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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Top 30 Publications

Predictive factors for early hospital readmission and 1-year mortality in elder patients following surgical treatment of a hip fracture.

Early hospital readmission after surgically treated hip fracture is a common entity, often involving an adverse event and causing strains on an already overburdened healthcare system. The main purposes of the present study were to determine the 30-day readmission rate, analyze the predictive factors for early hospital readmissions, and assess 1-year mortality following surgical treatment of hip fracture in elderly patients. Retrospective case-control study.

TREATMENT OF MECHANICALLY VENTILATED PATIENTS IN AN INTERNAL MEDICINE DEPARTMENT - OVERVIEW 2013.

Over recent years the number of mechanically ventilated patients in internal medicine departments has grown. These patients are elderly, mostly disabled and suffer from many chronic illnesses. Most of them require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Combined Impact of Smoking and Early Life Exposures on Adult Lung Function Trajectories.

Both adverse early life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory but few studies consider how the impact of early life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking.

Patients' and healthcare professionals' perceptions of self-management support interactions: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis.

Objective To review studies examining the experience of self-management support in patient-provider interactions and the shaping of goals through interactions. Methods We undertook a systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature. We searched six databases (2004-2015) for published studies on the provision of self-management support in one-to-one, face-to-face, patient-provider interactions for obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with 14 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Results Themes identified from studies were (1) dominance of a traditional model of care, encompassing the provision of generic information, exclusion of the psychosocial and temporal nature of interactions and (2) a context of individual responsibility and accountability, encompassing self-management as patients' responsibility and adherence, accountability and the attribution of blame. Interactions were constrained by consultation times, patient self-blame and guilt, desire for autonomy and beliefs about what constitutes 'effective' self-management. Discussion Encounters were oriented towards a traditional model of care delivery and this limited opportunity for collaboration. These findings suggest that healthcare professionals remain in a position of authority, limiting opportunities for control to be shared with patients and shared understandings of social context to be developed.

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OBESITY AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD).

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy. This study aims to assess the differences between obese and non-obese COPD patients. The main clinical aspect assessed is the number of COPDexacerbation related hospital admissions.

LONG TERM TREATMENT WITH MACROLIDES IN CHRONIC LUNG DISEASES.

Macrolide agents have both antibacterial properties as well as various effects on the inflammatory system. In recent years there is growing evidence regarding the favourable effects of macrolides in a range of chronic respiratory conditions. Historically, erythromycin and clarithromycin were found to stabilize pulmonary deterioration in diffuse panbronchiolitis. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized with pseudomonas aeruginosa, long term treatment with azithromycin reduces exacerbations and presents improved lung function. A similar effect on prevention of exacerbations has been demonstrated in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In patients undergoing lung transplantation, long term azithromycin prevents bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), azithromycin prevents acute exacerbations. Chronic treatment with macrolides is associated with adverse effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, interactions with other drugs and cardiovascular complications. Of the macrolides, azithromycin is associated with the lowest interactions and adverse effects and is also the most investigated.

Role of the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 Axis in Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases.

The chemokine receptors CXCR1/2 and their ligand CXCL8 are essential for the activation and trafficking of inflammatory mediators as well as tumor progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling axis is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Interaction between CXCL8 secreted by select cancer cells and CXCR1/2 in the tumor microenvironment is critical for cancer progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis may play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis by regulating cancer stem cell (CSC) proliferation and self-renewal. During the past two decades, several small-molecule CXCR1/2 inhibitors, CXCL8 releasing inhibitors, and neutralizing antibodies against CXCL8 and CXCR1/2 have been reported. As single agents, such inhibitors are expected to be efficacious in various inflammatory diseases. Several preclinical studies suggest that combination of CXCR1/2 inhibitors along with other targeted therapies, chemotherapies, and immunotherapy may be effective in treating select cancers. Currently, several of these inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials for COPD, asthma, and metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis and select genes co-expressed in this pathway in disease progression. We also discuss the latest progress in developing small-molecule drugs targeting this pathway.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with increased risk of bipolar disorder.

Epidemiological studies have identified a trend in the development of depressive and anxiety disorders following a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between COPD and subsequent bipolar disorder remains unclear. From January 1, 2000, we identified adult patients with COPD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A nationwide population-based study was conducted; 46,778 COPD patients and 46,778 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched subjects between 2000 and 2011 were enrolled. The two cohorts were followed up till December 31, 2011 and observed for occurrence of bipolar disorder. We observed the COPD and comparison cohorts for 263,020 and 267,895 person-years, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. The incidence rate for bipolar disorder was 1.6/1000 person-years in the COPD cohort and 1.2/1000 person-years in the comparison cohort ( p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for subsequent bipolar disorder among the COPD patients was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.64; p < 0.001). In the COPD patients, short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) was associated with a significantly increased risk of bipolar disorder development (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69, p = 0.002). Other COPD medications were not associated with the risk of bipolar disorder development. The study results indicate that COPD may be an independent risk factor for the development of bipolar disorder. The regular use of SABAs might increase the risk of bipolar disorder in COPD patients.

Budesonide, fluticasone propionate, and azithromycin do not modulate the membrane vesicle release by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection.

Patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience exacerbations and it is estimated that up to 50% of these exacerbations are associated with bacterial infections. The mainstay treatment for these infection-related exacerbations constitutes the administration of glucocorticoids, alone or in combination with antibiotics. A recent line of evidence demonstrates that many hormones including the steroid beclomethasone can also directly affect bacterial growth, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. The effect of these regimens on the release of potentially virulent and toxic membrane vesicles (MVs) is at present unclear. In this study, we determined the effect of several pharmacological agents on MVs release by and bacterial growth of common respiratory pathogens. We found that neither the release of MVs nor the bacterial growth was affected by the glucocorticoids budesonide and fluticasone. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin only inhibited the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but no effects were observed on bacterial MV release at a concentration that is achieved locally in the epithelial lining on administration. The macrophage pro-inflammatory response to MVs was significantly reduced after treatment with budesonide and fluticasone but not by azithromycin treatment. Our findings suggest that these glucocorticoids may have a positive effect on infection-related inflammation although the bacterial growth and MV release remained unaffected.

Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death.

Home Noninvasive Ventilation to Reduce Readmissions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) and long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). More recently bronchoscopic treatments are emerging for COPD. Among them endobronchial valves(EBV) and endobronchial coils (EBC), next to endobronchial stents, sclerosing agents, targeted lung denervation and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray. In this review we aim to summarise the new emerging bronchoscopic treatments and their effects sizes compared with lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies.

Telehealth Interventions to Support Self-Management of Long-Term Conditions: A Systematic Metareview of Diabetes, Heart Failure, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cancer.

Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions.

The SENSOR Study: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study of Self-Management Checks to Predict Exacerbations of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Patients with Long-Term Respiratory Conditions.

There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease. Earlier detection of exacerbations may improve morbidity and mortality by expediting treatment. Aseptika Ltd has developed a system for patients to self-monitor important physiological measurements including levels of physical activity, peak flow, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and biomarkers for P aeruginosa in sputum.

Over-diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Primary Care. Prevalence and determining factors.

COPD under-diagnosis is common in Primary Health Care medicine, due to the low use of spirometry, but there is less information about over-diagnosis of the disease in patients that have a clinical diagnosis of COPD.

A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested.

The -786 T/C polymorphism of NOS3 gene is a susceptibility marker of COPD among Tunisians that correlates with nitric oxide levels and airflow obstruction.

The goal of this study was to examine the role of G894T (rs1799983), -786T/C (rs3918161) and a 27 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) 4B/4A of NOS3 gene on the risk and severity of COPD.

Reduced HDAC2 in skeletal muscle of COPD patients.

Skeletal muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important predictor of poor prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness in COPD have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases(HDAC) in skeletal muscle weakness in COPD.

Long acting β2-adrenocepter agonists are not associated with atrial arrhythmias after pulmonary resection.

Long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to increase the risk of atrial arrhythmias in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perioperative long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists treatment would increase the risk of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after lung cancer surgery in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Effect of esmolol on hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock.

To evaluate the effect of heart rate control with esmolol on hemodynamics, inflammatory cytokines and clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock.

Why do patients decline participation in offered pulmonary rehabilitation? A qualitative study.

The purpose of this study is to produce insight in the explanations for declining pulmonary rehabilitation given by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Impact of a Patient Navigator Program on Hospital-Based and Outpatient Utilization Over 180 Days in a Safety-Net Health System.

With emerging global payment structures, medical systems need to understand longer-term impacts of care transition strategies.

Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease - an unexpected form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in a young male.

Cigarette smoking is the most frequently encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The latest American Thoracic Society÷European Respiratory Society classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia includes two entities related to smoking habits: respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The new approach to diagnosis is to combine pathological pattern with clinical and radiological data. Lung biopsy is no longer considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis, but as a part of the diagnosis, which shall be set only after the pulmonologist, radiologist and pathologist reviewed all clinical, imaging and pathological aspects. We report a case of a young male, who complained of respiratory symptoms, had normal volumes and flows on lung function tests, moderately reduced transfer factor for carbon monoxide and "ground glass" attenuation on high-resolution computed tomography. Because the patient had exposure to contact with parrots, hypersensitivity pneumonitis was considered, but the broncho-alveolar lavage was without lymphocytosis. Open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, a rarely described entity in the medical literature. The patient had a good clinical outcome after smoking cessation.

Roles of roflumilast, a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, in airway diseases.

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic respiratory diseases. Both diseases have incompletely distinct pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment responsiveness. Pulmonary and systemic inflammations are the hallmarks of COPD. Most asthma responds to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. In contrast, COPD is a corticosteroid-resistant disease. Bronchodilators are a preferred treatment method of COPD, with the aim of improving symptoms and preventing exacerbation. In addition, corticosteroid insensitivity is an underlying mechanism in severe asthma. An overlap of features between asthma and COPD, which was described as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is not uncommon in practice. Novel nonsteroidal therapies focusing on inflammation in asthma and COPD have been developed. Selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor is a promising class of drugs that has been studied for the treatment of COPD. Selective PDE4 inhibitor is different from xanthine in terms of mechanisms and pharmacokinetic profiles. This review focuses on clinical data on PDE4 inhibitors and its future roles in asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, ACOS and other chronic non-pulmonary diseases.

Effect of azithromycin in combination with simvastatin in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension.

To evaluate the effect of azithromycin in combination with simvastatin in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Physical activity and risk of comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cohort study.

Multi-morbidity is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low levels of physical activity are hypothesized to be an important risk factor. The current study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between physical activity and risk of seven categories of comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The study included 409 patients from primary care practice in the Netherlands and Switzerland. We assessed physical activity using the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and followed patients for up to 5 years. During follow-up, patients reported their comorbidities (cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, musculoskeletal, malignant, and infectious diseases) and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire for mental health assessment. We implemented multinomial logistic regression (an approximation to discrete time survival model using death as a competing risk) for our analysis. Study results did not suggest a statistically significant association of baseline physical activity with the development of seven categories of comorbidity. However, when we focused on depression and anxiety symptoms, we found that higher levels of physical activity at baseline were associated with a lower risk for depression (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 0.75-0.95; p = 0.005) and anxiety (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.89; 0.79-1.00; p = 0.045). In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, those with high physical activity are less likely to develop depression or anxiety symptoms over time. Increasing physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients may be an approach for testing to lower the burden from incident depression and anxiety.

How to determine an impaired health status in COPD: Results from a population-based study.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a significantly impaired health status and lost work productivity across all degrees of airflow limitation. The current study investigated whether an impaired health status is better represented by the recommended COPD Assessment Test (CAT) cut-point of 10 points, or the 95th percentile of the CAT score in a non-COPD population. Additionally, the impact of COPD on health status in a Dutch population, after stratification for work status, was measured.

Decreased phosphatase PTEN amplifies PI3K signaling and enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine release in COPD.

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the regulatory mechanisms for this pathway are yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to determine the expression and role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, in COPD. PTEN expression and activity were measured in the peripheral lung of COPD patients compared to smoking and non-smoking controls. The direct influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on PTEN expression was assessed using primary lung epithelial cells and a cell line (BEAS-2B) in the presence or absence of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete intracellular glutathione. The impact of PTEN knock-down by RNA interference on cytokine production was also examined. In peripheral lung, PTEN protein was significantly decreased in patients with COPD compared to the subjects without COPD (p < 0.001), and positively correlated with the severity of air-flow obstruction (FEV1 % predicted; r = 0.50; p = 0.0012), although no difference was observed in PTEN activity. Conversely, phosphorylated Akt, as a marker of PI3K activation, showed a negative correlation with PTEN protein levels (r = -0.41; p = 0.0042). Both in primary bronchial epithelial cells and BEAS-2B cell line, CSE decreased PTEN protein, which was reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. PTEN knock-down potentiated Akt phosphorylation and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL5. In conclusion, oxidative stress reduces PTEN protein levels, which may result in increased PI3K signaling and amplification of inflammation in COPD.

Genome-wide gene expression array identifies novel genes related to disease severity and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

We aimed to identify novel molecular associations between chronic intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation and adverse consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We analyzed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 48 patients with sleep-disordered breathing stratified into four groups: primary snoring (PS), moderate to severe OSA (MSO), very severe OSA (VSO), and very severe OSA patients on long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment (VSOC). Comparisons of the microarray gene expression data identified eight genes up-regulated with OSA and down-regulated with CPAP treatment, and five genes down-regulated with OSA and up-regulated with CPAP treatment. Protein expression levels of two genes related to endothelial tight junction (AMOT P130, and PLEKHH3), and three genes related to anti-or pro-apoptosis (BIRC3, ADAR1 P150, and LGALS3) were all increased in the VSO group, while AMOT P130 was further increased, and PLEKHH3, BIRC3, and ADAR1 P150 were all decreased in the VSOC group. Subgroup analyses revealed that AMOT P130 protein expression was increased in OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, BIRC3 protein expression was decreased in OSA patients with hypertension, and LGALS3 protein expression was increased in OSA patients with chronic kidney disease. In vitro short-term intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation experiment showed immediate over-expression of ADAR1 P150. In conclusion, we identified a novel association between AMOT/PLEKHH3/BIRC3/ADAR1/LGALS3 over-expressions and high severity index in OSA patients. AMOT and GALIG may constitute an important determinant for the development of hypersomnia and kidney injury, respectively, while BIRC3 may play a protective role in the development of hypertension.

The Relationship Between Weather and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Individuals With COPD.

Although daily variation in weather impacts physical activity (PA) levels among relatively healthy individuals, it is largely unknown whether this relationship occurs for those living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to examine how daily variation in temperature, rain, and snow is related to objectively measured PA among patients with COPD, and whether demographic or clinical characteristics moderate these relationships.