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chlamydia - Top 30 Publications

Ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

Ocular adnexal lymphomas are a group of heterogeneous neoplasms representing approximately 1-2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and 8% of extranodal lymphomas. The incidence of primary ocular adnexal lymphoid tumors has raised over the last decades, and this could be probably attributed to the more sophisticated diagnostic techniques. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ocular tissue biopsy is important in order to set a precise diagnosis based on histological, immunophenotypical and, in some cases, molecular findings. The most common subtype, which may account for up to 80% of primary ocular adnexal lymphomas, is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. This lymphoma is usually asymptomatic in the early phase of the disease causing a delay in the final diagnosis and prompt therapy. The pathogenesis of a proportion of these tumors has been linked to chronic inflammatory stimulation from specific infectious factors (e.g., Chlamydia psittaci) or to autoimmunity. The further improvement in diagnostic methods and the further understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular adnexal EMZL may contribute to the establishment of a more successful multidisciplinary therapeutic planning.

Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Interventions for treating genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy.

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C.trachomatis) infection may lead to pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preterm labour, low birthweight, preterm rupture of membranes, increased perinatal mortality, postpartum endometritis, chlamydial conjunctivitis and C.trachomatis pneumonia.This review supersedes a previous review on this topic.

Health care, needs and barriers in seeking medical care for global health and sexual and reproductive health, among students from Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

In Ivory Coast, little is known about health needs and health access barriers among young people. The aim of this study was to describe health provision, health needs and barriers when seeking medical care, with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive health, and the acceptability of a medical examination for students attending their first year at the Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

Monitoring therapy success of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women: A prospective observational cohort study.

The use of a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as a test of cure after treatment is subject to discussion, as the presence of C. trachomatis nucleic acids after treatment may be prolonged and intermittent without presence of infectious bacteria. We used cell culture to assess if a positive RNA- or DNA-based NAAT after treatment indicates the presence of viable C. trachomatis.

A Smartphone Application to Reduce Time-to-Notification of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

To measure whether the implementation of Healthvana-an online patient engagement platform and smartphone application-reduced the number of days between sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, notification, and treatment at AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF) Wellness Centers.

Molecular mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis resistance to antimicrobial drugs.

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in developed and undeveloped countries, and therefore a global public health issue. In an era of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resistance has been an exceedingly rare phenomenon in C. trachomatis; however, clinical treatment failures attributed to multidrug-resistant C. trachomatis strains have been described on several occasions. Cell culture systems using McCoy cells and subsequent immunofluorescent staining are still the most common methodology used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, but the presence of resistance markers should be appraised by further genetic analysis. Azithromycin resistance of C. trachomatis is often a result of the mutations in the peptidyl transferase region of 23S rRNA genes, tetracycline resistance is usually linked to the presence of foreign genomic islands integrated in chlamydial chromosome, whereas a predominant mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance is a point mutation in the gyrA quinolone-resistance-determining region. A nucleotide substitution in rpoB gene is responsible for rifampin resistance, and different mechanisms have been involved in the development of resistance to aminoglycosides, lincomycin and sulphonamide/trimethoprim combinations.

Neonates Born to Chlamydia-Positive Mothers.

Development and evaluation of rapid novel isothermal amplification assays for important veterinary pathogens: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum.

Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC). In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of these pathogens.

Evaluation of knowledge and utility of the 2014 Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men among general practitioners in Sydney.

The Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men were updated in 2014. An evaluation study targeting Sydney-based general practitioners was conducted among 85 clinicians. Respondents with knowledge of guideline recommendations were significantly more likely to feel comfortable asking men who have sex with men about their sexual history (98.1% vs 81.3%, P=0.039), and to recommend at least annual testing (94.0% vs 68.8%, P=0.015), 3-month retesting after chlamydia or gonorrhoea treatment (96.2% vs 73.3%, P=0.017) and syphilis testing with routine HIV monitoring bloods (90.2% vs 57.1%, P=0.037). Familiarity with the guidelines was associated with a range of positive outcomes on general practitioners' clinical practice. Novel approaches are required to ensure more widespread distribution of future guidelines.

