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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Top 30 Publications

Asymptomatic peripheral artery disease can limit maximal exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients regardless of airflow obstruction and lung hyperinflation.

Background Silent/asymptomatic peripheral artery disease may occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it is poorly investigated. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the impact of asymptomatic/silent peripheral artery disease on maximal exercise capacity; the secondary aim was to search for predictors of peripheral artery disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Data on anthropometric characteristics, lung function, cardiopulmonary exercise test and ankle-brachial index were recorded. The cut-off of ankle-brachial index used to define patients with peripheral artery disease was ≤0.90. Results We studied 47 patients and found 24 patients (51%) who showed peripheral artery disease. As compared to patients without peripheral artery disease, patients with peripheral artery disease had lower values of peak oxygen uptake, peak workload, energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents) and heart rate recovery, but showed the same degree of airflow obstruction and static and dynamic hyperinflation. In a multivariate linear regression model performed to identify variables predicting metabolic equivalents, ankle-brachial index (β 2.59; 95% confidence interval 0.51-4.67; p = 0.016) was an independent variable. In the search for predictors of peripheral artery disease, heart rate recovery (odds ratio 8.80; 95% confidence interval 1.30-59.35; p = 0.026) increased the risk of peripheral artery disease, whereas metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.94, p = 0.033) and inhaled corticosteroids+long-acting β2 agonists (odds ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.83; p = 0.030) reduced this risk. Conclusions In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients, asymptomatic/silent peripheral artery disease affects the maximal exercise capacity regardless of airflow obstruction and lung hyperinflation. A delay of heart rate recovery increase the risk of peripheral artery disease, whereas high values of metabolic equivalents and the use of inhaled corticosteroids+long-acting β2 agonists reduces this risk.

Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung.

Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. Here we review the recent evidence of the role of normal gastrointestinal and respiratory microbiome in health and how dysbiosis affects chronic pulmonary diseases. The potential implications of host and environmental factors such as age, gender, diet and use of antibiotics on the composition and overall functionality of microbiome are also discussed. We summarise how microbiota may mediate the dynamic process of immune development and/or regulation focusing on recent data from both clinical human studies and translational animal studies. This furthers the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases and may yield novel avenues for the utilisation of microbiota as potential therapeutic interventions.

Tele-medicine in respiratory diseases.

Information and Communication Technologies applied to health care and advances in sensor and data transmission technology allowed tele-medicine based programs of care also for patients with respiratory diseases. Different sensors, transmission devices and interventions are used in tele-medicine for some indications. Patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, asthma, neuromuscular diseases, ventilator assisted individuals and those undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation programs may benefit from this approach. The legal problems are still unsolved. Economic advantages for health care systems, though potentially high, are still poorly investigated. Despite the hopes, we need more evidence before this modality can be considered as a real progress in the management of patients with respiratory diseases. On one hand, these technologies can improve the care of patients with difficult access to services, particularly those in rural/remote areas, on the other hand, there is the risk that they will be used only to reduce standard services in health systems of developed countries.

Clinician-Performed Bedside Ultrasound in Improving Diagnostic Accuracy in Patients Presenting to the ED with Acute Dyspnea.

Diagnosing acute dyspnea is a critical action performed by emergency physicians (EP). It has been shown that ultrasound (US) can be incorporated into the work-up of the dyspneic patient; but there is little data demonstrating its effect on decision-making. We sought to examine the impact of a bedside, clinician-performed cardiopulmonary US protocol on the clinical impression of EPs evaluating dyspneic patients, and to measure the change in physician confidence with the leading diagnosis before and after US.

Long-term effects of beta-blocker use on lung function in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Some recent studies have suggested that beta-blocker use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a reduction in the frequency of acute exacerbations. However, the long-term effects of beta-blocker use on lung function of COPD patients have hardly been evaluated.

Magnitude of exercise capacity and quality of life improvement following repeat pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD.

Maintenance and repeated pulmonary rehabilitation programs (PRPs) for patients with COPD have attempted to prolong PRP benefits beyond 12-24 months. However, there is limited evidence as to the magnitude of benefit or the ideal interval between repeating the program under "real-world" conditions in which patients are referred based on clinical necessity. Therefore, we reviewed the effects of repeating PRP in a physician-referred cohort of patients with COPD.

Exercise-modulated epigenetic markers and inflammatory response in COPD individuals: A pilot study.

The study investigated the effects of exercise on epigenetic signals and systemic cytokine levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. Ten participants of a pulmonary rehabilitation program were submitted to 24 sessions of a supervisioned exercise protocol thrice-weekly (90min/session). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1st session, before and after the 24th session. A DNA hypomethylation status was observed after the 1st session when compared at baseline, while global histone H4 acetylation status was unaltered in any time-points evaluated. No significant changes were observed on cytokine levels after the 1st session. A significant enhancement on interleukin 6 (IL-6) and a decrease on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) levels were found after the 24th session when compared to the pre 24th session. Moreover, 23 sessions of exercise were able to diminish significantly the basal levels of IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8). These data suggest a potential role of epigenetic machinery in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in COPD patients.

Activation of the Serotonin Pathway is Associated with Poor Outcome in COPD Exacerbation: Results of a Long-Term Cohort Study.

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. An increase of its activity is associated with severity in patients with pneumonia. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, an elevation of serotonin has been reported. Experimental models showed that cigarette smoke inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) leading to higher levels of serotonin. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine, IDO, and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) to predict short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a COPD exacerbation.

Antibiotic Decision in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

Pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation are commonly influenced by environment, knowledge, and beliefs about consequences: a systematic review using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

What are the barriers and enablers of referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Psiguajadials A-K: Unusual Psidium Meroterpenoids as Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava led to the isolation of 11 new Psidium meroterpenoids, psiguajadials A-K (1-11), along with 17 known ones (12-28). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD. Compounds 1 and 2 represent two unprecedented skeletons of 3,5-diformyl-benzyl phloroglucinol-coupled sesquiterpenoid, while 3 is the first example of Psidium meroterpenoids coupling via an oxepane ring. Putative biosynthetic pathways towards 1 and 2 are proposed. Compounds 1-13 and 16-26 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), a drug target for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with IC50 values in the range of 1.34-7.26 μM.

Effect of 4(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)carbamoylbenzoic acid (Am80) on alveolar regeneration in adiponectin deficient-mice showing a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease like pathophysiology.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease that causes widespread and irreversible alveolar collapse. Although COPD occurs worldwide, only symptomatic therapy is currently available. The objective of the present study was the development of therapeutic agents to eradicate COPD. Therefore, we focused on 4-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl) carbamoyl] benzoic acid (Am80), which is a derivative of all-trans retinoic acid. We evaluated the effects of Am80 on alveolar repair in a novel COPD model of adiponectin-deficient mice. This mouse model has more symptoms similar to human COPD than the classic elastase-induced emphysema mouse model. Lung volume, CT values, low attenuation area (LAA) ratios, and bone and fat mass were measured by computed tomography. However, the administration of Am80 did not affect these results. To examine the degree of destruction in the alveoli, the mean linear intercept of the alveolar walls was calculated, and assessment of this value confirmed that there was a significant difference between the control (46.3 ± 2.3 μm) and 0.5 mg/kg Am80-treated group (34.4 ± 1.7 µm). All mice survived because of treatment that lasted for more than 6 months, and we did not observe any abnormalities in autopsies performed at 80 weeks of age. These results suggested that Am80 was effective as a novel therapeutic compound for the treatment of COPD.

TREM2-ligand interactions in health and disease.

The protein Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is an immunomodulatory receptor with a central role in myeloid cell activation and survival. In recent years, the importance of TREM2 has been highlighted by the identification of coding variants that increase risk for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Animal studies have further shown the importance of TREM2 in neurodegenerative and other inflammatory disease models including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. A mechanistic understanding of TREM2 function remains elusive, however, due in part to the absence of conclusive information regarding the identity of endogenous TREM2 ligands. While many TREM2 ligands have been proposed, their physiological role and mechanism of engagement remain to be determined. In this review, we highlight the suggested roles of TREM2 in these diseases, recent advances in our understanding of TREM2, and discuss putative TREM2-ligand interactions and their potential roles in signaling during health and disease. We develop a model based on the TREM2 structure to explain how different TREM2 ligands might interact with the receptor and how disease-risk variants may alter ligand interactions. Finally, we propose future experimental directions to establish the role and importance of these different interactions on TREM2 function.

Statin use and other factors associated with mortality after major lower extremity amputation.

Above-knee amputations (AKAs) and below-knee amputations (BKAs) are associated with high postoperative mortality rates. In this study, we examined factors associated with 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality in patients who underwent a major lower extremity amputation.

Clenbuterol Hydrochloride.

Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced. This profile also includes the monograph of British Pharmacopoeia, together with several reported analytical methods including spectrophotometric, electrochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical methods, and capillary electrophoretic methods. The stability, the pharmacokinetic behavior, and the pharmacology of the drug are also provided.

