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bevacizumab - Top 30 Publications

"Vessels in the Storm": Searching for Prognostic and Predictive Angiogenic Factors in Colorectal Cancer.

High expectations are placed upon anti-angiogenic compounds for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the first malignancy for which such type of treatment has been approved. Indeed, clinical trials have confirmed that targeting the formation of new vessels can improve in many cases clinical outcomes of mCRC patients. However, current anti-angiogenic drugs are far from obtaining the desirable or expected curative results. Many are the factors probably involved in such disappointing results, but particular attention is currently focused on the validation of biomarkers able to improve the direction of treatment protocols. Because clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that serum or tissue concentration of some angiogenic factors is associated with the evolution of the disease of mCRC patients, they are currently explored as potential biomarkers of prognosis and of tumor response to therapy. However, the complex biology underlying CRC -induced angiogenesis is a hurdle in finding rapid solutions. The aim of this review was to explore molecular mechanisms that determine the formation of tumor-associated vessels during CRC progression, and to discuss the potential role of angiogenic factors as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in CRC.

A novel prognostic six-CpG signature in glioblastomas.

We aimed to identify a clinically useful biomarker using DNA methylation-based information to optimize individual treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GBM).

The Addition of Bevacizumab to Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy: Impact Upon Hepatic Sinusoidal Injury and Thrombocytopenia.

Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy can cause hepatic sinusoidal injury (HSI), portal hypertension, and splenic sequestration of platelets. Evidence suggests that bevacizumab may protect against HSI.

Bevacizumab Maintenance Versus No Maintenance During Chemotherapy-Free Intervals in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized Phase III Trial (PRODIGE 9).

Purpose Conflicting results are reported for maintenance treatment with bevacizumab during chemotherapy-free intervals (CFI) in metastatic colorectal cancer after induction chemotherapy. Patients and Methods In this open-label, phase III, randomized controlled trial, we compared the tumor control duration (TCD) observed with bevacizumab maintenance and with no treatment (observation) during CFI subsequent to induction chemotherapy with 12 cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan plus bevacizumab. After disease progression, the induction regimen was repeated for eight cycles, followed by a new CFI. Results From March 2010 to July 2013, 491 patients were randomly assigned. Disease progression or death occurred during induction chemotherapy in 85 patients (17%); 261 patients (53%) had at least one reinduction, 107 (22%) had two reinductions, and 56 (11%) had three or more reinductions. The median TCD was 15 months in both groups; the median progression-free survival (PFS) from randomization was 9.2 and 8.9 months in the maintenance group and observation groups, respectively. The TCD observed in both groups was higher compared with the TCD hypotheses of the trial. The median overall survival (OS) was 21.7 and 22.0 months in the maintenance and observation groups, respectively. In the per-protocol population, defined as patients with at least one reinduction after the first progression, the median duration of the first CFI was 4.3 months in both arms; the median TCD was 17.8 and 23.3 months ( P = .339), the median PFS was 9.9 and 9.5 months, and the median OS was 27.6 and 28.5 months in the maintenance and observation groups, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that female gender, WHO performance status ≥ 2, and unresected primary tumors were associated with a shorter TCD. Conclusion Bevacizumab maintenance monotherapy did not improve TCD, CFI duration, PFS, or OS.

Intravitreal Aflibercept as Rescue Therapy for Post-Radiation Cystoid Macular Edema Resistant to Intravitreal Bevacizumab: Outcomes at 1 Year.

To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept as rescue therapy for post-radiation cystoid macular edema (CME) resistant to prior treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB).

Effect of Lipodox in combination with bevacizumab in a patient with a metastatic malignant phyllodes breast tumor: A case report.

A 76-year-old female patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor underwent modified radical mastectomy and wide excision. Multiple nodules were observed in the operated wound area. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed recurrent disease in the left breast, the adjacent left third rib, the left internal mammary region and the left ilium. A novel formulation of bevacizumab (5 mg/m2, first day) in combination with liposomal doxorubicin (Lipodox, 30 mg/m2, second day) was administered for 3 cycles every 2 weeks, and subsequently wide excision was performed. Lipodox (40 mg/m2) was administered for 3 cycles every 3 weeks, starting 4 weeks after the surgery. Follow-up whole body PET-CT scanning, 3 and 6 months later, indicated no sign of residual hypermetabolic malignancy. Malignant phyllodes tumors do not usually respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In the present case report, a novel formulation of bevacizumab in combination with Lipodox was administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor and preoperative tumor shrinkage was achieved, resulting in clear resection margins.

Prediction of novel target genes and pathways involved in bevacizumab-resistant colorectal cancer.

Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy is the backbone of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) therapy; however, its treatment efficacy is hampered by therapeutic resistance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying bevacizumab resistance is crucial to increasing the therapeutic efficacy of bevacizumab. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (dataset, GSE86525) was used to identify the key genes and pathways involved in bevacizumab-resistant mCRC. The GEO2R web tool was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional and pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery(DAVID). Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were established using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database(STRING) and visualized using Cytoscape software. A total of 124 DEGs were obtained, 57 of which upregulated and 67 were downregulated. PPI network analysis showed that seven upregulated genes and nine downregulated genes exhibited high PPI degrees. In the functional enrichment, the DEGs were mainly enriched in negative regulation of phosphate metabolic process and positive regulation of cell cycle process gene ontologies (GOs); the enriched pathways were the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signaling pathway, bladder cancer, and microRNAs in cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A(CDKN1A), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD19 molecule (CD19), breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), platelet-derived growth factor subunit A (PDGFA), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) were the DEGs involved in the pathways and the PPIs. The clinical validation of the DEGs in mCRC (TNM clinical stages 3 and 4) revealed that high PDGFA expression levels were associated with poor overall survival, whereas high BRCA1 and MMP1 expression levels were associated with favorable progress free survival(PFS). The identified genes and pathways can be potential targets and predictors of therapeutic resistance and prognosis in bevacizumab-treated patients with mCRC.

Evolution of Intravitreal Therapy for Retinal Diseases - From CMV to CNV: The LXXIV Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture.

To present the evolution of intravitreal therapy for retinal diseases and its impact on clinical practice.

Preoperative Bevacizumab Administration in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy: A Randomized and Controlled Trial Comparing Interval Variation.

Preoperative Bevacizumab Administration in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Undergoing Vitrectomy: A Randomized and Controlled Trial Comparing Interval Variation.

The role of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, thus the loss of its fine equilibrium plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Therapeutic agents targeting VEGF/VEGFR signaling, the main regulator of this process, proved to be effective across different treatment lines in metastatic CRC (mCRC) and contributed greatly to improve patients' survival in recent years. Areas covered: This review aimed to summarize the actual body of knowledge available on the VEGF pathway in CRC, including currently available anti-angiogenic drugs and treatment challenges, mechanisms of resistance, promising predictive biomarkers and future perspectives. Expert commentary: Angiogenesis inhibition in subsequent lines of treatment is a valid strategy in the continuum of care of mCRC patients. In this scenario, the availability of multiple agents warrants to tailor therapy to an individualized approach. However, the validation of predictive biomarkers to aid therapeutic decisions remains an issue. Intrinsic and adaptive resistance to anti-angiogenic agents comprises distinct and intertwined processes, eventually leading to treatment failure and disease progression. The expanding knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the angiogenesis pathway, different potential treatment targets and mechanisms of tumor resistance, may lead to promising new perspectives in this field.

Pimasertib-associated ophthalmological adverse events.

To analyse ophthalmological adverse events associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibition with pimasertib treatment for metastatic cutaneous melanoma (CM).

The Real-World Effect of Intravitreous Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Drugs on Intraocular Pressure: An Analysis Using the IRIS Registry.

To identify sustained differences in intraocular pressure (IOP) after intravitreous injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs.

Body mass index in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer treated with first-line paclitaxel and bevacizumab.

The evidence emerged from the TOURANDOT trial encourages evaluating the role of anthropometric determinants on treatment outcomes in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-including regimens. We thus analyzed data from a subgroup of these patients from a larger cohort previously assessed for treatment outcomes. Patients were included in the present analysis if body mass index values had been recorded at baseline. Clinical benefit rates, progression free survival and overall survival were assessed for the overall study population and subgroups defined upon molecular subtype. One hundred ninety six patients were included (N:196). Body mass index showed no impact on clinical benefit rates in the overall study sample and in luminal cancer subset (p = 0.12 and p = 0.79, respectively), but did so in the triple negative subgroup, with higher rates in patients with body mass index ≥25 (p = 0.03). In the overall study sample, body mass index did no impact progression free or overall survival OS (p = 0.33 and p = 0.67, respectively). Conversely, in triple negative patients, progression free survival was significantly longer with body mass index ≥25 (6 vs 14 months, p = 0.04). In this subset, overall survival was more favorable (25 vs 19 months, p = 0.02). The impact of the molecular subtype was confirmed in multivariate models including the length of progression free survival, and number of metastatic sites (p<0.0001). Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings in more adequately sized, ad hoc, prospective studies.

