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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Top 30 Publications

Outcome Measures Used in Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

Conflicting results about the effects of community-based pulmonary rehabilitation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) exist, possibly because the variety of outcome measures used and the lack of appropriate measurement properties hinder the development of pulmonary rehabilitation guidelines.

The cumulative effect of air pollutants on the acute exacerbation of COPD in Shanghai, China.

Epidemiologic studies have shown the effect of air pollutants on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, little is known regarding the dose-response relationship. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of air pollutants on AECOPD.

Associations between long-term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CANCHEC), by spatial synoptic classification zone.

Studies suggest that long-term chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution can increase lung cancer mortality. We analyzed the association between long term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality due to lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for geographic location, socioeconomic status, and residential mobility. Subjects in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) were followed for 20years, and assigned to regions across Canada based on spatial synoptic classification weather types. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality, were related to PM2.5 and ozone using Cox proportional hazards survival models, adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and individual confounders. An increase of 10μg/m3 in long term PM2.5 exposure resulted in an HR for lung cancer mortality of 1.26 (95% CI 1.04, 1.53); the inclusion in the model of SSC zone as a stratum increased the risk estimate to HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.06, 1.57). After adjusting for ozone, HRs increased to 1.49 (95% CI 1.23, 1.88), and HR 1.54 (95% CI 1.27, 1.87), with and without zone as a model stratum. HRs for ischemic heart disease fell from 1.25 (95% CI 1.21, 1.29) for exposure to PM2.5, to 1.13 (95% CI 1.08, 1.19) when PM2.5 was adjusted for ozone. For COPD, the 95% confidence limits included 1.0 when climate zone was included in the model. HRs for all causes of death showed spatial differences when compared to zone 3, the most populated climate zone. Exposure to PM2.5 was related to an increased risk of mortality from lung cancer, and both ozone and PM2.5 exposure were related to risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease, and the risk varied spatially by climate zone.

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the ELLIPTA and HandiHaler Dry Powder Inhalers in Patients With COPD: Inhaler-Specific Attributes and Overall Patient Preference.

This randomised, open-label, cross-over, placebo-containing inhaler study assessed patient preference indicators for ELLIPTA and HandiHaler dry powder inhalers in patients with COPD (NCT02786927; GSK identifier: 204983). The primary objective of this study was to assess patient preference between ELLIPTA and HandiHaler based on the number of steps needed to use the inhaler. Eligible patients ≥40 years of age with COPD were randomised 1:1 to receive their current COPD medication plus a placebo-containing ELLIPTA or HandiHaler inhaler once daily for 7 ± 2 days (treatment period 1); this was followed by a 7 ± 2-day placebo treatment with the alternative inhaler. A 5-item questionnaire assessed inhaler-related patient preferences. A total of 212 patients (mean age, 65.1 years) were enrolled at 22 US sites; 73% had a COPD duration ≥5 years. Median (range) exposure was 8 ( 5 , 13 ) days for ELLIPTA and 8 ( 1 , 16) days for HandiHaler. Significantly more patients preferred ELLIPTA to HandiHaler in terms of the number of steps to use and all secondary attributes (size, comfort of the mouthpiece, remaining doses, and ease of use of the two inhalers; all p < 0.001). Similar results were observed irrespective of the order of inhaler use. Eighteen patients (8%) reported at least one AE and two (<1%) patients reported four non-fatal SAEs; none were related to the study treatment. Patient attitude toward a particular inhaler and their experiences in using it can affect adherence to therapy, which can in turn strongly influence effectiveness of inhaled medications. This study uses a robust methodology to assess patient preference.