Patient Willingness to Have Tests to Guide Antibiotic Use for Respiratory Tract Infections: From the WWAMI Region Practice and Research Network (WPRN).

The majority of consultations for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) lead to prescriptions for antibiotics, which have limited clinical benefit. We explored patients' willingness to have blood tests as part of the diagnostic work-up for RTIs, and patient knowledge about antibiotics.

Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016.

Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new CE/IVD Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016.

Influence of co-infection complicated with human papillomavirus on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia development in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection is a primary cause of the development of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. However, the influence of other infections on intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) development has not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the association between co-infection and CIN development in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS).

Chlamydia trachomatis regulates innate immune barrier integrity and mediates cytokine and antimicrobial responses in human uterine ECC-1 epithelial cells.

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and known to increase the risk for HIV acquisition. Few studies have investigated how infection of epithelial cells compromises barrier integrity and antimicrobial response.

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Compelling Case for an Improved Screening Strategy.

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Compelling Case for an Improved Screening Strategy Stephen Hull, MHS, Seán Kelley, MD, MSc, and Janice L. Clarke, RN, BBA Editorial: Sexually Transmitted Infections-A Fixable Problem: David B. Nash, MD, MBA   S-3 Introduction   S-3 Rising Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs)   S-4 Current Screening Rates for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea   S-4 The Human Toll and Economic Burden of STI-Related Illness   S-5 Current Screening Guidelines for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea   S-5 Factors Contributing to Inadequate Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment for STIs   S-6 Methods Used to Improve Screening Rates   S-7 Benefits of Opt-Out Screening Strategies for STIs   S-8 Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for STIs   S-8 Discussion   S-9 Conclusion   S-10.

Brief manual-based single-session Motivational Interviewing for reducing high-risk sexual behaviour in women - an evaluation.

The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) to facilitate behaviour change in women at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One hundred and seventy-three women (mean age 24.7) at high risk of contracting STIs were randomized to a brief risk-reducing MI counselling intervention (n = 74) or assigned to the control group (n = 99). MI skill was assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) Coding System. Seventeen of 74 (23%) women tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the MI intervention group and 22 of 99 (22%) in the control group had a genital CT infection 0-24 months before baseline. All additional CT testing was monitored up to 24 months for all 173 women in the study. None of the 49 CT-retested women in the MI group was CT infected, as compared to 3 of 72 (4%) women in the control group. A generalized estimating equations model with sexual high-risk behaviour measured at baseline and at six-month follow-up produced an adjusted estimated odds ratio of 0.38 (95% confidence interval = 0.158, 0.909), indicating efficacy. Brief manual-based single-session MI counselling seems to be effective in reducing high-risk sexual behaviour in women at high risk of acquiring STIs.

Molecular etiopathology of naturally occurring reproductive diseases in female goats.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular etiopathology of occurrence of reproductive diseases in female goats. Reproductive diseases in goats account for major economic losses to goat farmers in terms of valuable loss of offspring and animal productivity.

Molecular characterization of lower vaginal swabs for Human papilloma virus in association with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Cameroonian Women.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is an etiological factor for cervical cancer development and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is considered as a cofactor. Understanding the dynamics of HPV and Ct infection could help to explain the incidence of early onset of cervical cancer (CC) observed in Cameroon. Lower vaginal swabs and sera from sexually active women were analyzed for HPV and Ct infection in association with risk factors. Questionnaires were used to document patients' lifestyle and risk factors. A total of 206 women participated in the study average 28.1±8years (16-50 years). HPV prevalence was 23.3% with subtypes 16 and 18 at respectively 2.9% and 1%. Ct infection totalised 40.8%, of which 23.8% were HPV- Ct co-infections. HPV infection was inversely associated with age (p=0.028). We found a positive association between Ct infection and the number of sex partners (p=0.012) and a negative association with parity (p=0.032). There was no significant association between HPV and Ct infections. High rates of HPV and Ct infections could be an indicator of cervical cancer risk in the near future. There is therefore an urgent need for sensitization as well as implementation of appropriate preventive measures.

Distribution of Chlamydia Trachomatis Genotypes in Infective Diseases of the Female Lower Genital Tract.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes in infective diseases of the female lower genital tract, especially in cervical diseases. This study included 128 CT-positive women. DNA was extracted from cervical swabs. Omp1 gene PCR-RFLP and sequencing were used to confirm the subtypes of CT. The association of subtypes with age, clinical symptoms, cervical cytology, and biopsy results was further analyzed. Omp1 gene PCR-RFLP and sequencing showed that the order of prevalent CT genotypes in the female lower genital tract was D (n=38, 29.69%), followed by E (n=28, 21.88%), G (n=21, 16.41%), and F (n=16,12.50%). Genotypes J, H, and K were comparatively rare. Genotype I was not identified in our samples. Further analysis showed that patients with genotype G were more frequently co-infected with other bacteria. Genotype G was also associated with mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Patients with genotype E were commonly co-infected with HR-HPV. Although genotype D was the most prevalent, it was a relatively low-risk type. These results provide information on distribution of CT genotypes in infective diseases of the female lower genital tract, which is instrumental to developing a vaccine for CT.

A simple and rapid DNA extraction method for Chlamydia trachomatis detection from urogenital swabs.

A highly sensitive and specific Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnostic test was developed by combining filtration isolation of nucleic acid (FINA) extraction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction including an internal control to identify test inhibition. A pilot study of 40 clinical specimens yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Project LifeSkills - a randomized controlled efficacy trial of a culturally tailored, empowerment-based, and group-delivered HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women: study protocol.

Transgender women in the U.S. have an alarmingly high incidence rate of HIV infection; condomless anal and vaginal sex is the primary risk behavior driving transmission. Young transgender women are the subpopulation at the highest risk for HIV. Despite this, there are no published randomized controlled efficacy trials testing interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV among this group. This paper describes the design of a group-based intervention trial to reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition and transmission in young transgender women.

Frequency and genotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending the obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Jalisco, Mexico and correlation with sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological factors.

Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and genotypes of C. trachomatis in patients attending an obstetrics and gynecology clinic in Jalisco, Mexico and correlates them with sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological factors.

Accuracy of tests used to detect infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic pregnant women: a systematic review.

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy is linked to increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Currently, PCR or DNA-based tests are the gold standard when detecting the infection; however, they are costly and require access to specialist equipment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of available tests to detect infection in an asymptomatic pregnant population.

Corrigendum: Rapid and visual Chlamydia trachomatis detection using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and hydroxynaphthol blue.

Interactions of antisera to different Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species with the ribosomal protein RPS27a correlate with impaired protein synthesis in a human choroid plexus papilloma cell line.

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and the Chlamydophila species (CS) Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn), and Chlamydophila psittaci (CPs) are suggested to induce autoantibodies causative of several human autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was therefore to identify cellular protein interaction partners with antisera to CT (α-CT) or CS (α-CS) and to identify functional consequences of such interaction in vitro. As detected with a commercial first trimester human prenatal brain multiprotein array (hEXselect, Engine, Germany), the most frequent interaction partner with both α-CT and α-CS was the ribosomal small subunit protein RPS27a. This could be confirmed by Western blot analysis with a recombinant RPS27a sample. In addition, immunocytochemistry with both antisera in the human choroid plexus papilloma cell line HIBCPP revealed a granular cytoplasmic staining, and Western blot analysis with whole-cell protein samples of HIBCPP cells revealed both antisera to label protein bands of different molecular weights and intensity. By 2D Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry, one of the protein spots interacting with α-CT could be identified as the RPS27a. Finally, two different methods for the detection of protein synthesis activity, the SUnSET technique and an HPG fluorescence assay revealed both antisera to cause reduced translational activity in HIBCPP cells. Together with previous findings of RPS27a as an autoimmune target in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), these results suggest that infections with CT and/or CS could induce SLE-associated immune modifications. However, direct evidence for a pathogenic role of these interactions for SLE demands further investigations.