Dynamic MR imaging for functional vascularization depends on tissue factor signaling in glioblastoma.

Glomeruloid vascular proliferation (GVP) is a diagnostic hallmark and links to aggressive behavior, therapy resistance and poor prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). It lacks clinical approaches to predict and monitor its formation and dynamic change. Yet the mechanism of GVPs also remains largely unknown. Using an in situ GBM xenograft mouse model, combined clinical MRI images of pre-surgery tumor and pathological investigation, we demonstrated that the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) decreased GVPs in Mouse GBM xenograft model. TF shRNA reduced microvascular area and diameter, other than bevacizumab. TF dominantly functions via PAR2/HB-EGF-dependent activation under hypoxia in endothelial cells (ECs), resulting in a reduction of GVPs and cancer cells invasion. TF expression strongly correlated to GVPs and microvascular area (MVA) in GBM specimens from 56 patients, which could be quantitatively evaluated in an advanced MRI images system in 33 GBM patients. This study presented an approach to assess GVPs that could be served as a MRI imaging biomarker in GBM and uncovered a molecular mechanism of GVPs.

Impact of Genetic Ancestry on Outcomes in ECOG-ACRIN-E5103.

Racial disparity in breast cancer outcomes exists between African American and Caucasian women in the United States. We have evaluated the impact of genetically determined ancestry on disparity in efficacy and therapy-induced toxicity for breast cancer patients in the context of a randomized, phase III adjuvant trial.

Toxicity and efficacy of lomustine and bevacizumab in recurrent glioblastoma patients.

The combination of lomustine and bevacizumab is a commonly used salvage treatment for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We investigated the toxicity and efficacy of lomustine plus bevacizumab (lom-bev) in a community-based patient cohort and made a comparison to another frequently used combination therapy consisting of irinotecan plus bevacizumab (iri-bev). Seventy patients with recurrent GBM were treated with lomustine 90 mg/m2 every 6 weeks and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Toxicity was registered and compared to the toxicity observed in 219 recurrent GBM patients who had previously been treated with irinotecan 125 mg/m2 and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The response rate was 37.1% for lom-bev and 30.1% for iri-bev. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 23 weeks for lom-bev and 21 weeks for iri-bev (p = 0.9). Overall survival (OS) was 37 weeks for lom-bev and 32 weeks for iri-bev (p = 0.5). Lom-bev caused a significantly higher frequency of thrombocytopenia (11.4% grade 3-4) compared to iri-bev (3.5% grade 3-4). Iri-bev patients had more gastrointestinal toxicity with regard to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and stomatitis. Within the limitations of the study lom-bev is a well-tolerated treatment for recurrent GBM, although hematological toxicity may be a dose limiting factor. No significant differences between lom-bev and iri-bev were observed with regard to PFS or OS. The differences in toxicity profiles between lom-bev and iri-bev could guide treatment decision in recurrent GBM therapy as efficacy is equal and no predictive factors for efficacy exist.

Antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs do not affect visual outcome in neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the BRAMD trial.

To determine if use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant (AP/AC) medication influences visual acuity in patients with active neovascular age-related macular degeneration (N-AMD).

Treatment outcome of anti-angiogenesis through VEGF-pathway in the management of gastric cancer: a systematic review of phase II and III clinical trials.

Advanced gastric cancer poses a therapeutic challenge worldwide. In randomised clinical trials, anti-VEGF has been reported as an essential agent for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. This review aims at assessing the treatment outcome of anti-angiogenesis therapy through the VEGF pathway in the management of patients with advanced gastric cancer.

Positive-feedback regulation of subchondral H-type vessel formation by chondrocyte promotes osteoarthritis development in mice.

Vascular-invasion-mediated interactions between activated articular chondrocytes and subchondral bone are essential for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Here, we determined the role of nutrient sensing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the crosstalk across the bone cartilage interface and its regulatory mechanisms. Then mice with chondrocyte-specific mTORC1 activation (Tsc1 CKO and Tsc1 CKOER ) or inhibition (Raptor CKOER ) and their littermate controls were subjected to OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or not. DMM or Tsc1 CKO mice were treated with bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A antibody that blocks angiogenesis. Articular cartilage degeneration was evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score. Immunostaining and western blotting were conducted to detect H-type vessels and protein levels in mice. Primary chondrocytes from mutant mice and ADTC5 cells were treated with interleukin-1β to investigate the role of chondrocyte mTORC1 in VEGF-A secretion and in vitro vascular formation. Clearly, H-type vessels were increased in subchondral bone in DMM-induced OA and aged mice. Cartilage mTORC1 activation stimulated VEGF-A production in articular chondrocyte and H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone. Chondrocyte mTORC1 promoted OA partially through formation of VEGF-A-stimulated subchondral H-type vessels. In particular, vascular-derived nutrients activated chondrocyte mTORC1, and stimulated chondrocyte activation and production of VEGF, resulting in further angiogenesis in subchondral bone. Thus a positive-feedback regulation of H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone by articular chondrocyte nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling is essential for the pathogenesis and progression of OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

A computational analysis of pro-angiogenic therapies for peripheral artery disease.

