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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Top 30 Publications

Diagnosing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with machine learning.

This study examines the clinical decision support systems in healthcare, in particular about the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases, such as Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The empirical pulmonology study of a representative sample (n = 132) attempts to identify the major factors that contribute to the diagnosis of these diseases. Machine learning results show that in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease's case, Random Forest classifier outperforms other techniques with 97.7 per cent precision, while the most prominent attributes for diagnosis are smoking, forced expiratory volume 1, age and forced vital capacity. In asthma's case, the best precision, 80.3 per cent, is achieved again with the Random Forest classifier, while the most prominent attribute is MEF2575.

Blood global DNA methylation is decreased in non-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

Alterations in global DNA methylation have been associated with oxidative stress (OS). Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by increased oxidative stress we aimed to evaluate the levels of global DNA methylation in this patient group.

Case-Finding for Persistent Airway Obstruction in Farmers: A Questionnaire With Optimal Diagnosis Criteria.

Appropriate identification of subjects who are candidates for spirometry through case-finding questionnaires may help solve the problem of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease misdiagnosis. The performance of case-finding questionnaires depends at least partially on the characteristics of the population used for their development. The use of an accurate threshold for the forced expiratory volume in 1 second / forced vital capacity ratio to define persistent airway obstruction is also vital in ascertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Effect of counselling during pulmonary rehabilitation on self-determined motivation towards physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - protocol of a mixed methods study.

Physical activity promotion in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is focus of research and public health. Patient-centred interventions like counselling are promising approaches to help patients reducing sedentary behaviour. Aim of the present study is to investigate if a physical activity counselling program during pulmonary rehabilitation increases physical activity level in daily life in people with COPD.

Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction: An Expert Panel Recommendation - Update 2017.

Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo- or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials have been reported with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and alleviating chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping and thoracic hyperinflation have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Baseline assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high-resolution computed tomography scan and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. This expert statement updates best practice recommendations regarding patient selection and utilization of these various techniques for the treatment of patients with advanced emphysema.

Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lethal chronic lung disease with unclear pathogenesis. Radiological hallmark is the pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia accentuated in peripheral and basal areas with otherwise preserved lung structure. One hypothesis is that alveolar collapse and consequent induration lead to fibrotic transformation of lung tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate normal-appearing tissue during expiration for signs of collapsibility and differences from other diseases or controls.

Autophagy and airway fibrosis: Is there a link?

In the past decade, an emerging process named "autophagy" has generated intense interest in many chronic lung diseases. Tissue remodeling and fibrosis is a common feature of many airway diseases, and current therapies do not prevent or reverse these structural changes. Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components to maintain basal cellular homeostasis and healthy organelle populations in the cell. Furthermore, autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism and can also be induced by chemical and physical stress to the cell. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an essential role in vital cellular processes, including tissue remodeling. This review will discuss some of the recent advancements made in understanding the role of this fundamental process in airway fibrosis with emphasis on airway remodeling, and how autophagy can be exploited as a target for airway remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Prognostic role of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio for hospital mortality in patients with AECOPD.

Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and is associated with considerable mortality, for which clinicians are seeking useful and easily obtained biomarkers for prognostic evaluation. This study aimed to determine the potential role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic makers for hospital mortality in patients with AECOPD.

Effect of allergic phenotype on treatment response to inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder encompassing different phenotypes with different responses to treatment. The present 1-year, two-center hospital-based study investigated whether the plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and/or eosinophil cell count could be used as biomarkers to stratify patients with COPD according to predicted responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)-based therapy.

Disruption of the structural and functional features of surfactant protein A by acrolein in cigarette smoke.

The extent to which defective innate immune responses contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in regulating innate immunity in the lungs. In this study, we hypothesised that cigarette smoke (CS) and its component acrolein might influence pulmonary innate immunity by affecting the function of SP-A. Indeed, acrolein-modified SP-A was detected in the lungs of mice exposed to CS for 1 week. To further confirm this finding, recombinant human SP-A (hSP-A) was incubated with CS extract (CSE) or acrolein and then analysed by western blotting and nanoscale liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed that CSE and acrolein induced hSP-A oligomerisation and that acrolein induced the modification of six residues in hSP-A: His39, His116, Cys155, Lys180, Lys221, and Cys224. These modifications had significant effects on the innate immune functions of hSP-A. CSE- or acrolein-induced modification of hSP-A significantly decreased hSP-A's ability to inhibit bacterial growth and to enhance macrophage phagocytosis. These findings suggest that CS-induced structural and functional defects in SP-A contribute to the dysfunctional innate immune responses observed in the lung during cigarette smoking.

The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design.

Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization. Self-management of COPD through eHealth is an effective method to improve IDM and clinical outcomes.

The activation of NLRP3-inflammsome by stimulation of diesel exhaust particles in lung tissues from emphysema model and RAW 264.7 cell line.

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation.

Breathlessness and opioid therapy: A retrospective chart analysis in 2,958 patients.