Developmental Cycle and Genome Analysis of Protochlamydia massiliensis sp. nov. a New Species in the Parachlamydiacae Family.

Amoeba-associated microorganisms (AAMs) are frequently isolated from water networks. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of Protochlamydia massiliensis, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Parachlamydiaceae family in the Chlamydiales order, from a cooling water tower. This bacterium was isolated on Vermamoeba vermiformis. It has a multiple range of hosts among amoeba and is characterized by a typical replication cycle of Chlamydiae with a particularity, recently shown in some chlamydia, which is the absence of inclusion vacuoles in the V. vermiformis host, adding by this a new member of Chlamydiae undergoing developmental cycle changes in the newly adapted host V. vermiformis. Draft genome sequencing revealed a chromosome of 2.86 Mb consisting of four contigs and a plasmid of 92 Kb.

Infectious Agents As Markers of Human Migration toward the Amazon Region of Brazil.

Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations. In the present article, the evidence of infection by viral agents such as human T-lymphotropic virus 1, human T-lymphotropic virus 2, human herpes virus-8, JC virus, and a bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, was described using different methodologies for their detection. Their presence was further used as biomarkers associated with anthropological and other relevant information to trace human migration into the Amazon region of Brazil. The approach also evidenced their microbiological origin, emergence, evolution, and spreading. The information obtained confirms much of the archeological information available tracing ancient and more recent human migration into this particular geographical region. In this article, the paleomicrobiological information on the subject was summarized and reviewed.

Detection of specific Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus antigens in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque in a Chinese population.

To explore the relationship between certain pathogens, such as chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), and carotid atherosclerosis (AS) in a Chinese population.Twenty-five carotid atherosclerotic stenosis patients from the Beijing Tiantan Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University) participated in the study. After undergoing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or computed tomography angiography (CTA), the degree of carotid artery stenosis was over 70% in all cases, and the patients underwent carotid endarterectomy. Plaque specimens were obtained during surgery. The streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) method was used to test the Cpn and CMV antigens in the specimens, and the relationship between the Cpn and CMV pathogen infections and AS was analyzed based on the test results. In the group of 25 carotid atherosclerotic specimens, the detection rate of the Cpn-specific antigens was 84.0% (21/25). In the control group, the detection rate was 13.3% (2/15) in the ascending aortic intima. Thus, the between-group difference was significant (P<0.01). The CMV-specific antigen detection rate was 72.0% (18/25) using the same experimental group specimens, and the detection rate was zero in the control group. Thus, there were significant between-group differences (P<0.01). Due to the high detection rate of Cpn- and CMV-specific antigens in carotid atherosclerotic plaque in a Chinese population, it can be inferred that pathogens such as Cpn and CMV are one factor associated with carotid atherosclerosis.

Lung US features of severe interstitial pneumonia: case report and review of the literature.

Chlamydia pneumonia is reported to account for a relatively large number of cases of CAP. In elderly patients in particular, the clinical presentation can be a severe form of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The chest X-ray presentation is aspecific. Lung US can show a typical pattern of diffuse interstitial lung syndrome; in some cases, like the present one, the association of multiple B lines with a coarse and thickened pleural line points to a more likely diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia.

Risk assessment of legionellosis in cardiology units.

Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, in addition to classic pathogens were isolated exigent Gram negative bacteria as A. baumannii, A. lwoffii, C. burnetii, Bartonella, Chlamydia and Legionella. We present our experience of Legionella isolations in environmental sample (water and air) collected from the Cardiology units belonging to two hospitals in Messina (Italy). A total of 80 samples were carried out, 30 and 50, respectively in the first and in the second structure: 55 of water and 25 of aerosol. The positivity of 30% of the water samples analyzed and 15% of those aerosol strengthens the conviction of the need for greater environmental monitoring, especially in the wards at high risk.