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basaloid follicular hamartoma - Top 30 Publications

PTCH1 Germline Mutations and the Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Values in the Tumor Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS).

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), odontogenic tumors and various skeletal anomalies. Basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFHs) constitute rare neoplasms that can be detected in sporadic and familial settings as in the Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Syndrome (BFHS). Although BFHS shares clinical, histopathological and genetic overlapping with the NBCCS, they are still considered two distinctive entities. The aim of our single-institution study was the analysis of a cohort of PTCH1-mutated patients in order to define clinical and biomolecular relationship between NBCCS and BFHs.

Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

- Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment.

Unilateral linear basaloid follicular hamartoma: Its diagnosis and successful treatment with surgical excision and adjuvant dermabrasion.

Linear Unilateral Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Following Blaschko's Lines: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare follicular malformation characterized by variable clinical presentations and identical histopathologic features. We present the cases of a 3-month-old boy and an 8-year-old boy with linear unilateral BFH. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of linear unilateral BFH have been described in the English-language literature.

Localized Grouped Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma on the Chest of an Adult.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma: clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological characteristics of case.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare benign adnexal tumor with variable clinical presentation. We report a case of a 64-year-old man, who presented with an incidental finding of a 3mm hyperpigmented macule on his cheek. Dermoscopy revealed a structureless blue lesion. Histopathology examination showed interconnecting lobules and cords of bland pigmented epithelial cells within the dermal stroma, with the presence of pseudohorncysts. The lesional cells were faintly positive for Bcl2on immunohistochemical staining. These findings were consistent with basaloid follicular hamartoma. Histological differential diagnoses include benign lesions such as trichoepithelioma, and malignant lesions such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

A case of Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma.

We here describe a case of solitary basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) : the case developing in company with senile lentigo on the nose. BFH is a relatively rare benign follicular neoplasm of undetermined etiology. Histologically, the specimen consisted of small-sized squamoid or basaloid cells and follicular germ-like cells in the periphery of the tumor nests. There were no infundibular cysts. BFH should be differentiated from infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which consists of squamoid or basaloid cells in company with infundibular cysts, tumor of follicular infundibulum or trichoepithelioma. We analyzed the immunohistochemical findings of the case in comparison with those of BCC and trichoepithelioma. An immunohistochemical examination revealed 1) that Bcl-2 and CD10 was preferentially expressed in the outermost cells in the tumor nests consisting of follicular germ-like cells, 2) that most of the tumor cells, especially germ-like cells, were strongly positive for Ber-EP4, and 3) that peritumoral stroma was positive for CD34. The immunohistochemical findings of our cases supported that BFH should be differentiated from BCC, a common malignant neoplasm.

Image Gallery: Linear unilateral basaloid follicular hamartoma: a unique presentation.

Classification of cysts with follicular germinative differentiation.

Cysts are very common in the routine of dermatopathology but follicular germinative (trichoblastic) differentiation in cysts is seen rarely. The presence of follicular germinative differentiation in a cyst alerts to consider the possibility of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arising in a cyst.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma on the upper eyelid.

Segmentally arranged hyperpigmented basaloid follicular hamartoma.

Cytokeratin 20 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma and infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma.

Tumors with similar or identical histopathologic features have been termed basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) or infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC typically lacks immunoreactivity with cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 protein (PHLDA1).

Happle-Tinschert syndrome: report of a case with hemimegalencephaly.

Happle-Tinschert syndrome is a disorder causing unilateral segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas of the skin associated with ipsilateral osseous, dental and cerebral abnormalities including tumors. Although a case with hemimegalencephaly was previously described, this is the first report of Happle-Tinschert syndrome with discrepant short left leg, ipsilateral skin lesions, hemimegalencephaly and frontal polymicrogyria.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare, generally benign lesion of importance because of its clinical and histopathological similarity to infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. Autosomal dominant generalized BFH syndrome is 1 of the 5 clinical forms of BFH that has been described in the literature. We report a case of BFH syndrome in a 47-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an increasing number of small 1- to 2-mm tan to brown smooth facial papules, few palmar pits, and cobblestoning of the tongue. Her mother had similar lesions on her face. A biopsy of one of the patient's facial lesions confirmed the diagnosis of BFH. Of note, this patient later presented with rapid growth of one of her facial lesions, and a subsequent biopsy confirmed the development of a basal cell carcinoma arising within one of her BFH lesions. Although BFH is classically stable for years and does not require immediate surgical removal, our case highlights the importance of continual monitoring of these patients, given the potential for malignant transformation of these lesions.

Unilateral segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas with osteoma cutis and hypodontia: a case of Happle-Tinschert syndrome.

Happle-Tinschert syndrome (HTS) is a rare syndrome characterized by segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH) associated with ipsilateral osseous, dental and cerebral abnormalities. Happle and Tinschert first reported this disorder in 2008, and three cases with similar presentations have since been reported. We report another case, that of a 40-year-old man, presenting with the characteristic clinical features of HTS.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma of the eyelid.

An 86-year-old woman slowly developed a solitary 0.3 3 0.2-cm papule on the left lower eyelid. Complete excision disclosed a honeycombed lesion composed of interlacing basaloid strands unattached to the epidermis but rather extending into the dermis from a dilated hair follicle. The diagnosis was a solitary basaloid follicular hamartoma that can also occur in multiple, generalized, and inherited forms, sometimes with an associated systemic disease. The lesion exhibited a distinctive CD34-positive, mildly cellular myxoid stroma with many CK20-positive Merkel cells scattered within the basaloid cellular strands, which exhibited BCL-2 positivity only within the outermost cells bordering the stroma. These immunohistochemical features are the opposite of those displayed by basal cell carcinomas, which require more aggressive surgical management. Besides basal cell carcinomas, the differential diagnosis of basaloid follicular hamartoma includes fibrofolliculoma, tumor of the follicular infundibulum, poroma, and trabecular (Merkel cell) carcinoma.

Multiple basal cell carcinomas in a 38-year-old woman with Goltz syndrome.

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by hypoplasia of ectodermally and mesodermally derived tissues. No cases of development of basal cell carcinomas in patients affected by FDH have previously been reported.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report and review of the literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare, benign, skin adnexal tumor. Several clinical patterns have been reported, but they all share the same histopathological features. BFH may be hereditary or nonhereditary and can be accompanied by systemic diseases. Microscopic examination of BFH shows branching cords and anastomosing strands of basaloid cells in a loose, fibrous stroma. The most important pathological differential diagnosis is infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. These two lesions must be differentiated carefully based on clinical presentation and histopathological picture, and even molecular studies may be needed. We present a report of a 78-year-old woman with a solitary, asymptomatic, slow-growing skin tumor on her left scalp. No associated systemic disorders were found. On the basis of an excisional biopsy performed on the tumor, a pathological diagnosis of sporadic BFH was made.

A novel phenotype with features of basal cell nevus syndrome and basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

Basal cell carcinomas in mice arise from hair follicle stem cells and multiple epithelial progenitor populations.

Uncontrolled Hedgehog (Hh) signaling leads to the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common human cancer, but the cell of origin for BCC is unclear. While Hh pathway dysregulation is common to essentially all BCCs, there exist multiple histological subtypes, including superficial and nodular variants, raising the possibility that morphologically distinct BCCs may arise from different cellular compartments in skin. Here we have shown that induction of a major mediator of Hh signaling, GLI2 activator (GLI2ΔN), selectively in stem cells of resting hair follicles in mice, induced nodular BCC development from a small subset of cells in the lower bulge and secondary hair germ compartments. Tumorigenesis was markedly accelerated when GLI2ΔN was induced in growing hair follicles. In contrast, induction of GLI2ΔN in epidermis led to the formation of superficial BCCs. Expression of GLI2ΔN at reduced levels in mice yielded lesions resembling basaloid follicular hamartomas, which have previously been linked to low-level Hh signaling in both mice and humans. Our data show that the cell of origin, tissue context (quiescent versus growing hair follicles), and level of oncogenic signaling can determine the phenotype of Hh/Gli-driven skin tumors, with high-level signaling required for development of superficial BCC-like tumors from interfollicular epidermis and nodular BCC-like tumors from hair follicle stem cells.

Simultaneous presentation of localized basaloid follicular hamartoma and epithelioid blue nevus in a 44-year-old patient.

Congenital systematized basaloid follicular hamartoma with microphthalmia and hemimegalencephaly.

The lines of Blaschko are a cutaneous pattern of mosaicism present in a variety of skin disorders. Developmental abnormalities affecting other tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm and mesoderm are sometimes associated. Here, we describe a 5-year-old boy with basaloid follicular hamartoma affecting the left side of the body in linear multiple bands, following Blaschko lines. Lesions were predominantly hypopigmented macules and streaks, but among these, we could observe brownish atrophic patches and brown papules. Furthermore, ipsilateral hemimegaloencephaly and microphthalmia were present. These findings suggest a neurocutaneous condition recently described by Happle and Tinschert. Its nosologic classification will be discussed.

Keratin 17 promotes epithelial proliferation and tumor growth by polarizing the immune response in skin.

Basaloid skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and basaloid follicular hamartoma, are associated with aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and, in the case of BCC, an expanding set of genetic variants including keratin 5 (encoded by KRT5), an intermediate filament-forming protein. We here show that genetic ablation of keratin 17 (Krt17) protein, which is induced in basaloid skin tumors and co-polymerizes with Krt5 in vivo, delays basaloid follicular hamartoma tumor initiation and growth in mice with constitutive Hh signaling in epidermis. This delay is preceded by a reduced inflammation and a polarization of inflammatory cytokines from a Th1- and Th17-dominated profile to a Th2-dominated profile. Absence of Krt17 also attenuates hyperplasia and inflammation in models of acute dermatitis. Re-expression of Krt17 in Gli2(tg); Krt17(-/-) keratinocytes induces select Th1 chemokines that have established roles in BCC. Our findings establish an immunomodulatory role for Krt17 in Hh driven basaloid skin tumors that could impact additional tumor settings, psoriasis and wound repair.

Trichilemmal cyst nevus with a sebaceous nevus component.

A 23-year-old man with a typical trichilemmal cyst nevus is reported. This recently described disorder is sufficiently characteristic to differentiate it from sebaceous nevus, nevus comedonicus, porokeratotic eccrine nevus, nevus corniculatus, follicular basaloid hamartoma, Munro's nevus and Gardner's syndrome.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a benign lesion of important consideration because it can be mistaken both clinically and histologically for basal cell carcinoma. The formation of basaloid follicular hamartoma has been linked to a mutation in the patched gene, which is part of the same pathway implicated in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. While these hamartomas are considered benign lesions, malignant growths have been reported to arise within them, which raises the question, "Is basaloid follicular hamartoma a premalignant lesion?" Correct identification allows for periodic monitoring for malignant transformation, while sparing patients unnecessary surgery. Treatment strategies, including experimental therapies, are reviewed.

A case of basaloid follicular hamartoma.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH), uncommon rare benign neoplasm connected to the adnexal structures, presents with multiple clinical manifestations that can develop into basal cell carcinoma. BFH may be congenital or acquired, and the congenital form can be further divided into the generalized and unilateral type, and the acquired form may present as localized and solitary lesions. Congenital, generalized BFH is associated with systemic diseases such as alopecia, cystic fibrosis, hypohidrosis, and myasthenia gravis. In contrast, sporadic cases are observed as unilateral or localized lesions. BFH shows thick cords and thin strands of anastomosing basaloid proliferations that arise from hair follicles and are enclosed by loose fibrous stroma. Here, we report a 70-year-old man with an acquired, solitary form of BFH.

Congenital localized basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report and review of the literature.

Spectrum of tumors with follicular differentiation in a patient with the clinical phenotype of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including analysis of the CYLD and PTCH genes.

We report a patient with multiple trichoepitheliomas whose biopsy material also demonstrated a range of other neoplasms with follicular differentiation, including small nodular trichoblastoma, small nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and areas resembling infundibulocystic BCC/basaloid follicular hamartoma. These were all intimately associated with otherwise typical trichoepitheliomas that dominated the microscopic appearances. Peripheral blood and tumor tissues of the patient and his 2 daughters, who apparently had a milder phenotype, were studied for alterations in the CYLD and PTCH genes, but mutations or loss of heterozygosity was not found in either gene. The occurrence of multiple follicular neoplasms within a single lesion adds evidence that, although in most cases BCC and trichoblastoma are distinct lesions, the 2 neoplasms do encompass a morphological spectrum of follicular differentiation, which is probably more overtly expressed in syndromic patients.

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome versus generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

A novel PTCH1 germline mutation distinguishes basal cell carcinoma from basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report.

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws and developmental defects. The disorder results from mutations in the PTCH1 gene.