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Sjogren’s syndrome - Top 30 Publications

Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-986142 in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis enhances efficacy of agents representing clinical standard-of-care.

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.

TFOS DEWS II Introduction.

A systematic review of primary Sjögren's syndrome in male and paediatric populations.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune rheumatic disease characterised by female predominance. Although the disease is rare in the male and paediatric populations, it has been suggested that it may have a different disease phenotype, which has not been investigated before using a systematic approach. A systematic literature search of PubMed databases (updated to December 2016) was performed to identify all published data on the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory manifestations of pSS in the male and paediatric populations. The literature search of the male and paediatric pSS studies identified 2025 and 186 citations, respectively, out of which 7 and 5 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were analysed further. The range of age at disease onset was 9.4-10.7 years for children and 39.4-56.9 years at diagnosis for male patients. We identified a prevalence of extra-glandular manifestations between 52.6-92.3% in the male population and 50.0-84.6% in children, while abnormal sialometry was only reported in the paediatric population, with a prevalence between 71.4 and 81.8%. There was a significant variation of positive serological markers, with anti-Ro antibodies reported between 15.7-75.0% and 36.4-84.6%, and anti-La antibodies between 5.6-51.7% and 27.3-65.4%, in the male and paediatric populations, respectively. The characteristics of pSS in the male and paediatric populations varied according to different studies. When compared to data available from pSS adult populations, children diagnosed with pSS reported less dryness and had a higher prevalence of parotitis, lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms and male patients were younger at the time of diagnosis. This systematic review contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiology of pSS in rare populations. Large longitudinal cohort studies comparing male with female patients and adult with paediatric patients are needed.

Histopathological and immunohistochemical profile in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hypofunction of the salivary and lachrymal glands. Main clinical features of SS are sicca symptoms, due to the altered glandular function. Also, in advanced stages, bilateral swelling of the parotid glands can be noted, indicative of severe glandular involvement. Phenotypic expression of various mononuclear cells present in the affected tissue offers additional insight into cellular proliferation, survival, migration, antibody secretion and also the potential of forming tertiary lymphoid tissue, i.e., germinal centers. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate various autoimmune activity patterns present in salivary glands by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The study group comprised of 10 primary SS patients, with various degrees of lymphocytic infiltrates confirmed on minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsy. We could identify both morphological changes, i.e., ductal system abnormalities or increased interstitial fibrosis, and immunological patterns associated with SS pathogenesis. CD3+ T-cells displayed a more intense reaction in specimens with mild to intermediate focus score (FS) grade. Specimens with important CD20+ B-cell component of lymphocytic infiltrate were associated with intermediate and severe FS grade. Specimens showed varying degrees of CD68+ cells, with more intense IHC reactions in slides displaying a more advanced mononuclear infiltration. Immunoreactivity was strong for both MMP-2 and MMP-8 matrix metalloproteinases, throughout the gland, in areas of acini, without it being linked with proximity of mononuclear cell infiltration. We could also establish some correlations between the degree of lymphocytic infiltration and clinical profile.

Incidence, mortality, and causes of death in physician-diagnosed primary Sjögren's syndrome in Korea: A nationwide, population-based study.

The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in Korea at a national level, including the incidence, mortality, and causes of death.

Achaete-scute complex homologue 2 accelerates the development of Sjögren's syndrome-like disease in the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse.

Achaete-scute complex homologue 2 (Ascl2) has been reported to induce the differentiation and activation of follicular helper T (TFH) cells, which are essential for development of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). This study examined whether Ascl2 plays a role in the development of SS. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were injected with an Ascl2-overexpression vector, and the infiltration of lymphocytes into salivary and lacrimal glands was assessed. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants for T or B cells was measured. The activation of TFH cells was assessed using a specific marker of TFH cells. Ascl2 level was also measured in SS patients. Overexpression of Ascl2 increased the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) in both salivary and lacrimal glands (p<0.0001). Overexpression of Ascl2 also increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants including interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), IL-21, and B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6). Overexpression of Ascl2 increased the populations of CD4(+)CXCR5(+), CD4(+)ICOS(+), and CD4(+)PD-1(+) cells. The Ascl2 level was higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SS patients compared with those from healthy controls. Our findings suggest that Ascl2 may play a role in the development and progression of SS and may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of SS.

Tubulointerstitial nephritis-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in Sjögren's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that typically affects the salivary and lacrimal glands. Renal involvement is relatively uncommon and may precede other complaints. Tubulointestitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal involvement in SS. Osteomalacia occurring as the first manifestation of renal tubular disorder due to SS is very rare. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with polydipsia, polyuria, and multiple bone pain. Bone density test showed severe osteoporosis, and laboratory findings suggested hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency, which supported the diagnosis of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. He had nephrogenic loss of phosphate and potassium, tubular acidification, and concentration dysfunction. And, the diagnosis of chronic TIN was subsequently confirmed by renal biopsy. The patient reported dry mouth and physical examination showed multiple dental caries. Xerophthalmia, abnormal morphology, and function of the salivary glands by sonography and scintigraphy, together with positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB, confirmed the diagnosis of SS. The TIN indicated SS as the underlying cause of osteomalacia. After taking supplements of potassium, phosphate, vitamin D, and sodium bicarbonate for 1 month, bone pain was alleviated and serological potassium and phosphorus were also back to normal. In conclusion, renal involvement in SS may be latent and precede the typical sicca symptoms. Osteomalacia can be the first manifestation of renal disorder due to SS. Therefore, autoantibody investigations as well as the lacrimal and salivary gland examinations for SS should be considered and performed for suspected patients.

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of parotid glands before and after abatacept therapy in patients with Sjögren's syndrome associated with rheumatoid arthritis: Utility to evaluate and predict response to treatment.

To compare parotid diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) taken before and after abatacept therapy in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to examine the utility in evaluation and prediction of response to therapy.

Leptin/OB-R pathway promotes IL-4 secretion from B lymphocytes and induces salivary gland epithelial cell apoptosis in Sjögren's syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune epithelitis in which cell apoptosis promotes the formation of inflammatory lesions. We used immunohistochemistry and TUNEL to assay B cell infiltration and apoptosis in salivary gland tissue from 16-week-old NOD/LtJ mice with SjS. In co-cultures of primary salivary glandepithelial cells (SGECs) and spleen B cells, we assessed SGEC viability and apoptosis using CCK8 assays and flow cytometry. ELISAs were employed to assess cytokine levels in culture medium. Leptin protein, leptin receptor (OB-R), pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and Jak2/Stat3/ERK signaling molecules were analyzed using western blotting. B cell infiltration and salivary gland apoptosis were increased in salivary tissue from mice with SjS. Leptin treatment had no effect on cell viability or apoptosis among B cells and primary SGECs. B cell and SGEC co-culture systems showed that leptin increased apoptosis induced by B lymphocytes, reduced SGEC cell viability, and promoted IL-4 secretion from B cells. This suggests Leptin/OB-R signaling stimulates B cells-induced SGEC apoptosis via IL-4 secretion and OB-R-Jak2-Stat3 activation.

Manifestations of autoimmune disorders in otorhinolaryngology : Classical symptoms and diagnostic approach.

Manifestations of autoimmune disorders represent a diagnostic challenge. Many autoimmune disorders show typical manifestations in the ear, nose and throat and should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. Sjogren's syndrome, various vasculitides and sarcoidosis represent the most common autoimmune disorders in otorhinolaryngology, but IgG4-related diseases, relapsing polychondritis and autoimmune disorders of the mucosa are also observed. Autoimmune diseases can lead to sensorineural deficits. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism can be caused by autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis is usually based on the corresponding classification criteria, whose correct application can facilitate the clarification of these diseases.

Germinal centres in diagnostic labial gland biopsies of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome are not predictive for parotid MALT lymphoma development.

Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) have an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), particularly parotid gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Presence of germinal centres (GCs) in labial gland biopsies has been suggested as predictive factor for NHL. We assessed whether presence of GCs is increased in labial gland biopsies from patients with pSS who developed parotid MALT lymphoma, the dominant NHL-subtype in pSS, compared with patients with pSS who did not develop lymphoma.

International consensus: what else can we do to improve diagnosis and therapeutic strategies in patients affected by autoimmune rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritides, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome)?: The unmet needs and the clinical grey zone in autoimmune disease management.

Autoimmune diseases are a complex set of diseases characterized by immune system activation and, although many progresses have been done in the last 15 years, several unmet needs in the management of these patients may be still identified. Recently, a panel of international Experts, divided in different working groups according to their clinical and scientific expertise, were asked to identify, debate and formulate a list of key unmet needs within the field of rheumatology, serving as a roadmap for research as well as support for clinicians. After a systematic review of the literature, the results and the discussions from each working group were summarised in different statements. Due to the differences among the diseases and their heterogeneity, a large number of statements was produced and voted by the Experts to reach a consensus in a plenary session. At all the steps of this process, including the initial discussions by the steering committee, the identification of the unmet needs, the expansion of the working group and finally the development of statements, a large agreement was attained. This work confirmed that several unmet needs may be identified and despite the development of new therapeutic strategies as well as a better understanding of the effects of existing therapies, many open questions still remain in this field, suggesting a research agenda for the future and specific clinical suggestions which may allow physicians to better manage those clinical conditions still lacking of scientific clarity.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia presenting as unilateral bloody pleural effusion.

Defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints in Sjögren's Syndrome patients.

Central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints are defective in many patients with autoimmune diseases, but the functionality of each discrete checkpoint has not been assessed in SS patients.

Impact of Sjogren's syndrome on Parkinson's disease: A nationwide case-control study.

To investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome would have an influence on the development of Parkinson's disease.

Rare X chromosome abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are related by clinical and serological manifestations as well as genetic risks. Both diseases are more commonly found in women compared to men at a ratio of about 10 to 1. Common X chromosome aneuploidies, 47,XXY and 47,XXX, are enriched among men and women, respectively, in either disease suggesting a dose effect on the X chromosome.

The value of musculoskeletal ultrasound in geriatric care and rehabilitation.

The WHO reports that one of the major chronic conditions affecting the elderly worldwide is musculoskeletal disorders that are associated with long-term pain and disability. Considering the healthcare needs of the elderly (i.e. comprehensive, accessible, efficient) and the advantages of ultrasound (US) use (patient-friendly, convenient, cost-effective, and does not require exposure to radiation or magnetic fields), there seems to be a 'gap' in the actual clinical practice. In this paper, we aimed to highlight the potential value of US imaging in the management of the elderly with a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions (degenerative/rheumatic joint diseases, falls/trauma, nursing care, peripheral nerve problems, sarcopenia, and interventions). In this respect, electronic databases (ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct) and reference lists of relevant articles/reviews were screened by two blinded investigators for each topic. The main medical subject heading terms selected to capture the most relevant papers on the topics in accordance with the literature were knee/hip/hand osteoarthritis, prevalence, rotator cuff injury, lateral epicondylitis, tendinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, crystal arthropathies, gout, pseudogout, carpal tunnel syndrome, fall, fractures, hematoma, pressure ulcer, ultrasonography, interventional, sarcopenia, body composition, rehabilitation, frail elderly, and aged. The search was limited to peer-reviewed full-text English journals starting from the earliest papers to May 2017. A study population (or part of the study population) of adults older than 65 years (if possible) was included. We especially underscore the use of US by clinicians as an extension of their physical examination or as a practical guide for an immediate intervention.

A Case of Imatinib-Induced Hepatitis.

A 71-year-old female with a past medical history of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia on imatinib therapy, Sjogren's syndrome, and hypothyroidism presents with acute hepatitis. After a comprehensive workup ruling out viral, infectious and metabolic etiologies imatinib is stopped which results in immediate improvement. The biopsy is consistent with drug-induced liver damage; the patient is started on oral prednisone and discharged. Unfortunately, our patient's liver function does not improve over the course of the next week and she is readmitted for hepatic and renal failure. During this second admission patient's condition continues to deteriorate with concomitant gastric bleeding, renal injury, and cellulitis. She ultimately chooses a palliative approach.

Proteasome inhibition suppresses Th17 cell generation and ameliorates autoimmune development in experimental Sjögren's syndrome.

Immunoproteasome activation in immune cells is involved in the modulation of immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that proteasome inhibitors show beneficial effects in treating autoimmune diseases, but it remains unclear whether proteasome inhibition is an effective approach for suppressing autoimmune development in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Our previous work has demonstrated a critical role for Th17 cells in the development of experimental SS (ESS) in mice. In this study, we detected high levels of low-molecular-weight protein 7 (LMP7), a key subunit of the immunoproteasome, in Th17 cells from ESS mice. Moreover, treatment with bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor, markedly suppressed Th17 differentiation in both murine and human naive T cells in culture. Furthermore, ESS mice treated with BTZ displayed significantly higher saliva flow rates and a reduction in tissue destruction in the salivary glands compared with vehicle-treated ESS mice. Notably, BTZ-treated ESS mice showed markedly decreased Th17 cells, germinal center B cells and plasma cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs. In addition, adoptively transferred wild type naive CD4(+) T cells rapidly differentiated into Th17 cells and induced salivary dysfunction in IL-17-deficient mice immunized for ESS induction. However, BTZ treatment profoundly suppressed the donor T-cell-derived Th17 response and ameliorated the reduction in salivary secretion in IL-17-deficient recipient mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that proteasome inhibition can effectively ameliorate ESS by suppressing the Th17 response, which may contribute to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SS.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 10 July 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.8.

