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cell trafficking - Top 30 Publications

L-Type Voltage-Gated Ca(2+) Channels Regulate Synaptic-Activity-Triggered Recycling Endosome Fusion in Neuronal Dendrites.

The repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the surface of neuronal dendrites are tuned by regulated fusion of recycling endosomes (REs) with the dendritic plasma membrane. While this process is critical for neuronal function and plasticity, how synaptic activity drives RE fusion remains unexplored. We demonstrate a multistep fusion mechanism that requires Ca(2+) from distinct sources. NMDA receptor Ca(2+) initiates RE fusion with the plasma membrane, while L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (L-VGCCs) regulate whether fused REs collapse into the membrane or reform without transferring their cargo to the cell surface. Accordingly, NMDA receptor activation triggered AMPA-type glutamate receptor trafficking to the dendritic surface in an L-VGCC-dependent manner. Conversely, potentiating L-VGCCs enhanced AMPA receptor surface expression only when NMDA receptors were also active. Thus L-VGCCs play a role in tuning activity-triggered surface expression of key synaptic proteins by gating the mode of RE fusion.

Capture of Dense Core Vesicles at Synapses by JNK-Dependent Phosphorylation of Synaptotagmin-4.

Delivery of neurotrophins and neuropeptides via long-range trafficking of dense core vesicles (DCVs) from the cell soma to nerve terminals is essential for synapse modulation and circuit function. But the mechanism by which transiting DCVs are captured at specific sites is unknown. Here, we discovered that Synaptotagmin-4 (Syt4) regulates the capture and spatial distribution of DCVs in hippocampal neurons. We found that DCVs are highly mobile and undergo long-range translocation but switch directions only at the distal ends of axons, revealing a circular trafficking pattern. Phosphorylation of serine 135 of Syt4 by JNK steers DCV trafficking by destabilizing Syt4-Kif1A interaction, leading to a transition from microtubule-dependent DCV trafficking to capture at en passant presynaptic boutons by actin. Furthermore, neuronal activity increased DCV capture via JNK-dependent phosphorylation of the S135 site of Syt4. Our data reveal a mechanism that ensures rapid, site-specific delivery of DCVs to synapses.

Regulatory T Cell Migration Is Dependent on Glucokinase-Mediated Glycolysis.

Migration of activated regulatory T (Treg) cells to inflamed tissue is crucial for their immune-modulatory function. While metabolic reprogramming during Treg cell differentiation has been extensively studied, the bioenergetics of Treg cell trafficking remains undefined. We have investigated the metabolic demands of migrating Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that glycolysis was instrumental for their migration and was initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK). Subsequently, GCK promoted cytoskeletal rearrangements by associating with actin. Treg cells lacking this pathway were functionally suppressive but failed to migrate to skin allografts and inhibit rejection. Similarly, human carriers of a loss-of-function GCK regulatory protein gene-leading to increased GCK activity-had reduced numbers of circulating Treg cells. These cells displayed enhanced migratory activity but similar suppressive function, while conventional T cells were unaffected. Thus, GCK-dependent glycolysis regulates Treg cell migration.

Naïve T cells are activated by autologous HCMV-infected endothelial cells through NKG2D and can control HCMV transmission in vitro.

Apart from classical antigen-presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells and macrophages, there are semiprofessional APCs such as endothelial cells (ECs) and Langerhans' cells. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects a wide range of cell types including the ECs which are involved in the trafficking and homing of T cells. By investigating the interaction of naïve T cells obtained from HCMV-seronegative umbilical cord blood with autologous HCMV-infected human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), we could show that the activation of naïve T cells occurred after 1 day of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) exposure to HCMV-infected HUVECs. The percentage of activated T cells increased over time and the activation of naïve T cells was not induced by either autologous uninfected HUVECs or by autologous HCMV-infected fibroblasts. The activation of T cells occurred also when purified T cells were co-cultured with HCMV-infected HUVECs. In addition, in most of the donors only CD8(+) T cells were activated, when the purified T cells were exposed to HCMV-infected HUVECs. The activation of naïve T cells was inhibited when the NKG2D receptor was blocked on the surface of T cells and among the different NKG2D ligands, we identified two ligands (ULBP4 and MICA) on HCMV-infected HUVECs which might be the interaction partners of the NKG2D receptor. Using a functional cell culture assay, we could show that these activated naïve T cells specifically inhibited HCMV transmission. Altogether, we identified a novel specific activation mechanism of naïve T cells from the umbilical cord by HCMV-infected autologous HUVECs through interaction with NKG2D.