Inducing therapeutic angiogenesis to effectively form hierarchical, non-leaky networks of perfused vessels in tissue engineering applications and ischemic disease remains an unmet challenge, despite extensive research and multiple clinical trials. Here, we use a previously-developed, multi-scale, computational systems pharmacology model of human peripheral artery disease to screen a diverse array of promising pro-angiogenic strategies, including gene therapy, biomaterials, and antibodies. Our previously-validated model explicitly accounts for VEGF immobilization, Neuropilin-1 binding, and weak activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by the "VEGFxxxb" isoforms. First, we examine biomaterial-based delivery of VEGF engineered for increased affinity to the extracellular matrix. We show that these constructs maintain VEGF close to physiological levels and extend the duration of VEGFR2 activation. We demonstrate the importance of sub-saturating VEGF dosing to prevent angioma formation. Second, we examine the potential of ligand- or receptor-based gene therapy to normalize VEGF receptor signaling. Third, we explore the potential for antibody-based pro-angiogenic therapy. Our model supports recent observations that improvement in perfusion following treatment with anti-VEGF165b in mice is mediated by VEGF-receptor 1, not VEGFR2. Surprisingly, the model predicts that the approved anti-VEGF cancer drug, bevacizumab, may actually improve signaling of both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 via a novel 'antibody swapping' effect that we demonstrate here. Altogether, this model provides insight into the mechanisms of action of several classes of pro-angiogenic strategies within the context of the complex molecular and physiological processes occurring in vivo. We identify molecular signaling similarities between promising approaches and key differences between promising and ineffective strategies.

Prognostic and predictive role of neutrophil/lymphocytes ratio in metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective analysis of the TRIBE study by GONO.

Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (NLR), defined as absolute neutrophils count divided by absolute lymphocytes count, has been reported as poor prognostic factor in several neoplastic diseases but only a few data are available about unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients (pts). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of NLR in the TRIBE trial.

Chemotherapy plus Panitumumab Versus Chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

Panitumumab and bevacizumab have been widely used in combination with chemotherapy for patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Whether panitumumab or bevacizumab was the optimal option remained controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-anaylsis to evaluate chemotherapy plus panitumumab (C + P) versus chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (C + B) in wild type RAS mCRC. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, Cochrane Library,, were searched. This meta-analysis estimated the progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR) and adverse events (AEs). Three randomized controlled trials with a total number of 577 patients were included. In wild type RAS population, PFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76 to 1.15] and OS (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.27) and ORR [relative ratio (RR) = 2.06; 95% CI, 0.86 to 4.90] appeared similar between the two treatments, the incidence of AEs slightly increased (RR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). In conclusion, there was insufficient evidence to precisely conclude that combination treatment of C + P had an improved efficacy compared with C + B. Further large-scale and better-designed clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the combination treatment of C + P in patients with wild type RAS mCRC.

A case of severe stenosis of hepatic veins and inferior vena cava with stomal variceal bleeding induced by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

A 27-year-old woman with colon cancer and liver metastasis was referred to our hospital. Colectomy and colostomy were performed to improve her ileus. Following 13 sessions of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OC) with mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab, thrombocytopenia and frequent peristomal bleeding occurred. Computed tomography showed severe ascites, splenomegaly, significant collateral veins around the stoma, and severe stenosis of the hepatic veins (HV) and inferior vena cava (IVC). Ultrasound elastography showed high liver (and spleen) stiffness values. Repeated OC appeared to cause IVC stenosis as a result of worsening sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and peristomal variceal bleeding. After ultrasound-guided percutaneous embolization, bleeding did not recur. Unfortunately, the patient died of liver dysfunction caused by severe SOS. The incidence of OC-induced SOS is reported to be about 50%; however, there is apparently no report of OC-induced HV and IVC stenosis, and in most cases, portal hypertension is improved after OC cessation. This is the first report of OC-induced severe HV and IVC stenosis resulting in refractory peristomal variceal bleeding and eventual death.

Does ALK-rearrangement predict favorable response to the therapy of bevacizumab plus pemetrexed in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer? Case report and literature review.