Understanding the impact of symptoms on the burden of COPD.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a substantial burden on individuals with the disease, which can include a range of symptoms (breathlessness, cough, sputum production, wheeze, chest tightness) of varying severities. We present an overview of the biomedical literature describing reported relationships between COPD symptoms and disease burden in terms of quality of life, health status, daily activities, physical activity, sleep, comorbid anxiety, and depression, as well as risk of exacerbations and disease prognosis. In addition, the substantial variability of COPD symptoms encountered (morning, daytime, and nighttime) is addressed and their implications for disease burden considered. The findings from this narrative review, which mainly focuses on real-world and observational studies, demonstrate the impact of COPD symptoms on the burden of disease and that improved recognition and understanding of their impact is central to alleviating this burden.

Outcomes after early and delayed rehabilitation for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in Japan.

The effectiveness of early pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. The present study aimed to compare the outcomes between early and delayed PR for exacerbation of COPD, using a national inpatient database.

Ambient PM2.5 exposure and premature mortality burden in the holy city Varanasi, India.

More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2.5 above the national air quality standard. It translates to a burden of 5700 (2800-7500) annual premature deaths (0.16% of the population), of which 29%, 18%, 33%, 19% and remaining 1% are attributed to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lower respiratory infection and lung cancer respectively. If the region achieves the Indian (WHO) air quality standard, 1900 (3800) premature deaths can be avoided every year.

Effects of PM2.5 exposure on the Notch signaling pathway and immune imbalance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with T lymphocytes subset (Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg) imbalance. Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the adaptive immunity. The immune disorder induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is related to COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which PM2.5 influences the Notch signaling pathway leading to worsening immune disorder and accelerating COPD development. A COPD mouse model was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by aerosol inhalation. γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) was given using intraperitoneal injection. Splenic T lymphocytes were purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. CD4(+) T lymphocyte subsets (Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg) were detected using flow cytometry. mRNA and proteins of Notch1/2/3/4, Hes1/5, and Hey1 were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot. Serum INF-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-10 concentrations were measured using ELISA. The results showed that in COPD mice Th1% and Th17%, Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg were increased, and the levels of mRNA and protein in Notch1/2/3/4, Hes1/5, and Hey1 and serum INF-γ and IL-17 concentrations were significantly increased, and Th2%, Treg%, and serum IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly decreased. COPD Mice have Th1- and Th17-mediated immune disorder, and the Notch signaling pathway is in an overactivated state. PM2.5 promotes the overactivation of the Notch signaling pathway and aggravates the immune disorder of COPD. GSI can partially inhibit the activation of the Notch signaling pathway and alleviate the immune disorder under basal state and the immune disorder of COPD caused by PM2.5. This result suggests that PM2.5 is involved in the immune disorder of mice with COPD by affecting the Notch signaling pathway and that PM2.5 aggravates COPD.

Identifying Risk Factors Leading to Unanticipated Postoperative Readmission.

Unanticipated postoperative readmissions are a grading metric directly linked to both the quality of patient care and physician reimbursement. However, little data exist to define factors responsible for these readmissions in the plastic surgery patient population. This study aims to identify patient risk factors contributing to unanticipated postoperative readmissions to optimize perioperative patient care and mitigate negative financial impact upon providers.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms V4 and T1 of the ADAM33 gene in Venezuelan patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

ADAM33 is a metalloproteinase important in the extracellular matrix for tissue remodeling, and, consequently, in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene have been associated with enzyme activity. One of the most studied polymorphisms is V4, cytosine for guanine in the 3 'UTR region, and T1, adenine for guanine in the exon 19 of the gen. The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible association among single polymorphisms of ADAM33, V4 and T1, in Venezuelan patients with asthma or COPD. The polymorphisms V4 and T1 were analyzed in 303 individuals (103 asth- matic, 100 COPD and 100 controls) by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the frequency of ADAM33 V4 polymorphism in both, asthmatic and COPD patients groups, as compared to controls. No significant differences (P=0.4) were found for T1 polymorphism. However, there were significant differences (P<O.05) when haplotypes and diplotypes of ADAM33 V4/T1 were compared in all three groups. It can be concluded that the polymorphism V4 of ADAM33 is associated with asthma or COPD in Venezuelan patients.

Developing indicators of appropriate and inappropriate end-of-life care in people with Alzheimer's disease, cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for population-level administrative databases: A RAND/UCLA appropriateness study.

A substantial amount of aggressive life-prolonging treatments in the final stages of life has been reported for people with progressive life-shortening conditions. Monitoring appropriate and inappropriate end-of-life care is an important public health challenge and requires validated quality indicators.

Relationship of Steroid Dosing and Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in Adult Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

The optimal steroid dose for patients who require mechanical ventilation (MV) for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is unknown.

Using Persuasive Technology to Increase Physical Activity in People With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Encouraging Regular Walking: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring Opinions and Preferences.

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PwCOPD) often experience breathlessness and fatigue, making physical activity challenging. Although many persuasive technologies (such as mobile phone apps) have been designed to support physical activity among members of the general population, current technologies aimed at PwCOPD are underdeveloped and only use a limited range of persuasive technology design principles.

p300 and C/EBPβ-regulated IKKβ expression are involved in thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells.

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic lung inflammatory diseases. Thrombin and interleukin (IL)-8/C-X-C chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) play critical roles in lung inflammation. Our previous study showed that c-Src-dependent IκB kinase (IKK)/IκBα/nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK)-dependent CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) activation are involved in thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of p300 and C/EBPβ-reliant IKKβ expression in thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression. Thrombin-induced increases in IL-8/CXCL8-luciferase activity and IL-8/CXCL8 release were inhibited by p300 small interfering (siRNA). Thrombin-caused histone H3 acetylation was attenuated by p300 siRNA. Stimulation of cells with thrombin for 12h resulted in increases in IKKβ expression and phosphorylation in human lung epithelial cells. However, thrombin did not affect p65 expression. Moreover, 12h of thrombin stimulation produced increases in IKKβ expression and phosphorylation, and IκBα phosphorylation, which were inhibited by C/EBPβ siRNA. Finally, treatment of cells with thrombin caused increases in p300 and C/EBPβ complex formation, p65 and C/EBPβ complex formation, and recruitment of p300, p65, and C/EBPβ to the IL-8/CXCL8 promoter. These results imply that p300-dependent histone H3 acetylation and C/EBPβ-regulated IKKβ expression contribute to thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells. Results of this study will help clarify C/EBPβ signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells.

Rac1 signaling regulates cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in the lung via the Erk1/2 MAPK and STAT3 pathways.

Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies have indicated that Rac1 is involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary injury and CS-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, the contribution of Rac1 activity to CS-induced lung inflammation remains not fully clear. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Rac1 in CS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Mice or 16HBE cells were exposed to CS or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce acute inflammation. The lungs of mice exposed to CS showed an increase in the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), as well as an accumulation of inflammatory cells, indicating high Rac1 activity. The exposure of 16HBE cells to CSE resulted in elevated Rac1 levels, as well as increased release of IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Selective inhibition of Rac1 ameliorated the release of IL-6 and KC as well as inflammation in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. Histological assessment showed that treatment with a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, led to a decrease in CD68 and CD11b positive cells and the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the alveolar spaces. Selective inhibition or knockdown of Rac1 decreased IL-6 and IL-8 release in 16HBE cells induced by CSE, which correlated with CSE-induced Rac1-regulated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling. Our data suggest an important role for Rac1 in the pathological alterations associated with CS-mediated inflammation. Rac1 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CS-induced pulmonary inflammation.

Mechanisms Underlying HIV Associated Non-infectious Lung Disease.

Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of cART. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggest that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors which drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome towards pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH.

Risk Factors for Hospital Admission After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

To determine patient and surgical risk factors for admission after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database.

Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD.

A more profound investigation about the responses in activity levels following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COPD is needed. We aimed to describe groups of patients with COPD according to patterns of change in physical activity and sedentary behaviour following PR. 90 patients with COPD (60% male; mean age 67 ± 8; median FEV1 47 (32-62) %pred) completed a comprehensive PR programme. A triaxial accelerometer was used to assess the time in sedentary behaviour, light activities and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Additionally, exercise capacity, quality of life, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed before and after PR. Six groups with different patterns of change in physical activity and sedentary behaviour were identified. The two most prevalent patterns were represented by good responders (increase in physical activity and reduction in sedentary behaviour, 34%) and poor responders (decrease in physical activity and increase in sedentary behaviour, 30%). Good responders had greater improvements in six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and symptoms of depression than poor responders (P < 0.05 for all). Strong correlation was found between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in light activities (rs = -0.89; P < 0.0001). Changes in 6MWD correlated fairly with changes in sedentary behaviour (rs = -0.26), light activities (rs = 0.25), and MVPA (rs = 0.24); P < 0.05 for all. Different patterns of change in activity levels following PR can be found in patients with COPD. Focusing on light physical activities might be a potential strategy to make patients less sedentary, but for this to be achieved prior (or at least parallel) improvements in functional capacity seem to be necessary.

Long-term safety and efficacy of glycopyrrolate/formoterol metered dose inhaler using novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

The long-term safety and efficacy of a novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) 18/9.6 μg fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler (GFF MDI) were investigated in a 28-week safety extension study (PINNACLE-3, NCT01970878) of two randomized controlled Phase III trials (PINNACLE-1 and -2; NCT01854645 and NCT01854658) in subjects with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).