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basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome - Top 30 Publications

PTCH1 Germline Mutations and the Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Values in the Tumor Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS).

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), odontogenic tumors and various skeletal anomalies. Basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFHs) constitute rare neoplasms that can be detected in sporadic and familial settings as in the Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Syndrome (BFHS). Although BFHS shares clinical, histopathological and genetic overlapping with the NBCCS, they are still considered two distinctive entities. The aim of our single-institution study was the analysis of a cohort of PTCH1-mutated patients in order to define clinical and biomolecular relationship between NBCCS and BFHs.

Cytokeratin 20 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma and infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma.

Tumors with similar or identical histopathologic features have been termed basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) or infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC typically lacks immunoreactivity with cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 protein (PHLDA1).

Happle-Tinschert syndrome: report of a case with hemimegalencephaly.

Happle-Tinschert syndrome is a disorder causing unilateral segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas of the skin associated with ipsilateral osseous, dental and cerebral abnormalities including tumors. Although a case with hemimegalencephaly was previously described, this is the first report of Happle-Tinschert syndrome with discrepant short left leg, ipsilateral skin lesions, hemimegalencephaly and frontal polymicrogyria.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare, generally benign lesion of importance because of its clinical and histopathological similarity to infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. Autosomal dominant generalized BFH syndrome is 1 of the 5 clinical forms of BFH that has been described in the literature. We report a case of BFH syndrome in a 47-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an increasing number of small 1- to 2-mm tan to brown smooth facial papules, few palmar pits, and cobblestoning of the tongue. Her mother had similar lesions on her face. A biopsy of one of the patient's facial lesions confirmed the diagnosis of BFH. Of note, this patient later presented with rapid growth of one of her facial lesions, and a subsequent biopsy confirmed the development of a basal cell carcinoma arising within one of her BFH lesions. Although BFH is classically stable for years and does not require immediate surgical removal, our case highlights the importance of continual monitoring of these patients, given the potential for malignant transformation of these lesions.

Unilateral segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas with osteoma cutis and hypodontia: a case of Happle-Tinschert syndrome.

Happle-Tinschert syndrome (HTS) is a rare syndrome characterized by segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH) associated with ipsilateral osseous, dental and cerebral abnormalities. Happle and Tinschert first reported this disorder in 2008, and three cases with similar presentations have since been reported. We report another case, that of a 40-year-old man, presenting with the characteristic clinical features of HTS.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma of the eyelid.

An 86-year-old woman slowly developed a solitary 0.3 3 0.2-cm papule on the left lower eyelid. Complete excision disclosed a honeycombed lesion composed of interlacing basaloid strands unattached to the epidermis but rather extending into the dermis from a dilated hair follicle. The diagnosis was a solitary basaloid follicular hamartoma that can also occur in multiple, generalized, and inherited forms, sometimes with an associated systemic disease. The lesion exhibited a distinctive CD34-positive, mildly cellular myxoid stroma with many CK20-positive Merkel cells scattered within the basaloid cellular strands, which exhibited BCL-2 positivity only within the outermost cells bordering the stroma. These immunohistochemical features are the opposite of those displayed by basal cell carcinomas, which require more aggressive surgical management. Besides basal cell carcinomas, the differential diagnosis of basaloid follicular hamartoma includes fibrofolliculoma, tumor of the follicular infundibulum, poroma, and trabecular (Merkel cell) carcinoma.

Multiple basal cell carcinomas in a 38-year-old woman with Goltz syndrome.

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by hypoplasia of ectodermally and mesodermally derived tissues. No cases of development of basal cell carcinomas in patients affected by FDH have previously been reported.

A novel phenotype with features of basal cell nevus syndrome and basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

Trichilemmal cyst nevus with a sebaceous nevus component.

A 23-year-old man with a typical trichilemmal cyst nevus is reported. This recently described disorder is sufficiently characteristic to differentiate it from sebaceous nevus, nevus comedonicus, porokeratotic eccrine nevus, nevus corniculatus, follicular basaloid hamartoma, Munro's nevus and Gardner's syndrome.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a benign lesion of important consideration because it can be mistaken both clinically and histologically for basal cell carcinoma. The formation of basaloid follicular hamartoma has been linked to a mutation in the patched gene, which is part of the same pathway implicated in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. While these hamartomas are considered benign lesions, malignant growths have been reported to arise within them, which raises the question, "Is basaloid follicular hamartoma a premalignant lesion?" Correct identification allows for periodic monitoring for malignant transformation, while sparing patients unnecessary surgery. Treatment strategies, including experimental therapies, are reviewed.

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome versus generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

A novel PTCH1 germline mutation distinguishes basal cell carcinoma from basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report.

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws and developmental defects. The disorder results from mutations in the PTCH1 gene.

Happle-Tinschert syndrome. Segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas, linear atrophoderma with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, enamel defects, ipsilateral hypertrichosis, and skeletal and cerebral anomalies.

Recently, Happle and Tinschert [Acta Derm Venereol 2008;88:382-387] described the case of a multisystem birth defect with segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with extracutaneous defects in the form of short leg, polydactyly and hypoplastic teeth. The authors presented a comprehensive overview of 8 similar cases reported under various designations, and provided evidence that this syndrome includes various additional defects of the bones, teeth and brain. Here, a further typical case is reported, and it is emphasized that this phenotype should no longer be categorized as 'basal cell nevus syndrome', and thus be confused with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome of Gorlin [Cancer 1965;18:89-104]. A 7-year-old boy had multiple whitish and some scattered brownish basaloid follicular hamartomas involving the right side of his body in a systematized pattern following the lines of Blaschko. These lesions had been present since birth. They were hairless and conspicuously hypopigmented. In addition, enamel defects and mild webbing of the first and second right toes were noted. At the age of 5 years, the boy developed a medulloblastoma that originated from the ipsilateral paramedian vermis region. The tumor was surgically removed, and subsequently radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied. Analysis of blood DNA did not reveal any Patched mutation. The molecular basis of the disorder remains to be elucidated. From this case and from 9 similar cases reported in the literature, the spectrum of a distinct phenotype is delineated, and the eponymic designation Happle-Tinschert syndrome is proposed.

Segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas with osseous, dental and cerebral anomalies: a distinct syndrome.

A 39-year-old man presented with multiple basaloid follicular hamartomas involving the right side of his body in a systematized pattern following Blaschko's lines. His right leg was 22.5 cm shorter than the left, and rudimentary pre-axial polydactyly was noted on the left hand and the right foot. The teeth of the right maxilla were hypoplastic. DNA analysis of blood lymphocytes and fibroblasts from lesional skin did not reveal any mutation in the Patched gene. On account of this case and of 8 similar cases found in th e literature, the spectrum of a distinct syndrome is delineated. Ipsilateral extracutaneous defects include cervical ribs, polydactyly, malformed thumb and disproportionate overgrowth or deficient growth of limb bones; dental anomalies in the form of anodontia, hypodontia or ameloblastoma; and cerebral defects such as mental retardation, unsteady gait, meningioma and optic glioma. The cutaneous lesions of this syndrome should not be called "basal cell naevus" as this will lead to continuing confusion with Gorlin syndrome. The molecular basis of the disorder remains to be elucidated.

Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (GBFHS) is a rare, recently-described, autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that presents with disseminated milia, palmoplantar pitting, hypotrichosis and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH). BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors. Standard immunohistochemistry labeling with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 was performed on paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue sections of five BFH (four for CD10), one VHH and one NH. CD34 stromal staining was observed in all specimens. Bcl-2 stained the outermost cell layers of the basaloid nests in all specimens. CD10 stained the peritumoral stroma of all specimens. The BFH, NFH and the VHH showed CD10 staining of matrical cells. CD34 and CD10 stain peritumoral stroma of BFH, VHH and NH. Bcl-2 stains the outermost cell layer of these tumors. CD10 was also observed to stain matrical cells. These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.

Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

Congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a case report with patched gene molecular studies.

Linear unilateral basal cell nevus represents a linear collection of macules and papules histologically similar to basal cell carcinoma but with benign clinical behavior. We describe a patient who initially presented at the age of 6 months with a unilateral linear basal cell nevus on the right flank. The differential diagnosis included the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Constitutional PTCH mutations are causative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, and somatic PTCH mutations are found in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas. Somatic SMO mutations have also been found in some basal cell carcinomas.

Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (BFHS) is a rare adnexal tumor genodermatosis. We present a case of hereditary BFHS and review the literature concerning the clinical and histologic features of this entity.

Genetics of skin appendage neoplasms and related syndromes.

In the past decade the molecular basis of many inherited syndromes has been unravelled. This article reviews the clinical and genetic aspects of inherited syndromes that are characterised by skin appendage neoplasms, including Cowden syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, generalised basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome, Bazex syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, familial cylindromatosis, multiple familial trichoepitheliomas, and Muir-Torre syndrome.

Treatment of diffuse basal cell carcinomas and basaloid follicular hamartomas in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome by wide-area 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.

To report the use of wide-area 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy to treat numerous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFHs).

Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: lesional characterization and review of the literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare cutaneous lesion associated with the acquisition of small papules that remain stable for many years. Basaloid follicular hamartoma lesions can present sporadically or as part of an inherited syndrome. Occasionally, biopsies of BFH lesions are interpreted as basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which necessitates complete removal of the lesion. In this report, we characterize a case of a familial BFH syndrome and discuss the clinical, histologic, and molecular features of BFH lesions that help to distinguish it from BCC. The BFH lesions in our patients remained stable for many years. Histologically, BFH lesions exhibit fewer mitoses and decreased single cell necrosis when compared with BCC. Immunohistochemical staining for the proliferation markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 demonstrated less staining in BFH than in BCC. In addition, levels of PTCH (patched) mRNA were increased relative to unremarkable epidermis in familial BFH lesions but to a lesser degree and in a different pattern than that seen in BCC. In summary, familial BFH can be distinguished from BCC based on clinical, histologic, and molecular features and is associated with deregulation of the PTCH pathway. Basaloid follicular hamartoma may represent an indolent lesion within the spectrum of basaloid epithelial neoplasms associated with deregulation of the PTCH signaling pathway. We discuss this case in parallel with a growing body of literature that supports the nosologic designation of BFH.

Multiple basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with acrochordons, seborrhoeic keratoses and chondrosarcoma.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma is an uncommon neoplasm with distinctive histopathological findings. It presents as four distinctive clinical forms: a solitary papule, a localized plaque of alopecia, a localized linear and unilateral type, and generalized papules with associated alopecia and myasthenia gravis. Histologically, basaloid follicular hamartomas are characterized by thin branching strands and thick cords of basaloid or squamoid cells extending from a follicle into a loose, fibrillar, fibrocytic or mucinous connective tissue stroma. We report a case of long-standing, generalized basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with acrochordons, seborrhoeic keratoses, and a history of chondrosarcoma. In general, solitary tumours are sporadic; multiple tumours are inherited and frequently associated with a syndrome. Further surveillance is warranted to determine if the association of multiple basaloid follicular hamartomas and chondrosarcoma constitutes an inherited syndrome.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.

Autosomal dominantly inherited generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome: report of a new disease in a North Carolina family.

An 8-year-old girl presented with hundreds of milia, measuring 1 to 2 mm; comedone-like lesions; skin-colored and hyperpigmented papules on the face, scalp, ears, neck, upper trunk, and lower arms along with diffuse scalp hypotrichosis; and pinpoint palm/sole pits. Onset was in early childhood and the disease was historically present in 6 generations.

Multiple hereditary infundibulocystic basal cell carcinomas: a genodermatosis different from nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

Infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma is a recently described distinctive clinicopathologic variant of basal cell carcinoma. Histopathologic differential diagnosis among infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma, trichoepithelioma, and basaloid follicular hamartoma has generated controversy in the literature.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma, total body hair loss and SLE.

We describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS) who developed a plaque-like lesion around the mouth and lost all body hair. Biopsies of the circumoral lesion and scalp, were originally reported as containing extensive basal cell carcinoma, but on review, both showed the typical appearance of a benign malformation of the hair follicle known as basaloid follicular hamartoma. Regrowth of hair and partial resolution of the peri-oral plaque occurred with more aggressive treatment of her SLE, but the basaloid follicular hamartomas in her scalp skin persisted. There is a known, but rare, association between this pattern of basaloid follicular hamartoma, alopecia and myasthenia gravis, but only two cases have been described in association with SLE and none with APLS.

Basaloid follicular hamartoma: solitary and multiple types.

Multiple skin tumors often show autosomal dominant inheritance; solitary neoplasms are typically nonhereditary.

Multiple basaloid follicular hamartomas in 2 members of a family with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

We report on a 20-year-old man and a 14-year-old girl showing multiple basaloid follicular hemartomas on face and upper back. Both patients were members of a family with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

Generalized trichoepitheliomas with alopecia and myasthenia gravis: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study and comparison with classic and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.

We report on a patient with a syndrome characterized by smooth facial papules and nodules; alopecia of the eyebrows, eyelashes, and most body hair; mild alopecia of scalp hair; possibly hypohidrosis; and myasthenia gravis. The clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings are compared with classic and desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas. All fourteen biopsy specimens of the patient showed a lacelike network of basaloid cells with follicular differentiation and a prominent stroma with focal alkaline phosphatase activity, as in fourteen comparison specimens of classic trichoepithelioma. Studies with antikeratin antibodies of various specificities also revealed similar patterns. The tumor cells showed a keratin phenotype characteristic of cells of the infrainfundibular outer root sheath, that is, positive staining with basal keratinocyte markers, negative staining with suprabasal keratinocyte markers, and patchy staining with LP2K (against keratin 19). beta 2-Microglobulin expression was partially or totally absent. It is concluded that the lesions in our patient actually are trichoepitheliomas. The condition may represent a new syndrome that either is closely related to the generalized hair follicle hamartoma (basaloid follicular hamartoma) or is a variant. The finding of generalized trichoepitheliomas with clinical and microscopic alopecia should alert one to the possibility of myasthenia gravis.