Advanced ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients will develop acquired resistance after anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) production and tumor vessel formation were found to be more significantly enriched in ALK-rearrangement NSCLC than that in epidermal growth factor receptor or Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene mutated NSCLC. However, the correlation between ALK rearrangement and the efficacy of bevacizumab (a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF-A) was still elusive.

Clinical trial experience with CA4P anticancer therapy: focus on efficacy, cardiovascular adverse events, and hypertension management.

Combretastatin A4-phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) in clinical development for the treatment of ovarian and other cancers. In contrast to antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab, which suppress the development of new tumor vasculature, VDAs target established tumor vasculature. These differing but complementary mechanisms of action are currently being explored in clinical trials combining CA4P and bevacizumab. Clinical experience to date has highlighted an important need to better understand the cardiovascular adverse events of CA4P, both alone and in combination with antiangiogenic agents, which can also be associated with cardiovascular adverse events. An acute but transient increase in blood pressure is often the most clinically relevant toxicity associated with CA4P. Increases in CA4P-related blood pressure typically occur 0.5 to 1 h after initiation of the 10-min infusion, peak by 2 h, and return to baseline 3 to 4 h after the infusion. Post-infusion increases in blood pressure are likely to recur in subsequent treatment cycles; however, the severity does not appear to increase with successive cycles. Other cardiovascular adverse events, such as transient, predominantly grade 1-2 tachycardia, bradycardia, QTc prolongation, and in rare cases myocardial ischemia, have also been observed with CA4P but at markedly lower frequencies than hypertension. The clinical trial experience with CA4P suggests that cardiovascular assessment of patients prior to CA4P treatment and careful management of blood pressure during CA4P treatment can largely mitigate the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Accordingly, we have developed a blood pressure management algorithm for use in the ongoing phase II/III FOCUS study of the triple combination of CA4P with physician's choice chemotherapy and bevacizumab.

Characterization of the interactions of potent allosteric inhibitors with glutaminase C, a key enzyme in cancer cell glutamine metabolism.

Altered glycolytic flux in cancer cells (the Warburg effect) causes their proliferation to rely upon elevated glutamine metabolism (glutamine addiction). This requirement is met by the overexpression of glutaminase C (GAC), which catalyzes the first step in glutamine metabolism and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target. The small molecule CB-839 was reported to be more potent than other allosteric GAC inhibitors, including the parent compound BPTES, and is in clinical trials. Recently, we described the synthesis of BPTES analogs having distinct saturated heterocyclic cores as a replacement for the flexible chain moiety, with improved microsomal stability relative to CB-839 and BPTES. Here, we show that one of these new compounds, UPGL00004, like CB-839, more potently inhibits the enzymatic activity of GAC, compared to BPTES. We also compare the abilities of UPGL00004, CB-839, and BPTES to directly bind to recombinant GAC, and demonstrate that UPGL00004 has a similar binding affinity as CB-839 for GAC. We go on to show that UPGL00004 potently inhibits the growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells, as well as tumor growth when combined with the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Finally, we compare the X-ray crystal structures for UPGL00004 and CB-839 bound to GAC, verifying that UPGL00004 occupies the same binding site as CB-839 or BPTES, and that all three inhibitors regulate the enzymatic activity of GAC via a similar allosteric mechanism. These results provide insights regarding the potency of these inhibitors that will be useful in designing novel small-molecules that target a key enzyme in cancer cell metabolism.

Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis by an optimized antibody targeting CLEC14a.

The C-type lectin-like domain of CLEC14a (CLEC14a-CTLD) is a key domain that mediates endothelial cell-cell contacts in angiogenesis. However, the role of CLEC14a-CTLD in pathological angiogenesis has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, through complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting, consecutive deglycosylation, and functional isolation, we generated a novel anti-angiogenic human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets CLEC14a-CTLD and that shows improved stability and homogeneity relative to the parental antibody. We found that this antibody directly inhibits CLEC14a-CTLD-mediated endothelial cell-cell contact and simultaneously downregulates expression of CLEC14a on the surface of endothelial cells. Using various in vitro and in vivo functional assays, we demonstrated that this antibody effectively suppresses VEGF-dependent angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis of SNU182 human hepatocellular carcinoma, CFPAC-1 human pancreatic cancer, and U87 human glioma cells. Furthermore, we also found that this antibody significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis of HCT116 and bevacizumab-adapted HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. These findings suggest that antibody targeting of CLEC14a-CTLD has the potential to suppress VEGF-dependent angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis and that CLEC14a-CTLD may be a novel anti-angiogenic target for VEGF-dependent angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis.