A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Variant - Top 30 Publications

Loss of interaction between plectin and type XVII collagen results in epidermolysis bullosa simplex.

Plectin is a linker protein that interacts with intermediate filaments and β4 integrin in hemidesmosomes of the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ). Type XVII collagen (COL17) has been suggested as another candidate plectin binding partner in hemidesmosomes. Here, we demonstrate that plectin-COL17 binding helps to maintain epidermal BMZ organization. We identified an epidermolysis bullosa (EB) simplex patient as having markedly diminished expression of plectin and COL17 in skin. The patient is compound heterozygous for sequence variants in the plectin gene ( PLEC); one is a truncation and the other is a small in-frame deletion sequence variant. The in-frame deletion is located in the putative COL17-binding domain of plectin and abolishes the plectin-COL17 interaction in vitro. These results imply that disrupted interaction between plectin and COL17 is involved in the development of epidermolysis bullosa. Our study suggests that protein-protein binding defects may underlie EB in patients with unidentified disease-causing sequence variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): Implications for the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC).

The introduction of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) affects the risk of malignancy (ROM) mostly in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) categories. In this multi-institutional, retrospective study, the authors investigated variations in the impact of an NIFTP diagnosis on the associated ROM for each TBSRTC category with an emphasis on the influence of pathologist and institutional diagnostic thresholds on the ROM.

Optimized human platelet lysate as novel basis for a serum-, xeno- and additive-free corneal endothelial cell and tissue culture.

The expansion of donor derived corneal endothelial cells is a promising approach for regenerative therapies in corneal diseases. To achieve the best GMP standard the entire cultivation process should be devoid of non-human components. However, so far there is no suitable xeno-free protocol for clinical applications.

A cohort study of multiple families with FBN1 p.R650C variant, ectopia lentis, and low but not absent risk for aortopathy.

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem disease with cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, and skeletal features. Diagnosis is made clinically with emphasis on presence of aortic root dilation and ectopia lentis (EL). Most individuals meeting these criteria have a pathogenic variant in FBN1, usually unique or observed rarely. Individuals with EL alone may also have FBN1 pathogenic variants, and the risk for aortic disease is not well known. We identified a unique cohort of 31 individuals (mean age 29, range 2-78) from nine families ascertained by a proband with EL alone, who had the same FBN1 p.R650C variant. Comparison was made to individuals with Marfan syndrome (n = 103 from 97 families) at our institution. Those with the p.R650C variant had few skeletal features of Marfan syndrome. Age of onset of EL was later compared to others with cysteine variant changes. Aortic root dilation occurred in 4/16 (25%) of the p.R650C group versus 71/83 (86%) in the comparator group (p < 0.001) and dissection or replacement in 1/31 (3%) versus 20/103 (19%; p < 0.04). Aortic root Z scores were much lower in the p.R650C (0.34 ± 1.70) versus the comparator (2.99 ± 2.54; p < 0.0002). Kaplan-Meier failure curves for aortic root dilation demonstrated later age of onset and differed significantly for incidence rate ratio (comparator vs. p.R650C = 5.35, CI 1.84-21.17; p = 0.0001). Individuals with p.R650C predominantly have EL, but do have risk for aortic dilation at ages later than typical for Marfan syndrome in general and for cysteine changes specifically. Surveillance for aortic dilation is required but may occur less frequently.

Association of donor SUMO4 rs237025 genetic variant with tacrolimus elimination in the early period after liver transplantation.

Individualized tacrolimus treatment can improve drug safety and efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of donor and recipient small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4) rs237025 polymorphisms with tacrolimus elimination and the potential mechanism.

Genome-Wide Interactions with Dairy Intake for Body Mass Index in Adults of European Descent.

Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption.

Endoglin in human liver disease and murine models of liver fibrosis - a protective factor against liver fibrosis.

Liver fibrosis is the outcome of chronic liver injury. TGF-β is a major profibrogenic cytokine modulating hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and extracellular matrix homeostasis. This study analyzes the effect of Endoglin (Eng), a TGF-β type III auxiliary receptor, on fibrogenesis in two models of liver injury by HSC specific endoglin deletion.

Loss-of-function variants in NFIA provide further support that NFIA is a critical gene in 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome: A four patient series.