192 Background: Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom, which increases in many diseases as they progress and is difficult to manage. It is widely accepted that opioids are safe and effective for treating dyspnea, although no single opioid has an authorization for the treatment of breathlessness. The aims of the study were to assess prevalence rates of breathlessness as well as the treatment approaches especially with respect to opioid therapy in all patients cared by a hospital palliative care team in a university hospital over a period of five years.

Impact of comorbidities on surgical outcomes following mastectomy in elderly breast cancer patients: An analysis of the NSQIP database.

88 Background: Approximately 4% of women age 70 will develop breast cancer during the next ten years. There is limited data on surgical outcomes in elderly patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer. This study examines complications following mastectomy in elderly patients and determines how comorbidities impact those outcomes.

A nomogram for predicting serious complications in patients with solid tumors and apparently stable febrile neutropenia: Prospective data on 781 consecutive episodes from the FINITE study.

165 Background: An accurate estimate of the likelihood of serious complications in patients with otherwise apparently stable febrile neutropenia (FN) may assist in decision-making regarding individualized therapy. Our group has developed a prognostic score for predicting complications in patients with solid tumors and apparently stable episodes called CISNE (Clinical Index for Stable Febrile Neutropenia). The purpose of this study is to present a nomogram based on the previously mentioned index in a broader dataset of patients.

Effect of training by a physician on dynamics of the use of inhaler devices to improve technique in patients with obstructive lung diseases.

Pharmacotherapies for obstructive lung diseases are dependent on agents delivered via inhaler devices, and the correct technique is essential for efficiency of these drugs.

Proceedings of the COST action BM1407 inaugural conference BEAT-PCD: translational research in primary ciliary dyskinesia - bench, bedside, and population perspectives.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogenous condition that causes progressive suppurative lung disease, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic otitis media, infertility and abnormal situs. 'Better Experimental Approaches to Treat Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia' (BEAT-PCD) is a network of scientists and clinicians coordinating research from basic science through to clinical care with the intention of developing treatments and diagnostics that lead to improved long-term outcomes for patients. BEAT-PCD activities are supported by EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020 funded COST Action (BM1407). The Inaugural Conference of BEAT-PCD was held in December 2015 in Southampton, UK. The conference attracted ninety-six scientists, clinicians, allied health professionals, industrial partners and patient representatives from twenty countries. We aimed to identify the needs for PCD research and clinical care, particularly focussing on basic science, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, clinical management and clinical trials. The multidisciplinary conference provided an interactive platform for exchanging ideas through a program of lectures, poster presentations, breakout sessions and workshops. This allowed us to develop plans for collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the meeting, highlight developments, and discuss open questions thereby documenting ongoing developments in the field of PCD research.

Influenza virus infections among patients attending emergency department according to main reason to presenting to ED: A 3-year prospective observational study during seasonal epidemic periods.

The role of influenza virus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has not previously been specified. Our objective was to determine its frequency according to clinical presentation.

Diabetes risks and outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: Two nationwide population-based retrospective cohort studies.

The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes remains incompletely understood. This study evaluated diabetes risk and post-diabetes outcomes in COPD patients with and without exacerbations.

Validating the Concept of COPD Control: A Real-world Cohort Study from the United Kingdom.

The concept of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) control has been developed to inform therapeutic decision-making. We explored the validity of a definition of COPD control in a representative population of patients with COPD in the United Kingdom. Electronic medical records and linked COPD questionnaire data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize control status. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometry-confirmed COPD, current or ex-smokers, and continuous records throughout the study period. Control was evaluated based on COPD stability and patients' (i) clinical features or (ii) COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score over a three-month baseline period and linked to time to first exacerbation. Of 2788 eligible patients, 2511 (90%) had mild/moderate COPD and 277 (10%) had severe/very severe COPD based on Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exacerbations (BODEx) cut-off of 4. Within the mild/moderate cohort, 4.5% of patients were controlled at baseline according to clinical features and 21.5% according to CAT threshold of 10. Within the severe/very severe cohort, no patients were controlled at baseline according to the proposed clinical features and 8.3% were controlled according to CAT threshold of 20. Compared with uncontrolled patients, time to first exacerbation was longer for controlled patients with mild/moderate COPD but not for those with severe/very severe COPD. Lowering the BODEx threshold for severity classification to 2 increased the number of patients achieving control. CAT scores were not good predictors of the risk of future exacerbation. With the proposed definition, very few patients were defined as controlled.

Recent Advances in CT Imaging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Lung imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose, quantify and phenotype chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although spirometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD and for severity staging, the role of computed tomography (CT) imaging has expanded in both clinical practice and research. COPD is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in clinical features, radiographic disease, progression and outcomes. Recent studies have examined the utility of CT imaging in enhancing diagnostic certainty, improving phenotyping, predicting disease progression and prognostication, patient selection for intervention, and also in furthering our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this disease. Multiple CT metrics show promise for use as imaging biomarkers in COPD.

Effects of Sodium Houttuyfonate on Pulmonary Inflammation in COPD Model Rats.