High levels of soluble GPR56/ADGRG1 are associated with positive rheumatoid factor and elevated tumor necrosis factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

GPR56/ADGRG1 is a member of the adhesion-class G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) family important in brain development, oncogenesis and tumor metastasis. Like other aGPCRs, GPR56 is cleaved at the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) motif into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a C-terminal fragment (CTF). Existence of soluble GPR56 (sGPR56) has been shown in vitro, however the underlying mechanism and its pathophysiologic role remains undetermined.

Prevalence of anti-NT5C1A antibodies in Japanese patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in comparison with other patient cohorts.

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is usually classified as an idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Although the diagnosis of sIBM is sometimes challenging, recent studies have shown that the autoantibodies against cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (NT5C1A) are the possible diagnostic biomarker for sIBM. Few reports have shown the frequencies of anti-NT5C1A antibodies in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) using large cohorts of SARDs.

Management of hydrocephalus associated with autoimmune diseases: a series of 19 cases.

To analyze the diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus associated with autoimmune diseases and to explore the possible mechanism of hydrocephalus in these patients.

T Helper 17 Cells in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes into exocrine glands and other tissues. The infiltrating lymphocytes have been identified as subsets of B cells and T cells, including T helper 17 cells, T regulatory cells and follicular helper T cells. The role of these cells in the development of the syndrome is now known, as is their impact on the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-23. In particular, experimental animal models and patients suggest that a shift in Th17/Treg balance toward the proinflammatory Th17 axis exacerbates primary Sjögren's syndrome and other autoimmune disorders. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not yet fully elucidated. This review summarizes the recent advances in therapeutic control of the Treg/Th17 balance, as well as the efficacy of candidate therapeutics against primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Sjogren's syndrome: New paradigms and areas for future research.

Efficacy and Safety of biological DMARDs modulating B cells in Primary Sjögren's syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

In this review, we summarise the clinical efficacy and safety of B-Cell Targeted therapies for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).

Radiologic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis-like lesion in connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease.

Radiologic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)-like lesion including pulmonary apical cap can be occasionally observed in clinical settings. However, the significance of radiologic PPFE-like lesion is unclear in connective tissue disease (CTD)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Prevalence and significance of anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a common yeast used in the food industry. IgG and IgA antibodies against the phosphopeptidomannan of the S. cerevisiae cell wall (ASCA) are a well known marker of disease severity in Crohn's disease. Moreover, a number of studies assessed ASCA in several systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases postulating molecular mimicry as a possible link between ASCA and autoimmunity. However, since they have never been tested in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), the purpose of this study was to investigate these antibodies in a large cohort of pSS patients, compared to healthy donors (HD), and their significance as potentially helpful biomarker in a clinical setting.

Clinical associations of the positive anti Ro52 without Ro60 autoantibodies: undifferentiated connective tissue diseases.

Autoantibodies targeting Ro52 and Ro60 antigens are historically reported as anti SSA/Ro. In general anti SSA/Ro results are either anti Ro52+Ro60+ or anti Ro52-Ro60+ antibodies. Anti Ro52 without anti Ro60 (Ro52+ Ro60-) antibodies are often not reported routinely. This study intends to review the potential significance of these autoantibodies in the management of connective tissue diseases.

Urinary manifestations in Isaacs's syndrome. Our experience in 8 cases.

Isaacs's syndrome (IS), is a rare neurological disorder, characterized by sustained muscular activity, fasciculations, cramps, myokymia, excessive sweating, and occasional elevation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme.

Assessing Autophagy in Mouse Models and Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

Autophagy is a tightly regulated mechanism that allows cells to renew themselves through the lysosomal degradation of proteins, which are misfolded or produced in excess, and of damaged organelles. In the context of immunity, recent research has specially attempted to clarify its roles in infection, inflammation and autoimmunity. Autophagy has emerged as a spotlight in several molecular pathways and trafficking events that participate to innate and adaptive immunity. Deregulation of autophagy has been associated to several autoimmune diseases, in particular to systemic lupus erythematosus. Nowadays, however, experimental data on the implication of autophagy in animal models of autoimmunity or patients remain limited. In our investigations, we use Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lymphoproliferation (lpr) lupus-prone mice as a mouse model for lupus and secondary Sjögren's syndrome, and, herein, we describe methods applied routinely to analyze different autophagic pathways in different lymphoid organs and tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, salivary glands). We also depict some techniques used to analyze autophagy in lupus patient's blood samples. These methods can be adapted to the analysis of autophagy in other mouse models of autoinflammatory diseases. The understanding of autophagy implication in autoimmune diseases could prove to be very useful for developing novel immunomodulatory strategies. Our attention should be focused on the fact that autophagy processes are interconnected and that distinct pathways can be independently hyper-activated or downregulated in distinct organs and tissues of the same individual.