The association between 1p32-p31 contiguous gene deletions and a distinct phenotype that includes anomalies of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, developmental delay, seizures, and dysmorphic features has been long recognized and described. Recently, the observation of overlapping phenotypes in patients with chromosome translocations that disrupt NFIA (Nuclear factor I/A), a gene within this deleted region, and NFIA intragenic deletions has led to the hypothesis that NFIA is a critical gene within this region. The wide application and increasing accessibility of whole exome sequencing (WES) has helped identify new cases to support this hypothesis. Here, we describe four patients with loss-of-function variants in the NFIA gene identified through WES. The clinical presentation of these patients significantly overlaps with the phenotype described in previously reported cases of 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome, NFIA gene disruptions and intragenic NFIA deletions. Our cohort includes a mother and daughter as well as an unrelated individual who share the same nonsense variant (c.205C>T, p.Arg69Ter; NM_001145512.1). We also report a patient with a frameshift NFIA variant (c.159_160dupCC, p.Gln54ProfsTer49). We have compared published cases of 1p32-p31 microdeletion syndrome, translocations resulting in NFIA gene disruption, intragenic deletions, and loss-of-function mutations (including our four patients) to reveal that abnormalities of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly/hydrocephalus, macrocephaly, Chiari I malformation, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, hypotonia, and urinary tract defects are common findings. The consistent overlap in clinical presentation provides further evidence of the critical role of NFIA haploinsufficiency in the development of the 1p32-p31 microdeletion syndrome phenotype.

Functional analysis of novel DEAF1 variants identified through clinical exome sequencing expands DEAF1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (DAND) phenotype.

Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1), a transcription factor essential for central nervous system and early embryonic development, has recently been implicated in a series of intellectual disability-related neurodevelopmental anomalies termed, in this study, as DEAF1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (DAND). We identified six potentially deleterious DEAF1 variants in a cohort of individuals with DAND via clinical exome sequencing (CES) and in silico analysis, including two novel de novo variants: missense variant c.634G > A p.Gly212Ser in the SAND domain and deletion variant c.913_915del p.Lys305del in the NLS domain, as well as c.676C > T p.Arg226Trp, c.700T > A p.Trp234Arg, c.737G > C p.Arg246Thr, and c.791A > C p.Gln264Pro. Luciferase reporter, immunofluorescence staining, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that these variants had decreased transcriptional repression activity at the DEAF1 promoter and reduced affinity to consensus DEAF1 DNA binding sequences. In addition, c.913_915del p.K305del localized primarily to the cytoplasm and interacted with wild-type DEAF1. Our results demonstrate that variants located within the SAND or NLS domains significantly reduce DEAF1 transcriptional regulatory activities and are thus, likely to contribute to the underlying clinical concerns in DAND patients. These findings illustrate the importance of experimental characterization of variants with uncertain significance identified by CES to assess their potential clinical significance and possible use in diagnosis.

Molecular genotyping of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) has been managed as low-risk malignancy. Recently, a proposal was made to reclassify this tumor type as a premalignant lesion and rename it noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). However, a comprehensive study on molecular genotype-phenotype correlations of encapsulated FVPTC is lacking.

Association Between 5-HTR2C -759C/T (rs3813929) and -697G/C (rs518147) Gene Polymorphisms and Risperidone-Induced Insulin Resistance Syndrome in an Indian Population.

This study was performed to examine the association of 2 functional polymorphisms of the promoter region of the serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor gene: -759C/T (rs3813929) and -97G/C (rs518147) with risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome in an Indian population. In this case-control study, 52 adult patients of either sex, having no insulin resistance syndrome before initiating treatment, who were previously drug naive and who received risperidone monotherapy for ≥1 year, were recruited in 2 arms. Of them, 26 had risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome, and 26 did not have risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated. The polymorphisms did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > .05). For both rs3813929 and rs518147, the variant (AOR 3.95, 95% CI 0.86-21.9 and AOR 4.12, 95% CI 0.88-23.23, respectively) and the heterozygous (AOR 5.21, 95% CI 0.7-61.38 and AOR 4.26, 95% CI 0.76-31.22, respectively) alleles were associated with risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome. The other factors associated with risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome were male sex, history of risk factors (ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or stroke) in family, risperidone dose, pretreatment mean arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. This is the first study conducted in an Indian population to demonstrate that the 2 functional polymorphisms in the 5-HTR2C gene (rs3813929 and rs518147) are associated with risperidone-induced insulin resistance syndrome.

INPP5K variant causes autosomal recessive congenital cataract in a Pakistani family.

Congenital cataract (CC) is clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. Here, we enrolled a consanguineous kindred (LUCC15) from Pakistan, with three affected individuals suffering with CC. Exome sequencing revealed a transition mutation [c.149T>C; p.(Ile50Thr)] in INPP5K. Inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K, encoded by INPP5K, is involved in dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4,5-bisphosphate, and PtdIns 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Recently, pathogenic variants in INPP5K have been reported in families with congenital muscular dystrophies, intellectual disability, and cataract. In our family LUCC15, mild to moderate intellectual disability along with speech impairment was observed in two affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and muscles tissues did not reveal any cerebellar or muscular atrophy. However, electromyography of both upper and lower limbs revealed irritable myopathy. Comparison of clinical phenotype of all the known affected individuals, including LUCC15 family, homozygous for INPP5K alleles revealed reduced penetrance of muscular dystrophy and intellectual disability. Similarly, skeletal muscle abnormalities were highly variable among inpp5ka zebrafish mutants analyzed in this study. These phenotypic variabilities may be due to epigenetic factors and/or genetic modifiers.

Ectopic, retroperitoneal adrenocortical carcinoma in the setting of Lynch syndrome.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare within the adult population. Ectopic ACC proves even rarer. This variant is formed by cortical fragments arrested during embryologic migration. ACC is also known to be associated with several genetic syndromes and has recently been linked to Lynch syndrome in 3% of cases. We present the case of a 68-year-old male with a confirmed diagnosis of Lynch syndrome secondary to a germline MSH2 mismatch-repair gene-mutation who presented with 2 months history of non-specific abdominal pain. After imaging work-up, the patient was found to have a right upper quadrant, retroperitoneal mass. Biochemical tests were without any evidence of a hormonally active process. Fine needle aspiration of the mass revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown etiology. The lesion was resected and found to be consistent with ectopic ACC with an associated MSH2 mutation.

Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

Influence of bile duct anatomy on biliary complications in hepatic right lobe living donors.

Perioperative morbidity in the living donation of partial livers is mainly due to infections and biliary complications. Bile duct anatomy variants, in particular of the right system, are suspected to be causative. We investigated the influence of bile duct variants on the incidence of biliary donor complications in donations of the right liver lobe. We analyzed 103 donors. Twelve patients had a bile leak that required treatment. All of these were treated endoscopically without any residual defect. We did not see a central extrahepatic bile duct lesion Nagano type C. The anatomic variant Huang A3 is a challenge with respect to the surgical technique. Three of 17 patients with biliary anatomy Huang A3 developed leaks. The bile duct anatomy can be carefully evaluated by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and intraoperative cholangiography. The anatomic variant Huang A3 warrants particular attention for the closure of the bile duct orifice.

Infantile hemangiopericytoma of the nasal cavity.

An infantile sinunasal hemangiopericytoma as a variant of infantile myofibroma is a rare finding. The observation of a sinunasal, infantile hemangiopericytoma affecting the anterior skull base and ethmoid bone in a female infant is presented. Chromosomal gains (6q14q16.2 und 18q22qter) as well as chromosomal losses (5q33.3q35.2, 10p11.2p12.2, 10q24.3q26.1, 15q23q25, 17p12pter and 22q11.2q13.2) were present. Endonasal tumor resection was achieved.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis.

Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis (CSP) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that mainly affects middle-aged Asian individuals. Although Castleman disease is often complicated with various renal involvements, glomerulonephritis associated with CSP, which is considered as a variant of Castleman disease, is rare. This report presents the case of a 41-year-old Japanese man with nephrotic syndrome associated with CSP. Renal biopsy findings showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diffusely mild segmental mesangial proliferation. Plasma cell infiltration in the interstitium was not observed. Electron microscopic findings showed diffuse foot process effacement, localized involvement of subendothelial space widening with amorphous materials, and endothelial cell swelling. Lymph node biopsy findings denied Castleman disease. His skin regions and proteinuria were successfully treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. The causal relationship between CSP and FSGS is unknown. However, increased serum levels of IL-6 and VEGF and decreased VEGF expression in the podocyte may contribute to renal lesions in patients with CSP. To our best knowledge, this is the first case of a patient with FSGS associated with CSP.

Non-motor multiple system atrophy associated with sudden death: pathological observations of autonomic nuclei.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) manifests as a combination of dysautonomia and motor symptoms/signs. However, rare cases presenting with autonomic failures in absence of motor symptoms/signs until their deaths have been reported and are referred to as non-motor MSA. To clarify pathological findings underlying non-motor MSA patients, we analyzed consecutively autopsied 161 patients with MSA. In results, four patients were identified as having non-motor MSA, who showed isolated autonomic disorders throughout their lives and had minimal pathological changes in the motor systems. We also identified two patients with pathologically minimal MSA, who had minimal pathological involvement in the motor systems and presented with definite parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Survival durations of the non-motor MSA patients were much shorter (1.3-2.0 years) than those of the classical MSA patients (3.0-7.0 years), and the causes of death were all sudden death. The medullary serotonergic neurons were severely involved in the non-motor MSA patients in comparison with the classical MSA patients. Also, one of the pathologically minimal MSA patients had died suddenly and exhibited marked involvement of the medullary serotonergic neurons. The involvement of the medullary catecholaminergic or cholinergic neurons did not differ in severities among the groups. We conclude that non-motor MSA may be a pathological variant of MSA that preferentially involves the medullary serotonergic neurons and autonomic systems in association with poor prognosis.

Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression.

Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer patients, and identify a median of one mitochondrial single-nucleotide variant (mtSNV) per patient. Some of these mtSNVs occur in recurrent mutational hotspots and associate with aggressive disease. Younger patients have fewer mtSNVs than those who diagnosed at an older age. We demonstrate strong links between mitochondrial and nuclear mutational profiles, with co-occurrence between specific mutations. For example, certain control region mtSNVs co-occur with gain of the MYC oncogene, and these mutations are jointly associated with patient survival. These data demonstrate frequent mitochondrial mutation in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer.In prostate cancer, the role of mutations in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome are not well known. Here, the authors demonstrate frequent, age-dependent mitochondrial mutation in prostate cancer. Strong links between mitochondrial and nuclear mutational profiles are associated with clinical aggressivity.

Tumor heterogeneity predicts metastatic potential in colorectal cancer.

Tumors continuously evolve to maintain growth; secondary mutations facilitate this process, resulting in high tumor heterogeneity. In this study, we compared mutations in paired primary and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor samples to determine whether tumor heterogeneity can predict tumor metastasis.

Rapid Targeted Genomics in Critically Ill Newborns.

Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in 57%, but patients were highly selected for known and likely Mendelian disorders. The aim of our prospective study was to assess the speed and yield of rapid targeted genomic diagnostics for clinical application.

The E2A splice variant E47 regulates the differentiation of projection neurons via p57(KIP2) during cortical development.

During corticogenesis, distinct classes of neurons are born from progenitor cells located in the ventricular and subventricular zones, from where they migrate towards the pial surface to assemble into highly organized layer-specific circuits. However, the precise and coordinated transcriptional network activity defining neuronal identity is still not understood. Here, we show that genetic depletion of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor E2A splice variant E47 increased the number of Tbr1-positive deep layer and Satb2-positive upper layer neurons at E14.5, while depletion of the alternatively spliced E12 variant did not affect layer-specific neurogenesis. While ChIP-Seq identified a big overlap for E12- and E47-specific binding sites in embryonic NSCs, including sites at the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) Cdkn1c gene locus, RNA-Seq revealed a unique transcriptional regulation by each splice variant. E47 activated the expression of the CDKI Cdkn1c through binding to a distal enhancer. Finally, overexpression of E47 in embryonic NSCs in vitro impaired neurite outgrowth and E47 overexpression in vivo by in utero electroporation disturbed proper layer-specific neurogenesis and upregulated p57(KIP2) expression. Overall, this study identified E2A target genes in embryonic NSCs and demonstrates that E47 regulates neuronal differentiation via p57(KIP2).

Dietary fat modulation of hepatic lipase variant -514 C/T for lipids: a crossover randomized dietary intervention in Caribbean Hispanics.

Background and Aims-The hepatic lipase (LIPC) locus is a well-established determinant of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, an association that is modified by dietary fat in observational studies. Dietary interventions are lacking.

Targeting Phosphatidylserine with Calcium-dependent Protein-Drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Cancer.

In response to cellular stress, phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the outer membrane leaflet of tumor blood vessels and cancer cells, motivating the development of PS-specific therapies. The generation of drug-conjugated PS-targeting agents represents an unexplored therapeutic approach, for which anti-tumor effects are critically dependent on efficient internalization and lysosomal delivery of the cytotoxic drug. In the current study, we have generated PS-targeting agents by fusing PS-binding domains to a human IgG1-derived Fc fragment. The tumor localization and pharmacokinetics of several PS-specific Fc fusions have been analyzed in mice and demonstrate that Fc-Syt1, a fusion containing the synaptotagmin 1 C2A domain, effectively targets tumor tissue. Conjugation of Fc-Syt1 to the cytotoxic drug, monomethyl auristatin E, results in a protein-drug conjugate (PDC) that is internalized into target cells and, due to the Ca²⁺-dependence of PS binding, dissociates from PS in early endosomes. The released PDC is efficiently delivered to lysosomes and has potent anti-tumor effects in mouse xenograft tumor models. Interestingly, whilst an engineered, tetravalent Fc-Syt1 fusion shows increased binding to target cells, this higher avidity variant demonstrates reduced persistence and therapeutic effects compared with bivalent Fc-Syt1. Collectively, these studies show that finely tuned, Ca²⁺-switched PS-targeting agents can be therapeutically efficacious.

Heroin-induced suppression of saccharin intake in OPRM1 A118G mice.

The single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, has been associated with greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present studies, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in a model of heroin-induced devaluation of an otherwise palatable saccharin cue when repeated saccharin-heroin pairings occurred every 24h (Experiment 1) or every 48h (Experiment 2). The results showed that, while both the 118AA and 118GG mice demonstrated robust avoidance of the heroin-paired saccharin cue following daily taste-drug pairings, only the 118AA mice suppressed intake of the heroin-paired saccharin cue when 48h elapsed between each taste-drug pairing. Humanized 118GG mice, then, defend their intake of the sweet cue despite saccharin-heroin pairings and this effect is illuminated by the use of spaced, rather than massed, trials. Given that this pattern of strain difference is not evident with saccharin-cocaine pairings (Freet et al., 2015), reduced avoidance of the heroin-paired saccharin cue by the 118GG mice may be due to an interaction between the opiate and the subjects' drive for the sweet or, alternatively, to differential downstream sensitivity to the aversive kappa mediated properties of the drug. These alternative hypotheses are addressed.

The GNAS(R201C) mutation associated with clonal hematopoiesis supports transplantable hematopoietic stem cell activity.

Genome sequencing efforts have identified virtually all of the important mutations in adult myeloid malignancies. More recently, population studies have identified cancer-associated variants in the blood of otherwise healthy individuals as they age, a phenomenon termed clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). This suggests these mutations may occur in HSCs long before any clinical presentation, but are not necessarily harbingers of transformation as only a fraction of individuals with CHIP develop hematopoietic pathologies. Delineation between CHIP variants that predispose for disease versus those which are more benign could be used as a prognostic factor to identify individuals more at-risk for transformation. To achieve this, the biological impact of CHIP variants on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function must be validated. One variant that has been recurrently identified in CHIP is a gain-of-function missense mutation in the imprinted gene GNAS. In this study, we examined the effect of the GNAS(R201C) variant on HSC function. Ecoptic expression of GNAS(R201C) supported transplantable HSC activity, and improved lymphoid output in secondary recipients. As declining lymphoid output is a hallmark of aging, GNAS(R201C) mutations may sustain lymphoid-biased HSCs over time and maintain them in a developmental state favorable for transformation.