microRNAs and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Chemoresistance: A Mechanistic Overview.

Up until the early 2000s, a functional role for microRNAs (miRNAs) was yet to be elucidated. With the advent of increasingly high-throughput and precise RNA-sequencing techniques within the last two decades, it has become well established that miRNAs can regulate almost all cellular processes through their ability to post-transcriptionally regulate a majority of protein-coding genes and countless other non-coding genes. In cancer, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles by modifying or controlling all major hallmarks including cell division, self-renewal, invasion, and DNA damage among others. Before the introduction of anthracyclines and cytarabine in the 1960s, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was considered a fatal disease. In decades since, prognosis has improved substantially; however, long-term survival with AML remains poor. Resistance to chemotherapy, whether it is present at diagnosis or induced during treatment is a major therapeutic challenge in the treatment of this disease. Certain mechanisms such as DNA damage response and drug targeting, cell cycling, cell death, and drug trafficking pathways have been shown to be further dysregulated in treatment resistant cancers. miRNAs playing key roles in the emergence of these drug resistance phenotypes have recently emerged and replacement or inhibition of these miRNAs may be a viable treatment option. Herein, we describe the roles miRNAs can play in drug resistant AML and we describe miRNA-transcript interactions found within other cancer states which may be present within drug resistant AML. We describe the mechanisms of action of these miRNAs and how they can contribute to a poor overall survival and outcome as well. With the precision of miRNA mimic- or antagomir-based therapies, miRNAs provide an avenue for exquisite targeting in the therapy of drug resistant cancers.

Fluorescence contrast-enhanced proliferative lesion imaging by enema administration of indocyanine green in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis.

The fluorescent contrast agent indocyanine green (ICG) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications. We previously reported that cultured human colon tumor cells preferentially take up ICG by endocytic activity in association with disruption of their tight junctions. The present study explored ICG availability in fluorescence imaging of the colon to identify proliferative lesions during colonoscopy. The cellular uptake of ICG in cultured rat colon tumor cells was examined using live-cell imaging. Colon lesions in rats administered an ICG-containing enema were further assessed in rats with azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis, using in vivo endoscopy, ex vivo microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The uptake of ICG by the cultured cells was temperature-dependent. The intracellular retention of the dye in the membrane trafficking system suggested endocytosis as the uptake mechanism. ICG administered via enema accumulated in colon proliferative lesions ranging from tiny aberrant crypt foci to adenomas and localized in proliferating cells. Fluorescence endoscopy detected these ICG-positive colonic proliferative lesions in vivo. The immunoreactivity of the tight-junction molecule occludin was altered in the proliferative lesions, suggesting the disruption of the integrity of tight junctions. These results suggest that fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging following the administration of an ICG-containing enema can enhance the detection of mucosal proliferative lesions of the colon during colonoscopy. The tissue preference of ICG in the rat model evaluated in this study can be attributed to the disruption of tight junctions, which in turn promotes endocytosis by proliferative cells and the cellular uptake of ICG.

Macitentan, a double antagonist of endothelin receptors, efficiently impairs migration and microenvironmental survival signals in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

The crosstalk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and tumor microenvironment is essential for leukemic clone maintenance, supporting CLL cells survival, proliferation and protection from drug-induced apoptosis. Over the past years, the role of several soluble factors involved in these processes has been studied. CLL cells express higher levels of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and ETA receptor as compared to normal B cells. Upon ET-1 stimulation, CLL cells improve their survival and proliferation and reduce their sensitivity to the phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib and to fludarabine. Here, we demonstrate that CLL cells express not only ETA receptor but also ETB receptor. ET-1 acts as a homing factor supporting CLL cells migration and adhesion to microenvironmental cells. In addition, ET-1 stimulates a pro-angiogenic profile of CLL cells increasing VEGF expression through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) accumulation in CLL cells. Macitentan, a specific dual inhibitor of ETA and ETB receptors, targets CLL cells affecting leukemic cells migration and adhesion and overcoming the pro-survival and proliferation signals mediated by microenvironment. Furthermore, macitentan cooperates with ibrutinib inhibiting the BCR pathway and with ABT-199 disrupting BCL2 pathway. Our data describe the biological effects of a new drug, macitentan, able to counteract essential processes in CLL pathobiology as survival, migration, trafficking and drug resistance. These findings envision the possibility to interfere with ET receptors activity using macitentan as a possible novel therapeutic strategy for CLL patients.

Tracking Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in the Humanized DRAG Mouse Model.

Humanized mice are emerging as an alternative model system to well-established non-human primate (NHP) models for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 biology and pathogenesis. Although both NHP and humanized mice have their own strengths and could never truly reflect the complex human immune system and biology, there are several advantages of using the humanized mice in terms of using primary HIV-1 for infection instead of simian immunodeficiency virus or chimera simian/HIV. Several different types of humanized mice have been developed with varying levels of reconstitution of human CD45(+) cells. In this study, we utilized humanized Rag1KO.IL2RγcKO.NOD mice expressing HLA class II (DR4) molecule (DRAG mice) infused with HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood to study early events after HIV-1 infection, since the mucosal tissues of these mice are highly enriched for human lymphocytes and express the receptors and coreceptors needed for HIV-1 entry. We examined the various tissues on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 after an intravaginal administration of a single dose of purified primary HIV-1. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected as early as day 7, with 100% of the animals becoming plasma RNA positive by day 21 post-infection. Single cells were isolated from lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, gut, female reproductive tissue, and brain and analyzed for gag RNA and strong stop DNA by quantitative (RT)-PCR. Our data demonstrated the presence of HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA in all of the tissues examined and that the virus was replication competent and spread rapidly. Bone marrow, gut, and lymph nodes were viral RNA positive by day 4 post-infection, while other tissues and plasma became positive typically between 7 and 14 days post-infection. Interestingly, the brain was the last tissue to become HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA positive by day 21 post-infection. These data support the notion that humanized DRAG mice could serve as an excellent model for studying the trafficking of HIV-1 to the various tissues, identification of cells harboring the virus, and thus could serve as a model system for HIV-1 pathogenesis and reservoir studies.

Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells.

For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α), the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC)-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

Tagging of Endogenous BK Channels with a Fluorogen-Activating Peptide Reveals β4-Mediated Control of Channel Clustering in Cerebellum.

BK channels are critical regulators of neuronal activity, controlling firing, neurotransmitter release, cerebellar function, and BK channel mutations have been linked to seizure disorders. Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. Fluorogen-activating peptides (FAPs) are well-suited for trafficking and physiological studies due to the binding of malachite green (MG)-based dyes with sub-nanomolar affinity to the FAP, resulting in bright, photostable, far-red fluorescence. Cell-excluded MG dyes enable the selective tagging of surface protein and tracking through endocytic pathways. We used CRISPR to insert the FAP at the extracellular N-terminus of BKα in the first exon of its native locus, enabling regulation by the native promoter elements and tag incorporation into multiple splice isoforms. Motor coordination was found to be normal; however, BK channel expression seems to be reduced in some locations. Alternate start site selection or post-translational proteolytic processing resulted in incomplete FAP tagging of the BKα proteins in brain tissues. In Purkinje cell somata, FAP revealed BK channel clustering previously only observed by electron microscopy. Measurement of these clusters in β4(+/-) and β4(-/-) mice showed that puncta number and cluster fluorescence intensity on the soma are reduced in β4(-/-) knockout animals. This novel mouse line provides a versatile fluorescent platform for studying endogenous BK channels in living and fixed tissues. Future studies could apply this line to ex vivo neuronal cultures to study live-cell channel trafficking.

