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Variant - Top 30 Publications

Extensive Homeostatic T Cell Phenotypic Variation within the Collaborative Cross.

The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of reproducible recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, affording an unprecedented opportunity to perform experiments in a small animal model containing controlled genetic diversity while allowing for genetic replicates. Here, we advance the utility of this unique mouse resource for immunology research because it allows for both examination and genetic dissection of mechanisms behind adaptive immune states in mice with distinct and defined genetic makeups. This approach is based on quantitative trait locus mapping: identifying genetically variant genome regions associated with phenotypic variance in traits of interest. Furthermore, the CC can be utilized for mouse model development; distinct strains have unique immunophenotypes and immune properties, making them suitable for research on particular diseases and infections. Here, we describe variations in cellular immune phenotypes across F1 crosses of CC strains and reveal quantitative trait loci responsible for several immune phenotypes.

Kdm2b Regulates Somatic Reprogramming through Variant PRC1 Complex-Dependent Function.

Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) plays essential roles in cell-fate determination. Recent studies have found that the composition of mammalian PRC1 is particularly varied and complex; however, little is known about the functional consequences of these variant PRC1 complexes on cell-fate determination. Here, we show that Kdm2b promotes Oct4-induced somatic reprogramming through recruitment of a variant PRC1 complex (PRC1.1) to CpG islands (CGIs). Furthermore, we find that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) represses Oct4/Kdm2b-induced somatic reprogramming selectively. Mechanistically, BMP-SMAD pathway attenuates PRC1.1 occupation and H2AK119 ubiquitination at genes linked to development, resulting in the expression of mesendodermal factors such as Sox17 and a consequent suppression of somatic reprogramming. These observations reveal that PRC1.1 participates in the establishment of pluripotency and identify BMP4 signaling as a modulator of PRC1.1 function.

Dyshidrosiform pemphigoid localized on the hands in a child: a rare occurrence.

Dyshidrosiform pemphigoid is an acquired autoimmune variant of bullous pemphigoid with persistent vesicobullous eruptions localized on the palms or soles, or both. It generally occurs in the elderly and is rarely reported in childhood. Hereby, we describe the first case of dyshidrosiform pemphigoid in a 12-year-old child, which was limited to the dorsal hands and treated successfully with dapsone (diaminodiphenyl sulfone). Along with this report, we also review the clinical features of various types of dyshidrosiform pemphigoid.

Paediatric Salzmann's nodular degeneration in Dandy-Walker syndrome variant.

An 8 year old male with X chromosome- linked Dandy-Walker syndrome variant presented to his local optometrist complaining of a left corneal opacity, which had only been noticed for 2 weeks prior.

Physician interpretation of genomic test results and treatment selection.

Genomic testing is increasingly performed in oncology, but concerns remain regarding the clinician's ability to interpret results. In the current study, the authors sought to determine the agreement between physicians and genomic annotators from the Precision Oncology Decision Support (PODS) team at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston regarding actionability and the clinical use of test results.

Blood lipid genetic scores, the HMGCR gene and cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization study.

It is unclear whether there are causal associations between blood lipids, statin use and cancer risks. Under certain assumptions, Mendelian randomization analysis of a genetic marker for an exposure eliminates reverse causation and confounding.

ClinVar: improving access to variant interpretations and supporting evidence.

ClinVar ( is a freely available, public archive of human genetic variants and interpretations of their significance to disease, maintained at the National Institutes of Health. Interpretations of the clinical significance of variants are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, expert panels and other groups. ClinVar aggregates data by variant-disease pairs, and by variant (or set of variants). Data aggregated by variant are accessible on the website, in an improved set of variant call format files and as a new comprehensive XML report. ClinVar recently started accepting submissions that are focused primarily on providing phenotypic information for individuals who have had genetic testing. Submissions may come from clinical providers providing their own interpretation of the variant ('provider interpretation') or from groups such as patient registries that primarily provide phenotypic information from patients ('phenotyping only'). ClinVar continues to make improvements to its search and retrieval functions. Several new fields are now indexed for more precise searching, and filters allow the user to narrow down a large set of search results.

Genetic variation at IFNL4 influences extrahepatic interferon stimulated gene expression in chronic HCV patients.

Polymorphisms at IFNL4 strongly influence spontaneous resolution and interferon therapeutic response in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In chronic HCV, unfavorable alleles are associated with elevated interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression in the liver, but extrahepatic effects are less well characterized. We used RNA-Seq to examine whether IFNL4 genetic variation (rs368234815) modulates ISG expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during chronic HCV. ISG expression was elevated in unstimulated PBMC homozygous for the unfavorable ΔG IFNL4 variant; expression following IFNα stimulation was comparable across genotypes. These findings suggest that lambda interferons may have broader systemic effects during HCV infection.

Genetic analysis of RNF213 p.R4810K variant in non-moyamoya intracranial artery stenosis/occlusion disease in a Chinese population.

RNF213 p.R4810K was identified as a susceptibility variant for moyamoya disease in Asia and non-moyamoya intracranial artery stenosis/occlusion disease in Japan and Korea recently. The occurrence of this variant was evaluated in patients with non-moyamoya intracranial artery stenosis/occlusion disease in China.

Collagen Type I A2 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to intracranial aneurysms: a meta-analysis of genetic association studies.

The development, evolution and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is in part related to genetic factors. The role Collagen type I a2 genetic polymorphisms has not been clarified yet.

Speckled acral hypopigmentation in an adolescent.

We report a case of speckled acral hypopigmentation in a 12-year-old girl. She presented with asymptomatic hypopigmented macules on the hands and feet. This rare entity is a proposed variant of reticulate acropigmentation and of unknown etiology.

Microcystic Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor.

Microcystic variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is rare. We herein describe an additional well-documented case of microcystic CEOT. The affected patient is a Guatemalan 42-year-old female with an expansile well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion located in the right posterior mandible. The lesion was associated to an unerupted third molar. Histopathologic examination revealed nests and cords of moderately pleomorphic, eosinophilic polyhedral epithelial cells surrounded by a fibromyxoid stroma. The neoplastic cells showed microcystic pattern made of pseudo-glandular spaces with variable diameter. Occasional amyloid deposits and calcified acellular material were observed. Tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, p63, CD138, and beta-catenin. Conservative surgical resection was performed with an uneventful immediate post-surgical follow-up. After 1 year follow-up there is no evidence of recurrence. Pathologists should be aware of this unusual microcystic presentation of CEOT, which may pose a diagnostic challenge and potential diagnostic dilemma.

High prevalence of dengue antibodies and the arginine variant of the FcγRIIa polymorphism in asymptomatic individuals in a population of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil.

Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans worldwide. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the immune response, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), IgG Fc receptor II-A (FcγRIIa), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were previously reported to be associated with susceptibility to dengue disease in different human populations. Therefore, due to the relevant association of host immune and genetic status with disease susceptibility/severity of dengue, this work aims to verify the frequency of anti-dengue virus antibodies and some dengue-associated risk SNPs in a population in Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. A total of 1560 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in DC-SIGN (rs4804803), FcγRIIa (rs1801274), VDR (rs7975232), and TNF-α (rs1800629). The presence of anti-dengue antibodies (IgM and/or IgG) in these samples was also assayed. Anti-dengue antibodies were detected at an overall frequency of 16.86%, indicating a virus infection in asymptomatic individuals. The genotypic frequencies of all SNPs studied did not differ between the asymptomatic and control groups. Regarding the allelic frequencies of the four SNPs analyzed, a higher frequency was detected of the G allele of FcγRIIa/rs1801274 in the asymptomatic individuals when compared to that in the control group (p = 0.03). Therefore, the results showed a high prevalence of asymptomatic individuals in Minas Gerais State, with a potential association between the presence of the G allele of FcγRIIa/rs1801274 and protection against symptomatic disease.

Synergistic Protective Activity of Tumor-Specific Epitopes Engineered in Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles.

Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally produced by all Gram-negative bacteria and, thanks to their plasticity and unique adjuvanticity, are emerging as an attractive vaccine platform. To test the applicability of OMVs in cancer immunotherapy, we decorated them with either one or two protective epitopes present in the B16F10EGFRvIII cell line and tested the protective activity of OMV immunization in C57BL/6 mice challenged with B16F10EGFRvIII.

Phylogenic analysis of serotype Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from Sulaimani/Iraq using VP1 protein: heterogeneity with vaccine strain As1/Shamir/89.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A and Asia1 are responsible for a significant number of disease outbreaks in Iraq. The current study can be considered as the first molecular characterization of serotype Asia1 in Iraq. The present investigation reports the detection of serotype FMDV Asia1 from local farms in Sulaimani districts in 2012 and 2014 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP1 gene has shown that FMDV Asia1 field isolates were under genetic novel variant Sindh-08 (group VII) including PAK/iso/11 and TUR/13 strains. The VP1 protein sequence of circulatory FMDV Asia1 genotype showed heterogeneity of nine amino acid substitutions within the G-H loop with the vaccine strain As1/Shamir/89 (JF739177) that is currently used in vaccination program in Iraq. Our result indicated that differences in VP1 protein at G-H loop of the locally circulated FMDV serotype Asia1 strain may be a reason for current vaccination failure.

Departure from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Genotyping Error.

Objective: Departure from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) may occur due to a variety of causes, including purifying selection, inbreeding, population substructure, copy number variation or genotyping error. We searched for specific characteristics of HWE-departure due to genotyping error. Methods: Genotypes of a random set of genetic variants were obtained from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. Variants with <80% successful genotypes or with minor allele frequency (MAF) <1% were excluded. HWE-departure (d-HWE) was considered significant at p < 10E-05 and classified as d-HWE with loss of heterozygosity (LoH d-HWE) or d-HWE with excess heterozygosity (gain of heterozygosity: GoH d-HWE). Missing genotypes, variant type (single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) vs. insertion/deletion); MAF, standard deviation (SD) of MAF across populations (MAF-SD) and copy number variation were evaluated for association with HWE-departure. Results: The study sample comprised 3,204 genotype distributions. HWE-departure was observed in 134 variants: LoH d-HWE in 41 (1.3%), GoH d-HWE in 93 (2.9%) variants. LoH d-HWE was more likely in variants located within deletion polymorphisms (p < 0.001) and in variants with higher MAF-SD (p = 0.0077). GoH d-HWE was associated with low genotyping rate, with variants of insertion/deletion type and with high MAF (all at p < 0.001). In a sub-sample of 2,196 variants with genotyping rate >98%, LoH d-HWE was found in 29 (1.3%) variants, but no GoH d-HWE was detected. The findings of the non-random distribution of HWE-violating SNPs along the chromosome, the association with common deletion polymorphisms and indel-variant type, and the finding of excess heterozygotes in genomic regions that are prone to cross-hybridization were confirmed in a large sample of short variants from the 1,000 Genomes Project. Conclusions: We differentiated between two types of HWE-departure. GoH d-HWE was suggestive for genotyping error. LoH d-HWE, on the contrary, pointed to natural variabilities such as population substructure or common deletion polymorphisms.

Clinical, Genetic, and Protein Structural Aspects of Familial Dysalbuminemic Hyperthyroxinemia and Hypertriiodothyroninemia.

Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH-T4) and hypertriiodothyroninemia (FDH-T3) are dominantly inherited syndromes characterized by a high concentration of thyroid hormone in the blood stream. The syndromes do not cause disease, because the concentration of free hormone is normal, but affected individuals are at risk of erroneous treatment. FDH-T4 is the most common cause of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian populations in which its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 individuals, but the prevalence can be much higher in some ethnic groups. The condition is caused by a genetic variant of human serum albumin (HSA); Arg218 is mutated to histidine, proline, or serine or Arg222 is changed to isoleucine. The disorder is characterized by greater elevation in serum l-thyroxine (T4) than in serum triiodothyronine (T3); T4 can be increased by a factor 8-15. The high serum concentration of T4 is due to modification of a binding site located in the N-terminal half of HSA (in subdomain IIA). Thus, mutating Arg218 or Arg222 for a smaller amino acid reduces the steric restrictions in the site and creates a high-affinity binding site. The mutations can also affect binding of other ligands and can perhaps cause modified pharmacokinetics of albumin-binding drugs. In normal HSA, the high-affinity site has another location (in subdomain IIIB). Different locations of these sites imply that persons with and without FDH-T4 can have different types of interactions, and thereby complications, when given albumin-binding drugs. FDH-T3 is caused by a leucine to proline mutation in position 66 of HSA, which results in a large increment of the binding affinity for T3 but not for T4. For avoiding unwanted treatment of euthyroid persons with hyperthyroxinemia or hypertriiodothyroninemia, protein sequencing and/or sequencing of the albumin gene should be performed.

Functional Studies of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Site Located Downstream of the Transcriptional Start Site.

Previous studies have identified a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) site located downstream of the transcriptional start site (DS3). The role of the DS3 element with respect to HIV-1 transactivation by Tat and viral replication has not been characterized. We have demonstrated that DS3 was a functional C/EBPβ binding site and mutation of this site to the C/EBP knockout DS3-9C variant showed lower HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivation by C/EBPβ. However, it was able to exhibit similar or even higher transcription levels by Tat compared to the parental LTR. C/EBPβ and Tat together further enhanced the transcription level of the parental LAI-LTR and DS3-9C LTR, with higher levels in the DS3-9C LTR. HIV molecular clone viruses carrying the DS3-9C variant LTR demonstrated a decreased replication capacity and delayed rate of replication. These results suggest that DS3 plays a role in virus transcriptional initiation and provides new insight into C/EBP regulation of HIV-1.

Association between Recipient IL-15 Genetic Variant and the Prognosis of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation.

To investigate the association of donor and recipient IL-15 genetic variants with HCC recurrence and prognosis after LT.

Deep characterization of a common D4Z4 variant identifies biallelic DUX4 expression as a modifier for disease penetrance in FSHD2.

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is caused by incomplete repression of the transcription factor DUX4 in skeletal muscle as a consequence of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contraction in chromosome 4q35 (FSHD1) or variants in genes encoding D4Z4 chromatin repressors (FSHD2). A clinical hallmark of FSHD is variability in onset and progression suggesting the presence of disease modifiers. A well-known cis modifier is the polymorphic DUX4 polyadenylation signal (PAS) that defines FSHD permissive alleles: D4Z4 chromatin relaxation on non-permissive alleles which lack the DUX4-PAS cannot cause disease in the absence of stable DUX4 mRNA. We have explored the nature and relevance of a common variant of the major FSHD haplotype 4A161, which is defined by 1.6 kb size difference of the most distal D4Z4 repeat unit. While the short variant (4A161S) has been extensively studied, we demonstrate that the long variant (4A161L) is relatively common in the European population, is capable of expressing DUX4, but that DUX4 mRNA processing differs from 4A161S. While we do not find evidence for a difference in disease severity between FSHD carriers of an 4A161S or 4A161L allele, our study does uncover biallelic DUX4 expression in FSHD2 patients. Compared to control individuals, we observed an increased frequency of FSHD2 patients homozygous for disease permissive alleles, and who are thus capable of biallelic DUX4 expression, while SMCHD1 variant carriers with only one permissive allele were significantly more often asymptomatic. This suggests that biallelic DUX4 expression lowers the threshold for disease presentation and is a modifier for disease severity in FSHD2.

FSCN1 gene polymorphisms: biomarkers for the development and progression of breast cancer.

Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Fascin-1 (FSCN1) is an actin-binding protein found in mammalian cells, including endothelial, neuronal and mesenchymal cells. FSCN1 overexpression has been indicated in breast cancer patients. However, scant information is available regarding the association between FSCN1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk or prognosis of breast cancer. We report on the association between 6 SNPs of the FSCN1 gene (rs56156320, rs8772, rs3801004, rs2966447, rs852479 and rs1640233) and breast cancer susceptibility as well as clinical outcomes in 316 patients with breast cancer and in 222 healthy controls. Carriers of the AC or AC + CC allele of the variant rs56156320 were at greater risk of breast cancer compared with wild-type (AA) carriers. Moreover, carriers of at least one G allele in rs3801004 were likely to progress to stage III/IV disease and lymph node metastasis. Individuals with at least one T allele at FSCN1 SNP rs2966447 were at higher risk of developing pathologic grade G3 disease. Furthermore, individuals bearing the C/C haplotype at SNPs rs56156320 and rs3801004 had nearly twice the risk of breast cancer. Our results indicate that genetic variations in the FSCN1 gene may serve as an important predictor of early-stage breast cancer.

Whole Exome Sequencing reveals new candidate genes in host genomic susceptibility to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of serious lower respiratory tract disease in infants. Several studies have shown evidence pointing to the genome of the host as an important factor determining susceptibility to respiratory disease caused by RSV. We sequenced the complete exomes of 54 patients infected by RSV that needed hospitalization due to development of severe bronchiolitis. The Iberian sample (IBS) from The 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) was used as control group; all the association results were pseudo-replicated using other 1000G-European controls and Spanish controls. The study points to SNP rs199665292 in the olfactory receptor (OR) gene OR13C5 as the best candidate variant (P-value = 1.16 × 10(-12); OR = 5.56). Genetic variants at HLA genes (HLA-DQA1, HLA-DPB1), and in the mucin 4 gene (MUC4) also emerge as susceptibility candidates. By collapsing rare variants in genes and weighing by pathogenicity, we obtained confirmatory signals of association in the OR gene OR8U1/OR8U8, the taste receptor TAS2R19, and another mucin gene (MUC6). Overall, we identified new predisposition variants and genes related to RSV infection. Of special interest is the association of RSV to olfactory and taste receptors; this finding is in line with recent evidence pointing to their role in viral infectious diseases.

De novo variants in EBF3 are associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism.

Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified seven unrelated individuals with global developmental delay, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and an increased frequency of short stature, ataxia, and autism with de novo heterozygous frameshift, nonsense, splice, and missense variants in the Early B-cell Transcription Factor Family Member 3 (EBF3) gene. EBF3 is a member of the collier/olfactory-1/early B-cell factor (COE) family of proteins, which are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. COE proteins are highly evolutionarily conserved and regulate neuronal specification, migration, axon guidance, and dendritogenesis during development and are essential for maintaining neuronal identity in adult neurons. Haploinsufficiency of EBF3 may affect brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral differences observed in individuals with a deleterious variant in EBF3.

Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals novel Plasmodium falciparum surface antigens and possible vaccine candidates.

Despite recent efforts towards control and elimination, malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum resistance against artemisinin, used in front line combination drugs, is on the rise, and the only approved vaccine shows limited efficacy. Combinations of novel and tailored drug and vaccine interventions are required to maintain the momentum of the current malaria elimination program. Current evidence suggests that strain-transcendent protection against malaria infection can be achieved using whole organism vaccination or with a polyvalent vaccine covering multiple antigens or epitopes. These approaches have been successfully applied to the human-infective sporozoite stage. Both systemic and tissue-specific pathology during infection with the human malaria parasite P. falciparum is caused by asexual blood stages. Tissue tropism and vascular sequestration are the result of specific binding interactions between antigens on the parasite-infected red blood cell (pRBC) surface and endothelial receptors. The major surface antigen and parasite ligand binding to endothelial receptors, PfEMP1 is encoded by about 60 variants per genome and shows high sequence diversity across strains. Apart from PfEMP1 and three additional variant surface antigen families RIFIN, STEVOR and SURFIN, systematic analysis of the infected red blood cell surface is lacking. Here we present the most comprehensive proteomic investigation of the parasitized red blood cell surface so far. Apart from the known variant surface antigens, we identified a set of putative single copy surface antigens with low sequence diversity, several of which are validated in a series of complementary experiments. Further functional and immunological investigation is underway to test these novel P. falciparum blood stage proteins as possible vaccine candidates.

Identification of Isthmin 1 as a Novel Clefting and Craniofacial Patterning Gene in Humans.

Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. Utilizing this technique on 97 non-syndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of Isthmin 1 in one affected case, as well as a deletion in a second case which removes putative 3' regulatory information. Isthmin 1 is a strong candidate for clefting as it is expressed in orofacial structures derived from the first branchial arch and is also in the same synexpression group as fibroblast growth factor 8 and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1a and 2, all of which have been associated with clefting.  Copy number variants affecting Isthmin 1 are exceedingly rare in control populations, and Isthmin 1 scores as a likely haploinsufficiency locus.  Confirming its role in craniofacial development, knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutation of isthmin 1 in Xenopus laevis resulted in mild to severe craniofacial dysmorphologies, with several individuals presenting with median clefts. Moreover, knockdown of isthmin 1 produced decreased expression of LIM homeobox 8, itself a gene associated with clefting, in regions of the face that pattern the maxilla.  Our study demonstrates a successful pipeline from copy number variant identification of a candidate gene to functional validation in a vertebrate model system and reveals Isthmin 1 as both a new human clefting locus as well as a key craniofacial patterning gene.

Whole-exome sequencing in a Japanese family with highly aggregated diabetes identifies a candidate susceptibility mutation in ADAMTSL3.

The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic background of a family with multiple cases of diabetes accompanied by absolute insulin deficiency using whole-exome sequencing (WES).

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of nonurothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder: Results from the National Cancer Data Base.

To determine the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with nonurothelial cell bladder cancer (NUBC) in the United States.

Targeted next-generation sequencing identified ADAMTS5 as novel genetic substrate in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart disease, affecting >1% of the general population. Up to date, three genes, NOTCH1, GATA5 and SMAD6, have been linked to the isolated form of BAV. However, potential genetic determinants remain largely unknown in most BAV patients.

The Sorghum bicolor reference genome: improved assembly, gene annotations, a transcriptome atlas, and signatures of genome organization.

Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (~800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. In this study, deep sequencing, genetic linkage analysis, and transcriptome data were used to produce and annotate a high-quality reference genome sequence. Reference genome sequence order was improved, 29.6 Mbp of additional sequence was incorporated, the number of genes annotated increased 24% to 34,211, average gene length and N50 increased, and error frequency was reduced 10-fold to 1 per 100 kbp. Sub-telomeric repeats with characteristics of Tandem Repeats In Miniature (TRIM) elements were identified at the termini of most chromosomes. Nucleosome occupancy predictions identified nucleosomes positioned immediately downstream of transcription start sites and at different densities across chromosomes. Alignment of more than 50 resequenced genomes from diverse sorghum genotypes to the reference genome identified ~7.4M SNPs and 1.9M indels. Large scale variant features in euchromatin were identified with periodicities of ~25 kbp. An RNA transcriptome atlas of gene expression was constructed from 47 RNA-seq profiles of growing and developed tissues of the major plant organs (roots, leaves, stems, panicles, and seed) collected during the juvenile, vegetative and reproductive phases. Analysis of the transcriptome data indicated that tissue type and protein kinase expression had large influences on transcriptional profile clustering. The updated assembly, annotation, and transcriptome data represent a resource for C4 grass research and crop improvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Intergenotype Recombination among New Norovirus GII.4 Variants in the Complete Genome.

GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants, Kawasaki194 and CA3477, were intergenotype recombination NoV strains with a GII.4 capsid and a GII.P16 polymerase gene. It has been reported for the first time that GII.4 new variant recombinants come from intergenotype recombination of GII.P16 and GII.4 strains in the complete genome.