A targeted next-generation sequencing panel reveals novel mutations in Japanese patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder caused by functional impairment of cilia throughout the body. The early diagnosis of PCD is important for the prevention of long-term sequelae; however, this is often challenging because of the phenotypic heterogeneity of PCD and difficulty in genetic analysis. The majority of PCD patients in Japan are not diagnosed properly. To diagnose PCD more accurately, we developed a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel.

Marked variation in prevalence of malaria-protective human genetic polymorphisms across Uganda.

A number of human genetic polymorphisms are prevalent in tropical populations and appear to offer protection against symptomatic and/or severe malaria. We compared the prevalence of four polymorphisms, the sickle hemoglobin mutation (β globin E6V), the α-thalassemia 3.7kb deletion, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency caused by the common African variant (G6PD A-), and the CD36 T188G mutation in 1344 individuals residing in districts in eastern (Tororo), south-central (Jinja), and southwestern (Kanungu) Uganda. Genes of interest were amplified, amplicons subjected to mutation-specific restriction endonuclease digestion (for sickle hemoglobin, G6PD A-, and CD36 T188G), reaction products resolved by electrophoresis, and genotypes determined based on the sizes of reaction products. Mutant genotypes were common, with many more heterozygous than homozygous alleles identified. The prevalences (heterozygotes plus homozygotes) of sickle hemoglobin (28% Tororo, 25% Jinja, 7% Kanungu), α-thalassemia (53% Tororo, 45% Jinja, 18% Kanungu) and G6PD A- (29% Tororo, 18% Jinja, 8% Kanungu) were significantly greater in Tororo and Jinja compared to Kanungu (p<0.0001 for all three alleles); prevalences were also significantly greater in Tororo compared to Jinja for α-thalassemia (p=0.03) and G6PD A- (p<0.0001). For the CD36 T188G mutation, the prevalence was significantly greater in Tororo compared to Jinja or Kanungu (27% Tororo, 17% Jinja, 18% Kanungu; p=0.0004 and 0.0017, respectively). Considering ethnicity of study subjects, based on primary language spoken, the prevalence of mutant genotypes was lower in Bantu compared to non-Bantu language speakers, but in the Jinja cohort, the only study population with a marked diversity of language groups, prevalence did not differ between Bantu and non-Bantu speakers. These results indicate marked differences in human genetic features between populations in different regions of Uganda. These differences might be explained by both ethnic variation and by varied malaria risk in different regions of Uganda.

Role of CDKN2A/p16 expression in the prognostication of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

CDKN2A/p16 is a known tumor suppressor gene with a homologous deletion in Oral Squamous cell carcinoma. CDKN2A/p16 is found to be inactivated in a broad spectrum of solid tumors and in more than 80% of OSCC. Molecular alteration of CDKN2A/p16 in progression of OSCC can pose an important tool for the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral vaccination of wildlife using a vaccinia-rabies-glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (RABORAL V-RG(®)): a global review.

RABORAL V-RG(®) is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions. Safety of V-RG has been evaluated in over 50 vertebrate species, including non-human primates, with no adverse effects observed regardless of route or dose. Immunogenicity and efficacy have been demonstrated under laboratory and field conditions in multiple target species (including fox, raccoon, coyote, skunk, raccoon dog, and jackal). The liquid vaccine is packaged inside edible baits (i.e., RABORAL V-RG, the vaccine-bait product) which are distributed into wildlife habitats for consumption by target species. Field application of RABORAL V-RG has contributed to the elimination of wildlife rabies from three European countries (Belgium, France and Luxembourg) and of the dog/coyote rabies virus variant from the United States of America (USA). An oral rabies vaccination program in west-central Texas has essentially eliminated the gray fox rabies virus variant from Texas with the last case reported in a cow during 2009. A long-term ORV barrier program in the USA using RABORAL V-RG is preventing substantial geographic expansion of the raccoon rabies virus variant. RABORAL V-RG has also been used to control wildlife rabies in Israel for more than a decade. This paper: (1) reviews the development and historical use of RABORAL V-RG; (2) highlights wildlife rabies control programs using the vaccine in multiple species and countries; and (3) discusses current and future challenges faced by programs seeking to control or eliminate wildlife rabies.