Amino-Terminal β-Amyloid Antibody Blocks β-Amyloid-Mediated Inhibition of the High-Affinity Choline Transporter CHT.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The deficits in cognition and attentional processing that are observed clinically in AD are linked to impaired function of cholinergic neurons that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is present at the presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminal and is responsible for the reuptake of choline produced by hydrolysis of ACh following its release. Disruption of CHT function leads to decreased choline uptake and ACh synthesis, leading to impaired cholinergic neurotransmission. We report here that cell-derived β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) decrease choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels in SH-SY5Y neural cells. Moreover, we make the novel observation that the amount of CHT protein localizing to early endosomes and lysosomes is decreased significantly in cells that have been treated with cell culture medium that contains Aβ peptides released from neural cells. The Aβ-mediated loss of CHT proteins from lysosomes is prevented by blocking lysosomal degradation of CHT with the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1). BafA1 also attenuated the Aβ-mediated decrease in CHT cell surface expression. Interestingly, however, lysosome inhibition did not block the effect of Aβ on CHT activity. Importantly, neutralizing Aβ using an anti-Aβ antibody directed at the N-terminal amino acids 1-16 of Aβ, but not by an antibody directed at the mid-region amino acids 22-35 of Aβ, attenuates the effect of Aβ on CHT activity and trafficking. This indicates that a specific N-terminal Aβ epitope, or specific conformation of soluble Aβ, may impair CHT activity. Therefore, Aβ immunotherapy may be a more effective therapeutic strategy for slowing the progression of cognitive decline in AD than therapies designed to promote CHT cell surface levels.

Shear Stress Regulates TRPV4 Channel Clustering and Translocation from Adherens Junctions to the Basal Membrane.

Localized Ca(2+) influx via TRPV4 on the surface of endothelial cells greatly influences endothelial adaptation to blood flow, but how mechanical stress from blood flow controls TRPV4 integration into this physiological function is not fully understood. Here, we studied the spatial organization of TRPV4 and its relationship to the adherens junction component β-catenin using single- and dual-color direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). In non-stimulated endothelial cells, TRPV4 is clustered in small protein islands, as is β-catenin. Using dual-color imaging, we found that TRPV4 and β-catenin reside in similar islands and can be found at both the basolateral and basal membranes. Following shear stress stimulation, TRPV4 molecules formed smaller clusters, with the majority residing outside of clusters. Further shear stress stimulation changed the molecular distribution of TRPV4 molecules, limiting them to the basal membrane. This redistribution and the smaller clusters resulted in the segregation of TRPV4 from β-catenin. Furthermore, TRPV4 trafficking was controlled by focal adhesion kinase and activation of the α5ß1 integrin. These highly differentiated spatial redistributions suggest that mechanotransduction of blood flow is controlled via a more complex hierarchy than previously thought.

A mini review on immune role of chemokines and its receptors in snakehead murrel Channa striatus.

Chemokines are ubiquitous cytokine molecules involved in migration of cells during inflammation and normal physiological processes. Though the study on chemokines in mammalian species like humans have been extensively studied, characterization of chemokines in teleost fishes is still in the early stage. The present review provides an overview of chemokines and its receptors in a teleost fish, Channa striatus. C. striatus is an air breathing freshwater carnivore, which has enormous economic importance. This species is affected by an oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans and a Gram negative bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila is known to cause secondary infection. These pathogens impose immune changes in the host organism, which in turn mounts several immune responses. Of these, the role of cytokines in the immune response is immense, due to their involvement in several activities of inflammation such as cell trafficking to the site of inflammation and antigen presentation. Given that importance, chemokines in fishes do have significant role in the immunological and other physiological functions of the organism, hence there is a need to understand the characteristics, activities and performace of these small molecules in details.

Cortactin: Cell Functions of A Multifaceted Actin-Binding Protein.

Cortactin fulfills many functions in various cell types. These functions have been considered to derive from its ability to activate the Actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, and are regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation and acetylation. New evidence suggests that cortactin regulates cell migration by controlling the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins rather than lamellipodial Arp2/3 activation, and that cortactin also functions in GTPase signaling, vesicular trafficking, and actomyosin contractility. These recent new findings and concepts are relevant for physiological and pathological cell functions, but have not yet been put into mechanistic context. Here, we reconsider current thinking on cortactin functions in different cell types during health and disease, and discuss potential directions of future research in cortactin biology.

Clathrin Assembly Defines the Onset and Geometry of Cortical Patterning.

Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP. In addition to the localized endocytic assembly at the plasma membrane, intracellular clathrin and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate predict the excitability of the plasma membrane and modulate the geometry of traveling waves. Collectively, our data demonstrate the multiplicity of clathrin functions in cortical pattern formation and provide important insights regarding the nucleation and propagation of single-cell patterns.

Cell Invasion In Vivo via Rapid Exocytosis of a Transient Lysosome-Derived Membrane Domain.

Invasive cells use small invadopodia to breach basement membrane (BM), a dense matrix that encases tissues. Following the breach, a large protrusion forms to clear a path for tissue entry by poorly understood mechanisms. Using RNAi screening for defects in Caenorhabditis elegans anchor cell (AC) invasion, we found that UNC-6(netrin)/UNC-40(DCC) signaling at the BM breach site directs exocytosis of lysosomes using the exocyst and SNARE SNAP-29 to form a large protrusion that invades vulval tissue. Live-cell imaging revealed that the protrusion is enriched in the matrix metalloprotease ZMP-1 and transiently expands AC volume by more than 20%, displacing surrounding BM and vulval epithelium. Photobleaching and genetic perturbations showed that the BM receptor dystroglycan forms a membrane diffusion barrier at the neck of the protrusion, which enables protrusion growth. Together these studies define a netrin-dependent pathway that builds an invasive protrusion, an isolated lysosome-derived membrane structure specialized to breach tissue barriers.

Endosomal Trafficking: Retromer and Retriever Are Relatives in Recycling.

Transmembrane proteins are sorted from endosomes to avoid lysosomal degradation. A recent study has identified a new multimeric complex called retriever that is essential for recycling numerous cell-surface cargoes from endosomes and is structurally and functionally related to the well-characterised retromer complex.

A New Frontier in Immunometabolism. Cholesterol in Lung Health and Disease.

The lung has a unique relationship to cholesterol that is shaped by its singular physiology. On the one hand, the lungs receive the full cardiac output and have a predominant dependence on plasma lipoprotein uptake for their cholesterol supply. On the other hand, surfactant lipids, including cholesterol, are continually susceptible to oxidation owing to direct environmental exposure and must be cleared or recycled because of the very narrow biophysical mandates placed upon surfactant lipid composition. Interestingly, increased lipid-laden macrophage "foam cells" have been noted in a wide range of human lung pathologies. This suggests that lipid dysregulation may be a unifying and perhaps contributory event in chronic lung disease pathogenesis. Recent studies have shown that perturbations in intracellular cholesterol trafficking critically modify the immune response of macrophages and other cells. This minireview discusses literature that has begun to demonstrate the importance of regulated cholesterol traffic through the lung to pulmonary immunity, inflammation, and fibrosis. This emerging recognition of coupling between immunity and lipid homeostasis in the lung presents potentially transformative concepts for understanding lung disease and may also offer novel and exciting avenues for therapeutic development.

Dynamic glycosylation governs the vertebrate COPII protein trafficking pathway.

The COPII coat complex, which mediates secretory cargo trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a key control point for subcellular protein targeting. Because misdirected proteins cannot function, protein sorting by COPII is critical for establishing and maintaining normal cell and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, mutations in COPII genes cause a range of human pathologies, including cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD), which is characterized by collagen trafficking defects, craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal dysmorphology. Detailed knowledge of the COPII pathway is required to understand its role in normal cell physiology and to devise new treatments for disorders in which it is disrupted. However, little is known about how vertebrates dynamically regulate COPII activity in response to developmental, metabolic or pathological cues. Several COPII proteins are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a dynamic form of intracellular protein glycosylation, but the biochemical and functional effects of these modifications remain unclear. Here, we use a combination of chemical, biochemical, cellular and genetic approaches to demonstrate that site-specific O-GlcNAcylation of COPII proteins mediates their protein-protein interactions and modulates cargo secretion. In particular, we show that individual O-GlcNAcylation sites of the essential COPII component Sec23A are required for its function in human cells and vertebrate development, because mutation of these sites impairs Sec23A-dependent in vivo collagen trafficking and skeletogenesis in a zebrafish model of CLSD. Our results indicate that O-GlcNAc is a conserved and critical regulatory modification in the vertebrate COPII-dependent trafficking pathway.

Soluble MHC molecules in immune regulation: Highlighting class II antigens.

The involvement of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the development and regulation of immune response has been well defined over the years, starting from maturation, antigenic peptide loading, migration to the cell membrane for recognition by the T cell receptor and recycling for immune response cessation. During this intracellular trafficking, MHC antigens find a way to be excreted by the cells, since they can be found as soluble MHC class I (sMHCI) and class II (sMHCII) molecules in all body fluids. Although secretion mechanisms have not been sufficiently studied, sMHC molecules have been shown to display important immunoregulatory properties. Their levels in the serum have been shown to be altered in a variety of diseases including viral infections, inflammation, autoimmunities, cancer etc, while they seem to be involved in a number of physiological reactions including maintenance of tolerance, reproduction, as well as mate choice vis-à-vis species evolution. The present review aims to present the so far existing literature on sMHC molecules and point out the importance of these molecules in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Adenovirus vector-based prime-boost vaccination via heterologous routes induces cervicovaginal CD8(+) T cell responses against HPV16 oncoproteins.

Recent advances in immunotherapy against cancer underscore the importance of T lymphocytes and tumor microenvironment, but few vaccines targeting cancer have been approved likely due in part to the dearth of common tumor antigens, insufficient immunogenicity and the evolution of immune evasion mechanisms during the progression to malignancy. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the primary etiologic agents of cervical cancer and progression from persistent HPV-infection to cervical intraepithelial lesions and eventually cancer requires persistent expression of the oncoproteins E6 and E7. This offers the opportunity to specifically target these virus-specific antigens for vaccine-induced clearance of infected cells before cancers develop. Here we have evaluated the immunogenicity of Adenovirus types 26 and 35 derived vectors expressing a fusion of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins after intramuscular and/or intravaginal immunization in mice. The adenovirus vectors were shown to transduce an intact cervicovaginal epithelium. Intramuscular prime followed by intravaginal boost maximized the induction and trafficking of HPV-specific CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α to the cervicovaginal tract. Importantly, the cervicovaginal CD8(+) T cells expressed CD69 and CD103, hallmarks of intraepithelial tissue resident memory CD8(+) T cells. This prime/boost strategy targeting heterologous locations also induced circulating HPV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. Our study prompts further evaluation of intravaginal immunization with adenoviral vectors expressing modified E6 and E7 antigens for therapeutic vaccination against persistent HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Cytoplasmic cleavage of DPPA3 is required for intracellular trafficking and cleavage-stage development in mice.

Degradation of maternal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) accompanies the maternal-to-zygotic transition. DPPA3/Stella/PGC7, encoded by a maternal effect gene, is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of zygotes and has been associated with protecting the female pronucleus from TET3-mediated demethylation. We now report that cytoplasmic DPPA3 is partially cleaved by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and an N-terminus fragment remains in the cytoplasm where it associates with early and re-cycling endosomes. If DPPA3 is absent or if cleavage is prevented, multiple vesicles coalesce/aggregate and markers of lysosomes are decreased. Fertilized eggs develop poorly into blastocysts, which results in significantly decreased fecundity of Dppa3 (R60A) transgenic mice. This phenocopies aspects of Lamp1/2 knockdowns and Dppa3 (KO) embryos can be partially rescued in vitro by DPPA3(1-60) and to a lesser extent by LAMP1/2. Thus, the N-terminus of DPPA3 has a significant role in cytoplasmic vesicular trafficking in addition to its previously reported nuclear function.

Galectin-1: A Jack-of-All-Trades in the Resolution of Acute and Chronic Inflammation.

Regulatory signals provide negative input to immunological networks promoting resolution of acute and chronic inflammation. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of a family of evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins, displays broad anti-inflammatory and proresolving activities by targeting multiple immune cell types. Within the innate immune compartment, Gal-1 acts as a resolution-associated molecular pattern by counteracting the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting neutrophil trafficking, targeting eosinophil migration and survival, and suppressing mast cell degranulation. Likewise, this lectin controls T cell and B cell compartments by modulating receptor clustering and signaling, thus serving as a negative-regulatory checkpoint that reprograms cellular activation, differentiation, and survival. In this review, we discuss the central role of Gal-1 in regulatory programs operating during acute inflammation, autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation, pregnancy, cancer, and infection. Therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting Gal-1-glycan interactions will contribute to overcome cancer immunosuppression and reinforce antimicrobial immunity, whereas stimulation of Gal-1-driven immunoregulatory circuits will help to mitigate exuberant inflammation.

CAR-T cell Therapies in Glioblastoma: a first look.

Glioblastoma is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients includes surgery to the extent, temozolomide combined with radiotherapy, and alternating electric fields therapy. After recurrence, there is no standard therapy and survival is less than 9 months. Recurrent glioblastoma offers a unique opportunity to investigate new treatment approaches in a malignancy known for remarkable genetic heterogeneity, immunosuppressive microenvironment and partially permissive anatomical blood brain barrier (BBB). Results from three first-in-man CAR-T cell trials targeting IL13Rα2, Her2/CMV and EGFRvIII have recently been reported. Each one of these trials addresses important questions, such as T cell trafficking to CNS, engraftment and persistence, tumor microenvironment (TME) remodeling, and monitoring of glioma response to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Objective radiological responses have been reported. Here, we discuss and summarize the results of these trials and suggest opportunities for the field.

A comparative proteomic study of secretomes in kaempferitrin-treated CTX TNA2 astrocytic cells.

Kaempferitrin is extracted in significantly high quantities from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum (C.O) and Bauhinia forficata, and are used as an antidiabetic herbal remedy in China and Brazil. Commercial product using dry Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves has been sold locally in Taiwan. Oral administration of kaempferitrin reduced blood sugar in diabetic rats.

Prospects for combined use of oncolytic viruses and CAR T-cells.

With the approval of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for inoperable locally advanced or metastatic malignant melanoma in the USA and Europe, oncolytic virotherapy is now emerging as a viable therapeutic option for cancer patients. In parallel, following the favourable results of several clinical trials, adoptive cell transfer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T-cells is anticipated to enter routine clinical practice for the management of chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies. However, CAR T-cell therapy for patients with advanced solid tumours has proved far less successful. This Review draws upon recent advances in the design of novel oncolytic viruses and CAR T-cells and provides a comprehensive overview of the synergistic potential of combination oncolytic virotherapy with CAR T-cell adoptive cell transfer for the management of solid tumours, drawing particular attention to the methods by which recombinant oncolytic viruses may augment CAR T-cell trafficking into the tumour microenvironment, mitigate or reverse local immunosuppression and enhance CAR T-cell effector function and persistence.

Secretory autophagy holds the key to lysozyme secretion during bacterial infection of the intestine.

In 2013, Dr. Lora Hooper and colleagues described the induction of antibacterial macroautophagy/autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells as a cytoprotective host defense mechanism against invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Canonical autophagy functions in a primarily degradative capacity to safeguard cells and ensure survival during stress conditions, including pathogen infection. In contrast, secretory autophagy has emerged as an alternative nondegradative mechanism for cellular trafficking and unconventional protein secretion. More recently, a study by Bel et al. from Dr. Hooper's lab describes how intestinal Paneth cells exploit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response to release antibacterial lysozyme through secretory autophagy in response to S. Typhimurium infection.

PDAC-derived exosomes enrich the microenvironment in MDSCs in a SMAD4-dependent manner through a new calcium related axis.

Tumor genetics and escape from immune surveillance concur in the poor prognosis of PDAC. In this study an experimental model was set up to verify whether SMAD4, deleted in about 55% PDAC and associated with poor prognosis, is involved in determining immunosuppression through Exosomes (Exo). Potential mechanisms and mediators underlying SMAD4-dependent immunosuppression were evaluated by studying intracellular calcium (Fluo-4), Exo-miRNAs (microarray) and Exo-proteins (SILAC). Two PDAC cell lines expressing (BxPC3-SMAD4+) or not-expressing (BxPC3) SMAD4 were used to prepare Exo-enriched conditioned media, employed in experiments with blood donors PBMCs. Exo expanded myeloid derived suppressor cells (gMDSC and mMDSC, flow cytometry) and altered intracellular calcium fluxes in an SMAD4 dependent manner. BxPC3-SMAD4+, but mainly BxPC3 Exo, increased calcium fluxes of PBMCs (p = 0.007) and this increased intracellular calcium trafficking characterized mMDSCs. The analysis of de-regulated Exo-miRNAs and transfection experiments revealed hsa-miR-494-3p and has-miR-1260a as potential mediators of SMAD4-associated de-regulated calcium fluxes. Eleven main biological processes were identified by the analysis of SMAD4-associated de-regulated Exo-proteins, including translation, cell adhesion, cell signaling and glycolysis. A reverse Warburg effect was observed by treating PBMCs with PDAC-derived Exo: BxPC3 Exo induced a higher glucose consumption and lactate production than BxPC3-SMAD4+ Exo.

Impaired AQP2 trafficking in Fxyd1 knockout mice: A role for FXYD1 in regulated vesicular transport.

The final adjustment of urine volume occurs in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), chiefly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2). With vasopressin stimulation, AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane of principal cells allows water reabsorption from the lumen. We report that FXYD1 (phospholemman), better known as a regulator of Na,K-ATPase, has a role in AQP2 trafficking. Daytime urine of Fxyd1 knockout mice was more dilute than WT despite similar serum vasopressin, but both genotypes could concentrate urine during water deprivation. FXYD1 was found in IMCD. In WT mice, phosphorylated FXYD1 was detected intracellularly, and vasopressin induced its dephosphorylation. We tested the hypothesis that the dilute urine in knockouts was caused by alteration of AQP2 trafficking. In WT mice at baseline, FXYD1 and AQP2 were not strongly co-localized, but elevation of vasopressin produced translocation of both FXYD1 and AQP2 to the apical plasma membrane. In kidney slices, baseline AQP2 distribution was more scattered in the Fxyd1 knockout than in WT. Apical recruitment of AQP2 occurred in vasopressin-treated Fxyd1 knockout slices, but upon vasopressin washout, there was more rapid reversal of apical AQP2 localization and more heterogeneous cytoplasmic distribution of AQP2. Notably, in sucrose gradients, AQP2 was present in a detergent-resistant membrane domain that had lower sedimentation density in the knockout than in WT, and vasopressin treatment normalized its density. We propose that FXYD1 plays a role in regulating AQP2 retention in apical membrane, and that this involves transfers between raft-like membrane domains in endosomes and plasma membranes.