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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation - Top 30 Publications

The truth is hidden in the details - Comment on an observational study on transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risks patients.

The flaws in the detail of an observational study on transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risks patients.

The PARTNER group recently published a comparison between the latest generation SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk patients, apparently demonstrating superiority of the TAVI and suggesting that TAVI might be the preferred treatment method in this risk class of patients. Nonetheless, assessment of the non-randomized methodology used in this comparison reveals challenges that should be addressed in order to elucidate the validity of the results. The study by Thourani and colleagues showed several major methodological concerns: suboptimal methods in propensity score analysis with evident misspecification of the propensity scores (PS; no adjustment for the most significantly different covariates: left ventricular ejection fraction, moderate-severe mitral regurgitation and associated procedures); use of PS quintiles rather than matching; inference on not-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves, although the authors correctly claimed for the need of balancing score adjusting for confounding factors in order to have unbiased estimates of the treatment effect; evidence of poor fit; lack of data on valve-related death.These methodological flaws invalidate direct comparison between treatments and cannot support authors' conclusions that TAVI with SAPIEN 3 in intermediate-risk patients is superior to surgery and might be the preferred treatment alternative to surgery.

The relevance of the age of transfused blood for prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

INTRODUCTION    Blood transfusion after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is frequently required due to the high vulnerability of TAVI population and procedure related bleeding.  OBJECTIVES    We quantified the impact of post-procedural blood transfusion and the age of transfused red blood cells (RBC) units on prognosis after TAVI.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    This was a single-center, observational analysis conducted between 2009-2014. The adopted end points were early and long-term mortality after TAVI. The risk factors for mortality included: 1.in-hospital bleeding and vascular complications, 2.number of transfused RBC units, 3.transfusion of ≥ 2 RBC units, 4.the age of transfused RBCs, 5.standard deviation (SD) of the age of RBCs.  RESULTS    The study included 178 pts, aged 55-91yrs (80.07±7.47). Follow-up ranged between 1mth-5.8yrs (20.1±15.2mths) after discharge; 14 (7.8%) early and 27 (16.5%) late deaths were noted. In-hospital bleeding and vascular complications increased the risk of early deaths (HR 2.113 95%CI [1.011 - 4.418];p=0.046 / HR 2.265 95%CI [1.270 - 4.039];p=0.005). Transfusion of younger RBCs (HR 1.044 95%CI [1.004 - 1.085];p=0.028) and greater discrepancy in the age of transfused RBCs (HR 1.153 95%CI [1.042 - 1.275];p=0.006) occurred to be positively correlated with the risk of late deaths only in univariate analysis. Greater number of transfused RBCs was the only independent predictor of long-term mortality (HR 1.149 95%CI [1.024-1.291];p=0.018).  CONCLUSIONS    1. Higher number of RBCs transfused early after TAVI worsen long-term prognosis. 2. Shorter stored RBCs and great discrepancy in RBCs age in multi-transfused TAVI elderly might have a deleterious effect on life expectancy.

Low pacemaker incidence with continuous-sutured valves: a retrospective analysis.

Background Permanent pacemaker implantation after surgical aortic valve replacement depends on patient selection and risk factors for conduction disorders. We aimed to identify risk criteria and obtain a selected group comparable to patients assigned to transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods Isolated sutured aortic valve replacements in 994 patients treated from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Demographics, hospital stay, preexisting conduction disorders, surgical technique, and etiology in patients with and without permanent pacemaker implantation were compared. Reported outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation were compared with those of a subgroup including only degenerative valve disease and first redo. Results The incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation was 2.9%. Longer hospital stay ( p = 0.01), preexisting rhythm disorders ( p < 0.001), complex prosthetic endocarditis ( p = 0.01), and complex redo ( p < 0.001) were associated with permanent pacemaker implantation. Although prostheses were sutured with continuous monofilament in the majority of cases (86%), interrupted pledgetted sutures were used more often in the pacemaker group ( p = 0.002). In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation was 2%; preexisting rhythm disorders and the suture technique were still major risk factors. Conclusion Permanent pacemaker implantation depends on etiology, preexisting rhythm disorders, and suture technique, and the 2% incidence compares favorably with the reported 5- to 10-fold higher incidence after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Cost analysis should take this into account. Often dismissed as minor complication, permanent pacemaker implantation increases the risks of endocarditis, impaired myocardial recovery, and higher mortality if associated with prosthesis regurgitation.

Prognostic Impact of Low-Flow Severe Aortic Stenosis in Small-Body Patients Undergoing TAVR: The OCEAN-TAVI Registry.

This study aimed to analyze the prognostic impact of low-flow (LF) severe aortic stenosis in small-body patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Severe Aortic Stenosis: It Used to Be Simple.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Very Low Ejection Fraction: Misfortune or Chance.

