheumatology clinics are included. Diagnosis of pSS was made on the clinical basis by the expert opinion. In this study, we only interviewed patients once and collected available data from the medical records. The European criteria, American-European Consensus Group (AECG) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Sjogren's criteria were applied. Majority of the patients were women (F/M was 20/1). The median duration from the first pSS-related symptom to diagnosis was significantly shorter in men (2.5 ± 2.3 vs 4.3 ± 5.9 years) (p = 0 < 0.016). When the European, AECG and ACR Sjogren's criteria were applied, 666 patients (79.9%) satisfied at least one of them. In total, 539 patients (64.4%) satisfied the European, 439 (52.6%) satisfied the AECG, and 359 (43%) satisfied the ACR criteria. Among the entire group, 250 patients (29.9%) satisfied all and 168 (20.1%) met none of the criteria. The rates of extraglandular organ involvements were not different between patients who met at least one of the criteria sets and those who met none. There is an urgent need for the modification of the pSS criteria sets to prevent exclusion of patients with extraglandular involvements as the dominant clinical features.

Marginal zone lymphoma: Associated autoimmunity and auto-immune disorders.

Large epidemiological studies have shown a consistent increased risk for developing lymphoma in the setting of autoimmune disorders (AID). It is known that this link appears to be stronger for some AID and certain non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes e.g. Sjögren's syndrome and extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma of the salivary gland, and thyroid MALT lymphoma in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. B and T-cell hyperactivity due to chronic antigenic stimulation and the consequent presence of acquired lymphoid tissue seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of AI-related lymphomas. Advanced age at diagnosis, prolonged disease course and disease severity are thought to increase the risk of lymphoma development in AID patients. There is increasing evidence that AI-related lymphomas constitute a different spectrum of entities indicating a different pathobiology with specific clinical features and treatment implications. This chapter will provide a general overview on the epidemiological aspects of the NHL-AID association focussing on marginal zone lymphomas - one of the NHL subtypes mostly implicated in the synchronous/metachronous association with AID. We will review the possible biological mechanisms involved and the risk factors in each autoimmune condition related to this lymphoma.

Extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma: An unexpected complication in children with Sjögren's syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes into exocrine glands, resulting in the typical sicca symptoms. Unlike adults, primary SS is a very rare condition in childhood, and the risk of malignancy in juvenile SS (JSS) has not been defined. We report the detection of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) occurring in two children with SS. Fine needle aspiration of the salivary glands (SG) showed nonspecific findings that led to delayed diagnosis of SS. The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma associated with JSS was based on morphologic and immunohistochemical staining done during the biopsy. To highlight awareness of EMZL as a timely and appropriate update of an unusual complication in children with SS.

Autodisplay of the La/SSB protein on LPS-free E. coli for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.

The objective of this study was to present an immunoassay for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome based on the autodisplayed La/SSB protein on the outer membrane of intact E. coli (strain UT-5600) and LPS-free E. coli (ClearColi™). As the first step, an autodisplay vector (pCK002) was transfected into intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli for comparison of efficiency of autdisplay of La/SSB. The maximal level of La/SSB expression was estimated to be similar for LPS-free E. coli and intact E. coli at different optimal induction periods. Intact E. coli was found to grow twofold faster than LPS-free E. coli, and the maximal level of expression for LPS-free E. coli was obtained with a longer induction period. When the zeta potential was measured, both intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli showed negative values, and the autodisplay of negatively charged La/SSB protein (pI<7) on the outer membrane of intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli resulted in a slight change in zeta potential values. E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein was used for an immunoassay of anti-La/SSB antibodies for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. The surface of E. coli with the autodisplayed antigen was modified with rabbit serum and papain to prevent false positive signals because of nonspecific binding of unrelated antibodies from human serum. LPS-free E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein yielded sensitivity and selectivity of 81.6% and 78.6%, respectively. The Bland-Altman test showed that the immunoassays based on LPS-free E. coli and intact E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein were statistically equivalent to a clinical immunoassay for detection of anti-La/SSB antibodies (confidence coefficient 95%).

The Potential Role for Early Biomarker Testing as Part of a Modern, Multidisciplinary Approach to Sjögren's Syndrome Diagnosis.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive multisystem autoimmune disease typically managed by rheumatologists. Diagnostic delays are common, due in large part to the non-specific and variable nature of SS symptoms and the slow progression of disease. The hallmark characteristics of SS are dry eye and dry mouth, but there are a broad range of other possible symptoms such as joint and muscle pain, skin rashes, chronic dry cough, vaginal dryness, extremity numbness or tingling, and disabling fatigue. Given that dry eye and dry mouth are typically the earliest presenting complaints, eye care clinicians and dental professionals are often the first point of medical contact and can provide critical collaboration with rheumatologists to facilitate both timely diagnosis and ongoing care of patients with SS. Current diagnostic criteria advocated by the American College of Rheumatology are predicated on the presence of signs/symptoms suggestive of SS along with at least two objective factors such as traditional biomarker positivity, salivary gland biopsy findings, and/or presence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Traditional biomarkers for SS include the autoantibodies anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SS-A/Ro), anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SS-B/La), antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers, and rheumatoid factor (RF). While diagnostically useful, these biomarkers have low specificity for SS and are not always positive, especially in early cases of SS. Several newly-identified biomarkers for SS include autoantibodies to proteins specific to the salivary and lacrimal glands [SP-1 (salivary gland protein-1), PSP (parotid secretory protein), CA-6 (carbonic anhydrase VI)]. Data suggest that these novel biomarkers may appear earlier in the course of disease and are often identified in cases that test negative to traditional biomarkers. The Sjö(®) test is a commercially available diagnostic panel that incorporates testing for traditional SS biomarkers (anti-SS-A/Ro, anti-SS-B/La, ANA, and RF), as well as three novel, proprietary early biomarkers (antibodies to SP-1, PSP, and CA-6) which provide greater sensitivity and specificity than traditional biomarker testing alone. Timely diagnosis of SS requires appropriate clinical vigilance for potential SS symptoms, referral and collaborative communication among rheumatology, ophthalmology, and oral care professions, and proactive differential work-up that includes both physical and laboratory evaluations.

Is it Sjögren's syndrome or burning mouth syndrome? Distinct pathoses with similar oral symptoms.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) typically occur in postmenopausal women. Although these conditions have significantly different etiopathogeneses, patients with SS or BMS often present with analogous oral complaints. The similarities between the two conditions have led to considerable confusion on the part of medical and dental practitioners, and those with BMS or SS often wait years to receive a diagnosis. Therefore, it is imperative for clinicians to understand the characteristic subjective and objective features of each disease and how these can be used to distinguish them. This review will discuss the proposed etiology, clinical manifestations, histopathology, diagnostic criteria, and patient management of SS and BMS. We also identify key differences between the two pathoses that aid in establishing the correct diagnosis. Recognition of the defining features of each condition will lead to reduced time to diagnosis and improved patient management for these poorly understood conditions.

Alterations in the Salivary Proteome and N-Glycome of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients.

We used isobaric mass tagging (iTRAQ) and lectin affinity capture mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflows for global analyses of parotid saliva (PS) and whole saliva (WS) samples obtained from patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) who were enrolled in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) as compared with two control groups. The iTRAQ analyses revealed up- and down-regulation of numerous proteins that could be involved in the disease process (e.g., histones) or attempts to mitigate the ensuing damage (e.g., bactericidal/permeability increasing fold containing family (BPIF) members). An immunoblot approach applied to independent sample sets confirmed the pSS associated up-regulation of β2-microglobulin (in PS) and down-regulation of carbonic anhydrase VI (in WS) and BPIFB2 (in PS). Beyond the proteome, we profiled the N-glycosites of pSS and control samples. They were enriched for glycopeptides using lectins Aleuria aurantia and wheat germ agglutinin, which recognize fucose and sialic acid/N-acetyl glucosamine, respectively. MS analyses showed that pSS is associated with increased N-glycosylation of numerous salivary glycoproteins in PS and WS. The observed alterations of the salivary proteome and N-glycome could be used as pSS biomarkers enabling easier and earlier detection of this syndrome while lending potential new insights into the disease process.

What is the clinical significance of anti-Sm antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus? A comparison with anti-dsDNA antibodies and C3.

To investigate the clinical value of anti-Sm antibodies in diagnosis and monitoring of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their ability to predict lupus flares compared with that of anti-dsDNA antibody and complement (C3) assays.