The anti-inflammatory effect of sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an herbal-originated drug that used in China clinically, was investigated on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) inflammatory model rats induced by combination usage of cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of the lung tissue, the expression levels of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the protein levels of TLR4, NF-κB p65, and SIGIRR, and the mRNA levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65, and SIGIRR in lung tissues were investigated, respectively. After treated by SH (24.3 mg/kg), the abnormal morphology changes of lung tissues in COPD rats, such as neutrophil infiltration and airway obstruction, were considerably alleviated, as well as both proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly decreased in BALF. The mRNA level of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in lung tissues decreased significantly after SH treatment, while both SIGIRR mRNA and protein levels increased significantly. These results suggest that SH markedly attenuated the pulmonary inflammation induced by CS and LPS and protected the lung tissue in COPD model rat. The anti-inflammatory effects were related to suppress the TLR4/NF-κB pathway dependent on MyD88. TIR8/SIGIRR might contribute to the protective effects of SH on pulmonary inflammation.

Respiratory complications after colonic procedures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: does laparoscopy offer a benefit?

Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at a higher risk for postoperative respiratory complications. Despite the benefits of a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum can substantially reduce functional residual capacity and raise alveolar dead space, potentially increasing the risk of respiratory failure which may be poorly tolerated by COPD patients. This raises controversy as to whether open techniques should be preferentially employed in this population.

Early Complications and Outcomes in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: An NSQIP Study Based on 5803 Patients.

Retrospective analysis.

Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients.

Values of procalcitonin and C-reactive proteins in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having concomitant bacterial infection.

To observe the changes in the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in serum of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and to compare with the values of CRP in combination with PCT in the diagnosis and treatment of infective exacerbation of COPD.

A multi-center randomized, controlled, open-label trial evaluating the effects of eosinophil-guided corticosteroid-sparing therapy in hospitalised patients with COPD exacerbations - The CORTICO steroid reduction in COPD (CORTICO-COP) study protocol.

The most commonly applied treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a 5-day course of high-dose systemic corticosteroids. However, this treatment has not been shown to reduce mortality and can potentially have serious side effects. Recent research has shown that, presumably, only a subgroup of COPD patients identifieable by blood eosinophil count benefit from a rescue course of prednisolone. By applying a biomarker-guided strategy, the aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids in AECOPD without influencing the outcome.

Efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to the Cochrane systematic evaluation. Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and CBM, Wanfang Data were searched(from the foundation date to Jan. 2016) for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of patients with COPD. Two reviewers independently retrieved the RCTs according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the methodological quality of the included trials.and performed statistical analysis on the data using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: Totally 11 RCTs on efficacy were finally included.The results of the combined analysis showed that FEV(1) was significantly improved in the tiotropium Respimat group than that in the placebo group[MD=0.12, 95%CI(0.10-0.14), P<0.000 01], while FEV(1) was similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the tiotropium HandiHaler group[5 μg: MD=0.00, 95%CI(-0.04-0.04), P=0.94; 2.5 μg: MD=-0.04, 95%CI(-0.10-0.01), P=0.12; 10 μg: MD=0.02, 95%CI(-0.06-0.09), P=0.66]. FVC was significantly improved in the tiotropium Respimat group than that in the placebo group[MD=0.18, 95%CI(0.09-0.28), P=0.0002], while FVC was similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the HandiHaler group[2.5 μg: MD=-0.06, 95%CI(-0.16-0.04), P=0.24; 5 μg: MD=-0.00, 95%CI(-0.08-0.08), P=1.00; 10 μg: MD=0.02, 95%CI(-0.14-0.19), P=0.78]. The risk of acute exacerbations was lower in the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg / kg) than in the placebo group [OR=0.72, 95%CI(0.60-0.86), P=0.000 3]. It was similar in the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg) and the HandiHaler group[OR=1.01, 95%CI(0.94-1.09), P=0.71]. The SGRQ total score of the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg) was significantly different from that of the placebo group[MD=-3.6, 95%CI(-3.88--3.32), P<0.000 01]. C(max, ss) and AUC(0-6 h, ss) were also similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the HandiHaler group[MD=0.2, 95%CI(-5.1-5.5), P=0.94]; MD=-1.01, 95%CI(-11.78-9.77), P=0.85]. Nine RCTs were included in the evaluation of the incident rates of adverse drug reactions(ADR). There was no significant difference between the tiotropium Respimat group HandiHaler group and the placebo group[RR=0.95, 95%CI(0.89-1.00), P=0.05], [OR=1.07, 95%CI(1.00-1.16), P=0.06]. Conclusions: The efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat was similar to tiotropium HandiHaler in the treatment of COPD. They can effectively improve the pulmonary function and clinical symptoms of patients. But the long-term efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat still need to be confirmed by higher quality and larger RCTs with long-term follow-up.

Triple Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management. Are Our Expectations Fulfilled?

External validation of a 5-year survival prediction model after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

The benefit of prophylactic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is based on the risk of rupture exceeding the risk of death from other comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to validate a 5-year survival prediction model for patients undergoing elective repair of asymptomatic AAA <6.5 cm to assist in optimal selection of patients.