Antithrombotic Therapy for Prevention of Cerebral Thromboembolic Events After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Evolving Paradigms and Ongoing Directions.

Aspirin Versus Aspirin Plus Clopidogrel as Antithrombotic Treatment Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With a Balloon-Expandable Valve: The ARTE (Aspirin Versus Aspirin + Clopidogrel Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) Randomized Clinical Trial.

The aim of this study was to compare aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin alone as antithrombotic treatment following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for the prevention of ischemic events, bleeding events, and death.

Successful Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Valve Regurgitation Following a David I Valve-Sparing Procedure.

Continuous Paravertebral Blockade for Post-Thoracotomy Pain Following Transapical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Retrospective Analysis.

Readmissions after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. What are they doing right? How can we do better?

Predictors of length of stay and duration of tracheal intubation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

While short-term outcomes for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have long been studied, there is very little data on their predictors. We aimed to identify the predictors of outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay (LOS), duration of postoperative intubation and in-hospital mortality, after TAVI procedures.

Safety and Efficacy of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in the Treatment of Pure Aortic Regurgitation in Native Valves and Failing Surgical Bioprostheses: Results From an International Registry Study.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of transcatheter heart valves (THV) for the treatment of noncalcific pure native aortic valve regurgitation (NAVR) and failing bioprosthetic surgical heart valves (SHVs) with pure severe aortic regurgitation (AR).

A Big Step Forward in the Validation of the Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Procedure for the Treatment of Failed Surgical Bioprostheses.

1-Year Results in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With Failed Surgical Bioprostheses.

This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with surgical valve failure (SVF).

Dynamic changes in aortic impedance after transcatheter aortic valve replacement and its impact on exploratory outcome.

Valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva) has been shown to predict worse outcome in medically managed aortic stenosis (AS) patients. We aimed to investigate the association between Zva and left ventricular (LV) adaptation and to explore the predictive value of Zva for cardiac functional recovery and outcome after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We prospectively enrolled 128 patients with AS who underwent TAVR. Zva was calculated as: (systolic blood pressure + mean transaortic gradient)/stroke volume index). Echocardiographic assessment occurred at baseline, 1-month and 1-year after TAVR. The primary endpoints were to investigate associations between Zva and global longitudinal strain (GLS) at baseline as well as GLS change after TAVR. The secondary was to compare all-cause mortality after TAVR between patients with pre-defined Zva (=5 mmHg m(2)/ml), stroke volume index (=35 ml/m(2)), and GLS (=-15%) cutoffs. The mean GLS was reduced (-13.0 ± 3.2%). The mean Zva was 5.2 ± 1.6 mmHg*m(2)/ml with 55% of values ≥5.0 mmHg*m(2)/ml, considered to be abnormally high. Higher Zva correlated with worse GLS (r = -0.33, p < 0.001). After TAVR, Zva decreased significantly (5.1 ± 1.6 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mmHg*m(2)/ml, p = 0.001). A reduction of Zva at 1-month was associated with GLS improvement at 1-month (r = -0.31, p = 0.001) and at 1-year (r = -0.36 and p = 0.001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with higher Zva at baseline had higher mortality (Log-rank p = 0.046), while stroke volume index and GLS did not differentiate outcome (Log-rank p = 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). As a conclusion, Zva is correlated with GLS in AS as well as GLS improvement after TAVR. Furthermore, a high baseline Zva may have an additional impact to traditional parameters on predicting worse mortality after TAVR.

Combined Transapical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Severe Aortic Stenosis and Arch Aneurysm.

An 83-year-old male with multiple comorbidities presented with critical aortic stenosis and a saccular aortic arch aneurysm. Through a mini thoracotomy, a balloon expandable transcatheter aortic valve was delivered transapically. A thoracic stent graft was then delivered through the prosthetic valve and deployed in the arch, while a covered stent was deployed in the left common carotid artery. Three-year postoperative computed tomography showed a thrombosed arch aneurysm with decreased size. This case demonstrates the feasibility of using combined transapical transcatheter technologies to treat multicomponent disease in a high-risk patient during a single operation.

Conservative management of aortic root rupture complicated with cardiac tamponade following transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Aortic root rupture and cardiac tamponade during transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a frightening complication with high mortality rate. A conservative management of this complication could represent an initial strategy, especially in high-risk patients, to avoid emergent cardiac surgery. This conservative management includes: Immediate detection of pericardial effusion by echocardiography, a fast instauration of pericardial drainage, auto-transfusion and anticoagulation reversal. We describe two cases of patients who suffered this complication and were treated successfully with this initial approach.

A retrospective analysis of mitral valve pathology in the setting of bicuspid aortic valves.

The therapeutic implications of bicuspid aortic valve associations have come under scrutiny in the transcatheter aortic valve implantation era. We evaluate the spectrum of mitral valve disease in patients with bicuspid aortic valves to determine the need for closer echocardiographic scrutiny/follow-up of the mitral valve. A retrospective analysis of echocardiograms done at a referral hospital over five years was conducted in patients with bicuspid aortic valves with special attention to congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve. 140 patients with a bicuspid aortic valve were included. A congenital mitral valve abnormality was present in 8 (5.7%, p=0.01) with a parachute mitral valve in 4 (2.8%), an accessory mitral valve leaflet in 1 (0.7%), mitral valve prolapse in one, a cleft in one and the novel finding of a trileaflet mitral valve in one. Minor abnormalities included an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet (p<0.001), the increased incidence of physiological mitral regurgitation (p=<0.001), abnormal papillary muscles (p=0.002) and an additional chord or tendon in the left ventricle cavity (p=0.007). Mitral valve abnormalities occur more commonly in patients with bicuspid aortic valves than matched healthy individuals. The study confirms that abnormalities in these patients extend beyond the aorta. These abnormalities did not have a significant functional effect.

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the transaortic approach.

Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been established as a safe and effective treatment option for patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk. However, some patients may not be suitable for the transfemoral approach due to severe iliofemoral disease or aneurysmal disease of the thoracoabdominal aorta. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of the transaortic approach. Methods From May 2015 to June 2016, 5 patients (mean age 78.4 ± 3.9 years) with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis underwent transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation after a heart team discussion. They were considered to be at high surgical risk and ineligible for the transfemoral approach due to iliofemoral or thoracoabdominal aortic disease. Results A CoreValve Evolut R was successfully deployed in all 5 patients. We performed 4 right mini-parasternal incisions and one J-incision partial sternotomy. None of the patients required permanent pacemaker implantation, one required reopening of the mini-parasternal incision for postoperative bleeding. Follow-up echocardiography one month after the procedure showed improvement in the mean aortic gradient (from 63.2 to 8.3 mm Hg) and aortic valve area (from 0.62 to 2.2 cm(2)). None of the patients had more than mild paravalvular leakage. There was no intraoperative or 30-day mortality. Conclusion Transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a safe and feasible option for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered unsuitable for transfemoral aortic valve implantation.

Modern cardiac surgery: the future of cardiac surgery in Australia.

Cardiac surgery is a relatively young specialty and is undergoing many changes presently. The advent of catheter-based technology, minimally invasive surgery and better information regarding the roles of cardiac surgery in the management of common cardiac disease is changing the way we provide services. In Australia, attention must be turned to the way cardiac surgical services are provided to enable delivery of modern procedures. This has implications for the provision of training. We explore the face of modern cardiac surgery and how this may be taken up in Australia.

Simultaneous Transseptal Para-Ring Leak Closure and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation for the Treatment of Surgical Mitral Repair Failure.

Repeat cardiac surgery in patients with a previous sternotomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high risk surgical patients is now well established, experience with transcatheter mitral valve replacement is still at an early stage. Although many successful reports of transcatheter mitral valve replacements now exist, the predominant approach has been via a transapical approach. It is likely that, as with the evolution of favoured access routes for transcatheter aortic therapies, future directions for transcatheter mitral valves will focus on smaller delivery systems favouring the transvenous transseptal approach where possible. We present the first reported case of combined transseptal para-ring leak closure followed by transcatheter mitral valve implantation using a 12/5mm Amplatzer III vascular plug and a 29mm SAPIEN 3 valve.

Supra-annular Valve-in-Valve implantation reduces blood stasis on the transcatheter aortic valve leaflets.

Leaflet thrombosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and Valve-in-Valve (ViV) procedures has been increasingly recognized. This study aimed to investigate the effect of positioning of the transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) in ViV setting on the flow dynamics aspect of post-ViV thrombosis by quantifying the blood stasis in the intra-annular and supra-annular settings. To that end, two idealized computational models, representing ViV intra-annular and supra-annular positioning of a TAV were developed in a patient-specific geometry. Three-dimensional flow fields were then obtained via fluid-solid interaction modeling to study the difference in blood residence time (BRT) on the TAV leaflets in the two settings. At the end of diastole, a strip of high BRT (⩾1.2s) region was observed on the TAV leaflets in the ViV intra-annular positioning at the fixed boundary where the leaflets are attached to the frame. Such a high BRT region was absent on the TAV leaflets in the supra-annular positioning. The maximum value of BRT on the surface of non-, right, and left coronary leaflets of the TAV in the supra-annular positioning were 53%, 11%, and 27% smaller compared to the intra-annular positioning, respectively. It was concluded that the geometric confinement of TAV by the leaflets of the failed bioprosthetic valve in ViV intra-annular positioning increases the BRT on the leaflets and may act as a permissive factor in valvular thrombosis. The absence of such a geometric confinement in the ViV supra-annular positioning leads to smaller BRT and subsequently less likelihood of leaflet thrombosis.

Comparison of aortic annular diameter defined by different measurement mordalities before transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Objective: To compare aortic annular diameter measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients with severe aortic stenosis, and to evaluate the impact on selection of prosthetic valve type in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: Clinical data of 138 patients with severe aortic stenosis referred for TAVI between January 2014 and June 2016 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.The difference of aortic annular diameter measured by TTE, TEE, and MSCT were compared.TTE was performed after TAVI to evaluate the accuracy of measurement before TAVI. Results: (1) Aortic annular diameter was (23.37±2.22) mm by TTE and (23.52±1.70) mm by TEE (P=0.12). Pearson correlation analysis showed that aortic annular diameter measured by TTE was correlated to that measured by TEE (r=0.87, P<0.05). (2)The long-axis diameter and the short-axis diameter measured by MSCT multiplanar reconstruction were significantly different ((27.86±2.87) mm vs. (21.91±2.53) mm, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean of the long- and short-axis diameters and the diameter derived from cross-sectional area by MSCT ((24.92±2.38) mm vs. (24.84±2.25) mm, P=0.08). However, the diameter derived from the circumference ((25.35±2.34) mm) was significantly larger than the mean of the long- and short-axis diameters and the diameter derived from cross-sectional area by MSCT, and the difference were (0.43±0.62) mm and (0.51±0.62) mm respectively(both P<0.05). (3) Measurements of the aortic annulus diameter by MSCT including the mean of the long- and short-axis diameters, diameter derived from cross-sectional area, and diameter derived from the circumference were larger than the measurement by TTE and TTE (all P<0.05). (4) Implantation was successful in all patients.Moderate to severe paravalvular leakage was detected in 3 patients at 7 days post TAVI, and 1 patient developed severe prosthetic valve restenosis at 6 months post TAVI and received valve-in-valve implantation. Conclusions: In severe aortic stenosis patients referred for TAVI, the aortic annular diameter derived from TTE and TEE measurements are smaller than that from MSCT.In the absence of a gold standard, selection of prosthetic valve type in TAVI procedure should rely on comprehensive considerations, which is of importance to get good clinical results for severe aortic stenosis patients underwent TAVI.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased acute kidney injury and 1-year mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A meta-analysis.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with adverse outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement. However, there are conflicting data on the impact of DM on outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Insights into the Need for Permanent Pacemaker Following Implantation of the Repositionable LOTUS™ Valve for the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in 250 Patients: Results from the REPRISE II Trial With Extended Cohort.

This analysis evaluated the incidence and predictors of the need for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation following implantation of the repositionable and fully retrievable Lotus Aortic Valve Replacement System.

Dose optimization in cardiac CT.

Rapid progress in the field of Cardiac CT is fostered by the advances in CT scanner technology as well as multiple clinical trials demonstrating its role in coronary artery disease and other indications like congenital heart disease, pulmonary vein assessment and pre transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The cardiovascular imager today is responsible for delivering diagnostic image quality while striking a balance with optimized radiation dose. Radiation dose is the result of multiple scanner and patient related factors. Achieving a justifiable radiation dose according to the ALARA principle requires an adept understanding of the factors affecting radiation dose. We review different scan factors and their effect on radiation dose and present strategies for radiation dose optimization in cardiac CT.

Increased Mitral Gradient After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Is It Anatomic Mitral Valve Obstruction Or Related to Hemodynamics?

United Kingdom: coronary and structural heart interventions from 2010 to 2015.

In the United Kingdom, a clinical data set is completed for every patient undergoing coronary intervention and certain structural interventions, and sent to central servers in the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) on behalf of the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS). These data are linked to the national mortality register. In addition, data are obtained about the structure of healthcare provision using an annual survey. Analyses of these data are provided for different audiences in several formats. Public reports of individual consultant operator activity and risk-adjusted outcomes from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have also been produced annually since 2012. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed since 2007. Over 2,000 cases were performed in 2015, giving a rate of 30 per million population. Complications to discharge have fallen as case mix has changed and technologies improved. While the mean age has remained about 81 years, the logistic EuroSCORE of patients treated by TAVI has fallen from about 22 in 2010 to 18 in 2015. Tracked 30-day mortality was 3.7% in 2014. Left atrial appendage occlusion and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for stroke, and the use of the MitraClip® system (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) for mitral regurgitation have been funded through a process called "commissioning through evaluation".