Quercetin restores corticosteroid sensitivity in cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to the effective treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress from cigarette smoke and chronic inflammation is likely to induce this corticosteroid insensitivity. Quercetin is a polyphenol that has been reported to be an active oxygen scavenger as well as a functional adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on corticosteroid responsiveness in COPD cells. Corticosteroid sensitivity was examined in human monocytic U937 cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from patients with COPD. Corticosteroid sensitivity was determined as the dexamethasone concentration causing 40% inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced CXCL8 production (Dex-IC40) in the presence or absence of quercetin. In U937 cells, treatment with quercetin activated AMPK and induced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and consequently reversed CSE-induced corticosteroid insensitivity. PBMC from patients with COPD showed corticosteroid insensitivity compared with those from healthy volunteers, and treatment with quercetin restored corticosteroid sensitivity. In conclusion, quercetin restores corticosteroid sensitivity, and has the potential to be a novel treatment in combination with corticosteroids in COPD.

A Comparison of Pain, Fatigue, Dyspnea and their Impact on Quality of Life in Pulmonary Rehabilitation Participants with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

In addition to dyspnea and fatigue, pain is a prevalent symptom in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Understanding the relative prevalence, magnitude, and interference with aspects of daily living of these symptoms can improve COPD management. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: (1) compare the prevalence and magnitude of dyspnea, fatigue, and pain and how each limits aspects of daily living; (2) determine the association between pain and the other two symptoms; and (3) assess the impact of these symptoms on quality of life in COPD. Participants were recruited from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Pain, dyspnea, and fatigue were measured using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and Dyspnea Inventory (DI), respectively. Quality of life was measured using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The prevalence of dyspnea, fatigue, and pain were 93%, 77%, and 74%, respectively. Individuals with COPD reported similar severity scores of the three symptoms. Dyspnea interfered with general activity more than pain (F1.7,79.9 = 3.1, p < 0.05), whilst pain interfered with mood (F1.8, 82.7 = 3.6, p < 0.05) and sleep (F1,46 = 7.4, p < 0.01) more than dyspnea and fatigue. These three symptoms were moderately-to-highly correlated with each other (ρ = 0.49-0.78, p < 0.01) and all individually impacted quality of life. In summary, pain is a common symptom in addition to dyspnea and fatigue in COPD; all three interfere similarly among aspects of daily living with some exceptions. Accordingly, management of COPD should include a multifaceted approach that addresses pain as well as dyspnea and fatigue.

Comorbidity of Airway Inflammatory Diseases in Chemical and Building-Related Intolerance.

This study investigated comorbidity in chemical intolerance (CI) and building- related intolerance (BRI) with (i) chronic sinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic and non-allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, and (ii) airway inflammatory symptoms.

Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: past, present, and future directions.

Lung transplantation offers an effective treatment modality for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exact determination of when to refer, list, and offer transplant as well as the preferred transplant procedure type remains unclear. Additionally, there are special considerations specific to patients with COPD being considered for lung transplantation, including the implications of single lung transplantation on lung cancer risk, native lung hyperinflation, and overall survival.

Efficacy and safety of low-dose urokinase for the treatment of hemodynamically stable AECOPD patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

To assess the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose urokinase (UK) thrombolysis therapy when treating hemodynamically stable AECOPD patients with acute PTE (AECOPD-PTE).

Blood Biomarkers as Predictors of Long-Term Mortality in COPD.

Blood biomarkers are easily accessible and might reflect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) activity.

Economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among elderly patients: a Japanese perspective.

This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors.

Fibromax-based nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Methodological considerations.

The relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been well demonstrated, but remains to be evidenced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, Viglino et al. (Eur Respir J, 2017) attempted to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis, steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in COPD patients, some of whom had OSA, basing the NAFLD diagnostic on three circulating biomarker-based liver scores: the FibroTest, SteatoTest and NashTest, from the Fibromax® panel. Among the main findings, the absence of OSA treatment emerged as independently associated with liver fibrosis and steatosis, when compared to effective treatment. However, besides the low number of treated patients, no polysomnographic respiratory data was provided, making it difficult to differentiate the impact of OSA from that of COPD in NAFLD prevalence. Furthermore, NAFLD diagnosis relied exclusively on circulating biomarker-based liver scores, without histological, imagery or other liver exploratory methods. Therefore, in this article, some methodological points are reminded and discussed, including the choice of OSA measurements, and the significance of ActiTest and AshTest scores from Fibromax® in this pathophysiological context.

Return to the workforce following infective endocarditis-A nationwide cohort study.

The ability to return to work after infective endocarditis (IE) holds important socioeconomic consequences for both patients and society, yet data on this issue are sparse. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in IE patients of working age.

Recent advance in impacts of pulmonary rehabilitation on inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Correlation analysis of serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5 levels with airway inflammation and insulin resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5(sfrp5) levels, insulin resistance, and airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Method: A total of 178 COPD patients visiting our respiratory outpatient clinic from February 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled, and 99 healthy control subjects from the same time period were selected. Serum sfrp5 levels were compared between the 2 groups. Serum sfrp5 and inflammatory cytokines in induced sputum were observed in the 4 subgroups: insulin resistant COPD group [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2.29], non-insulin resistant COPD group, non-COPD insulin resistant group, and healthy control group. Results: Serum sfrp5 levels were found to be significantly higher in the COPD group as compared to the healthy control group (t=-14.29, P<0.001). Serum sfrp5 levels in the insulin resistant COPD group [(8±3)ng/ml] were significantly lower than that of the non-insulin resistant COPD group [(10±5)ng/ml], non-COPD insulin resistant group [(13±3)ng/ml], and normal control group [(14±4)ng/ml, F=35.85, P<0.01]. The insulin resistant COPD group had higher levels of In(Homa-IR), as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in induced sputum as compared to the non-insulin resistant COPD group, non-COPD insulin resistant group, and healthy control group (F values were 64.968, 41.40, 64.15, respectively, P value <0.01 for all items). The non-insulin resistant COPD group had higher levels of In(HOMA-IR) as well as TNF-α and IL-6 in induced sputum as compared to the non-COPD insulin resistant group and healthy control group. FEV(1)/FVC and FEV(1)% predicted were significantly lower in the insulin resistant COPD group as compared to those of non-insulin resistant COPD group and non-COPD insulin resistant group, and healthy control group (F values were 2.481 and 8.37, respectively, P value<0.05 for all items). FEV(1)/FVC and FEV(1)% predicted were significantly lower in the non-insulin resistant COPD group as compared to those of the healthy control group and non-COPD insulin-resistant group. Serum sfrp5 levels were positively correlated to FEV(1)/FVC and FEV(1) predicted (r values were 0.466 and 0.412, respectively; P values were <0.001 and 0.007, respectively) and inversely correlated to In(HOMA-IR) and TNF-α and IL-6 in induced sputum (r values were -0.304, -0.459, -0.517, respectively; P values were <0.001, 0.002, <0.001, respectively). BMI, ln(HOMA-IR), and IL-6 in induced sputum were independent related factors (r(2) values were 0.286, 0.176, 14.69, respectively; P values were <0.01 for all items) Conclusion: Sfrp5 may be concurrently associated with COPD and insulin resistance; insulin resistance may be associated with airway inflammation and airflow limitation. Sfrp5 may be involved in the development of COPD and may be the key link by which insulin resistance exerts its effects on airway inflammation.

Development of diagnosis and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease needs participatory and personalized.

Models of care for non-invasive ventilation in the Acute COPD Comparison of three Tertiary hospitals (ACT3) study.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves clinical outcomes in hypercapnic acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), but the optimal model of care remains unknown.

Evaluation of clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and applicability of the FRAX tool in Joinville City, Southern Brazil.

Clinical risk factors for fracture in Southern Brazil are similar to those used in Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®). Age-dependent intervention thresholds had higher accuracy than a fixed cut-off point.

Sex Differences in Muscle Wasting.

With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration. Estrogens have a protective effect on skeletal muscle by attenuating inflammation; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action in skeletal muscle are less well characterized than those of testosterone. Age- and/or disease-induced alterations in sex hormones are major contributors to muscle wasting. Hence, men and women may respond differently to catabolic conditions because of their hormonal profiles. Here we review the similarities and differences between men and women with common wasting conditions including sarcopenia and cachexia due to cancer, end-stage renal disease/chronic kidney disease, liver disease, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on the literature in clinical studies. In addition, the responses in men and women to the commonly used therapeutic agents and their efficacy to improve muscle mass and function are also reviewed.

Role of miR-195 in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is regarded as a persistent respiratory symptom, mainly caused by cigarette smoking. Recent data have suggested that some miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. Here, we found that miR-195 was significantly upregulated in the lung tissues of patients with COPD compared to in never smokers. miR-195 expression was also upregulated in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of miR-195 alleviated CS-induced lung pathological changes and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration as well as production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mechanically, a positive correlation was found between miR-195 and phosphorylation of Akt in lung tissues of COPD patients. PHLPP2 was confirmed as a direct downstream target of miR-195 and negative regulator of miR-195 expression. Inhibition of PHLPP2 enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α production in BEAS-2B cells, resembling the effects of miR-195 overexpression. Collectively, our data indicate that miR-195 has a pathogenetic role in CS-induced COPD and regulates Akt signaling by suppressing PHLPP2 expression. miR-195 may be an effective therapeutic target in COPD.

Accuracy in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care.

Targeting oxidant-dependent mechanisms for the treatment of respiratory diseases and their comorbidities.

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, such as COPD and its comorbidities, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and radiation pneumonitis. Antioxidants drugs, such as small molecule thiols, nuclear erythroid-2 related factor 2 activators and catalytic enzyme mimetics have been developed to target oxidant-dependent mechanisms. The therapeutic effects of antioxidants have been generally disappointing. A small number of antioxidants are approved for clinical use, such as the small molecule thiol N-acetyl-l-cysteine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in the United States, the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 for severe radiation pneumonitis. The future use of antioxidants for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases may require a precision medicine approach to identify responsive patients.

Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.

Spheroid-type of AL amyloid deposition associated with colonic adenocarcinoma: A case report with literature review.

We report a colonic adenocarcinoma associated with diffuse submucosal deposition of a peculiar spheroid-type amyloid identified in the colon, terminal ileum, and appendix. A 65-year-old woman with past medical histories of hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presented to the emergency room with cramping abdominal pain and nausea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed right colonic volvulus. Emergency right hemicolectomy was performed. The specimen showed colonic adenocarcinoma with focal submucosal invasion (pT1) arising from a villotubular adenoma. A diffuse submucosal spheroid-type amyloid deposition (resembling corpora amylacea-like structures with Liesegang ring formation) was identified in the colon, ileum, and appendix. Electron microscopy examination of this unusual spheroidal-type material further confirmed the presence of amyloid fibrils. Analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detected AL (lambda) type amyloidosis in this specimen. Tests for monoclonal gammopathy were not performed because patient consent was not obtained. In tissue section evaluation, however, no plasma cell neoplasm was identified. Cases with isolated AL amyloid deposition in the gastrointestinal tract have been reported rarely, and there is no case report of colonic adenocarcinoma associated with primary amyloid deposition in the English literature.

Cigarette Smoke Induces Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to cigarette smoke may stimulate inflammatory response and activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) thus resulting in secretion of cellular proteases. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from PMN.

Prevalence of COPD in 6 Urban Clusters in Argentina: The EPOC.AR Study.

The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been studied in Argentina.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and serum IgG levels.

Comparison of digital and traditional thoracic drainage systems for postoperative chest tube management after pulmonary resection: A prospective randomized trial.

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a digital thoracic drainage system (group D) is clinically useful compared with a traditional thoracic drainage system (group T) in chest tube management following anatomic lung resection.

Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study.

Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults.

Prevalence and etiologies of pulmonary hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa.