A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

death - Top 30 Publications

Exposure to the insecticide endosulfan induces liver morphology alterations and oxidative stress in fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus).

Exposure to pesticides may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidation of cell membrane lipids and proteins. Although fruit bats are potentially exposed to pesticides during their entire lifespan, the impacts of this exposure are still poorly investigated. We examined the effects of low, commercially recommended concentrations (0, 1.05 and 2.1 g/l) of an organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (EDS) formulation on oxidative responses in the liver and kidneys of Neotropical fruit bats (Artibeus lituratus), as well as possible liver morphological alterations following a 35-day oral exposure. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased upon exposure to 1.05 g/l of EDS in the liver and kidneys, catalase was decreased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats, while glutathione S-transferase was increased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats. Protein carbonyls increased following the exposure to the highest EDS dose tested. Endosulfan-induced morphological alterations in the liver included cell degeneration and cell death, with apparent cytoplasm lipid accumulation (steatosis) and pyknotic nuclei, karyolysis and deposit of collagen fibres. Our findings suggest that exposure to low concentrations of EDS induced a certain extent of oxidative damage in fruit bats, which may have led to liver morphological alterations.

Frailty as a Predictor of Future Fracture in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Studies have identified frailty as an effective predictor of fracture; however, the correlation between frailty and fracture differs between various stages of frailty.

Betanodavirus: Dissection of the viral life cycle.

Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection. Subsequently utilizes and controls the biological machinery of the infected cells for viral genome replication. Towards the late phase of infection, mass production of capsid protein for virion assembly induces the activation of host apoptosis pathway. It eventually leads to the cell lysis and death, which the lysis of cell contributes to the accomplishment of viral shedding that completes a viral life cycle. The recent efforts to dissect the entire betanodavirus life cycle are currently reviewed.

Validation of a nomogram for selecting patients for chemotherapy after D2 gastrectomy for cancer.

According to some guidelines for the management of gastric cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for patients with pT3-4 or node-positive disease. The aim of this study was to define low- and high-risk groups in terms of survival, and to predict the benefit of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin (F-OX) chemotherapy.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates GAPDH-derived peptides on its cell surface that induce death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts by cell-to-cell contact.

During wine fermentations Saccharomyces cerevisiae starts to excrete into the growth medium antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that induce death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the end of exponential growth phase (24-48 h). Those AMPs were found to derive from the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). On the other hand, the early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during wine fermentations was also found to be mediated by a cell-to-cell contact mechanism. Since GAPDH is a cell wall-associated protein in S. cerevisiae, we put forward the hypothesis that the GAPDH-derived AMPs could accumulate on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae, thus inducing death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts by cell-to-cell contact. Here we show that 48 h-grown (stationary phase) cells of S. cerevisiae induce death of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Lachancea thermotolerans by direct cell-to-cell contact, while 12 h-grown cells (mid-exponential phase) do not. Immunological tests performed with a specific polyclonal antibody against the GAPDH-derived AMPs revealed their presence in the cell-wall of S. cerevisiae cells grown for 48 h, but not for 12 h. Taken together, our data shows that accumulation of GAPDH-derived AMPs on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae is one of the factors underlying death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts by cell-to-cell contact.

Estimation of State-Level Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection, US States and District of Columbia, 2010.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous analyses of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated approximately 3.6 million noninstitutionalized persons with antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). However, state-level prevalence remains less understood and cannot be estimated reliably from NHANES alone.

Clinical manifestations of scrub typhus.

The mite-borne rickettsial zoonosis scrub typhus is widely prevalent in parts of Southeast and Far East Asia, and northern Australia. The disease is an acute febrile illness, associated with rash and often an eschar, which responds dramatically to treatment with antibiotics. In some cases it results in a serious illness leading to multiple organ involvement and death. The disease manifestations are thought to result from a systemic vasculitis, caused by both direct effects of the organisms as well as an exaggerated immune response, although little is understood about its pathogenesis. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system, have been described with scrub typhus. Some of these manifestations are serious and life threatening. In this systematic review, we summarise the typical and atypical manifestations of scrub typhus reported in the literature. Awareness of these unusual manifestations will hopefully guide clinicians towards diagnosing the condition early, and initiating early appropriate antibiotics and other supportive measures.

Oral health and mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study.

Previous studies have found associations between oral health and mortality, but the majority of previous studies have been conducted in high-income countries.

Fresh fruit consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China.

Polyphyllin I induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in U251 human glioma cells via mitochondrial dysfunction and the JNK signaling pathway.

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor, and its prognosis remains poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed for glioma therapy. Polyphyllin I (PPI), a bioactive constituent extracted from Paris polyphylla, was reported to have anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism for this activity remains unclear. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPI on glioma cells and its mechanisms in vitro. U251 cells were treated with various concentrations of PPI (2-9 μM) for 24 to 72 h. The inhibition of U251 cell proliferation by PPI was assessed by MTT assay. The effects on cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry with PI and annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining, and the cell mitochondrial membrane potential level was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy with JC-1 staining. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and JNK signal pathway proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results showed that PPI significantly inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. PPI induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, and it upregulated the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c, and p-JNK, but downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in U251 cells. Moreover, PPI provoked the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, apoptosis induced by the PPI was remarkably suppressed by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Our data provide evidence that PPI inhibits proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in U251 cells. This effect may be associated with the JNK pathway. These results suggest that PPI is an activator of the JNK signaling pathway with a potential anti-glioma effect.

Suicide mortality among Pacific peoples in New Zealand, 1996-2013.

The aim of this study was to describe trends in suicide mortality for Pacific peoples in New Zealand by reviewing official data over the period 1996-2013.

Excess of a Rassf1-targeting microRNA, miR-193a-3p, perturbs cell division fidelity.

Several microRNA (miRNA) molecules have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of tumour suppressor and oncogene expression. Ras association domain family member 1 (RASSF1) is a critical tumour suppressor that controls multiple aspects of cell proliferation such as cell cycle, cell division and apoptosis. The expression of RASSF1 is lost in a variety of cancers due to the promoter hypermethylation.

Neuroprotective Treatments after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Evaluated with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis. Delayed interventions should promote injury repair. The multiple metabolic changes following HI as well as the metabolic effects of potential treatments can be observed noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This mini-review provides an overview of the neuroprotective pharmacological agents that have been evaluated with 1H/31P/13C MRS. A better understanding of how these agents influence cerebral metabolism and the use of relevant translational MRS biomarkers can guide future clinical trials.

Evaluation of F8-TNF-α in Models of Early and Progressive Metastatic Osteosarcoma.

The targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with antibodies specific to splice isoforms of fibronectin [e.g., F8-TNF, specific to the extra-domain A (EDA) domain of fibronectin] has already shown efficacy against experimental sarcomas but has not yet been investigated in orthotopic sarcomas. Here, we investigated F8-TNF in a syngeneic K7 M2-derived orthotopic model of osteosarcoma as a treatment against pulmonary metastases, the most frequent cause of osteosarcoma-related death. Immunofluorescence on human osteosarcoma tissue confirmed the presence of EDA in primary tumors (PTs) as well as metastases. In mice, the efficacy of F8-TNF against PTs and early pulmonary metastases was evaluated. Intratibial PT growth was not affected by F8-TNF, yet early micrometastases were reduced possibly due to an F8-TNF-dependent attraction of pulmonary CD4(+), CD8(+), and natural killer cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence revealed stronger expression of EDA in early pulmonary metastases compared with PT tissue. To study progressing pulmonary metastases, a hind limb amputation model was established, and the efficacy of F8-TNF, alone or combined with doxorubicin, was investigated. Despite the presence of EDA in metastases, no inhibition of progressive metastatic growth was detected. No significant differences in numbers of CD4(+) or CD8(+) cells or F4/80(+) and Ly6G(+) myeloid-derived cells were observed, although a strong association between metastatic growth and presence of pulmonary Ly6G(+) myeloid-derived cells was detected. In summary, these findings demonstrate the potential of F8-TNF in activating the immune system and reducing early metastatic growth yet suggest a lack of efficacy of F8-TNF alone or combined with doxorubicin against progressing osteosarcoma metastases.

Neuromuscular blockade requirement is associated with good neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management.

We examined the association between neuromuscular blockade (NMB) requirements and outcomes and lactate clearance in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management (TTM).

Diabetes status modifies the association between carotid intima-media thickness and incident heart failure: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

Increasing carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is associated with incident heart failure (HF). We investigated whether this association differs by diabetes status.

Protective effect of artemisinin on chronic alcohol induced-liver damage in mice.

The liver disease related to chronic alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of death for alcoholics. The efficient drug to ameliorate the alcoholic liver injury was needed urgently. The present study was performed to investigate whether artemisinin possessed the protective effect against chronic alcohol consumption. 50 male Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups: control group (C): 10ml/kg saline+10ml/kg saline, alcohol group (A): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+10ml/kg saline, low dose group of artemisinin (L): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+30mg/kg/day artemisinin, medium dose group of artemisinin (M): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+60mg/kg/day artemisinin, high dose group of artemisinin (H): 10ml/kg 56%(v/v) alcohol+120mg/kg/day artemisinin. Drugs were given orally every day. The general state of mice was observed and the levels of serum activities of AST and ALT were detected after treatment with drugs for 30days. Besides, the liver weight index was calculated and histopathological analysis was performed. We successfully demonstrated that treatment with high dose of artemisinin significantly decreased the elevated levels of AST (p<0.05) and ALT (p<0.01) in plasma, as well as the liver weight index (p<0.01). The loss of body weight, tissue injury, oedema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the hepatocytes were found in the A group. These symptoms were remarkably alleviated in animals treated with artemisinin. Artemisinin can inhibit the activation of NF-кB and the expression of inflammatory cytokines inducible nitric oxide synthase. Besides, it can also enhance the stability of liver cell membrane, and reduce the damage of liver cell membrane and liver cell. Artemisinin showed a protective effect against chronic alcohol poisoning and it has a great potential for the clinical application to treat the liver injury induced by alcohol.

The placental factor in spontaneous preterm birth in twin vs. singleton pregnancies.

The association between infection and inflammatory response in singleton preterm birth (PTB) is well established, yet, less is known about PTB in twins. We aimed to compare the placental component and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with PTB of singletons vs. twin deliveries. We hypothesized that due to different underlying mechanisms, placental inflammatory lesions will be more prevalent in placentas derived from singleton pregnancies than twins.

Road Traffic Injury in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Systematic Review and Summary of Observational Studies.

The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a systematic review of hospital based studies, the proportion of road traffic injuries and fatalities in SSA.

Characteristics and Risk Factors for Suicide and Deaths Among College Students: A 23-Year Serial Prevalence Study of Data From 8.2 Million Japanese College Students.

Suicide is a leading cause of death for college students. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of suicide among college students that could improve university services to help prevent college suicide.

Estimating Survival After Salvage Surgery for Recurrent Oral Cavity Cancer.

Locoregional recurrence of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) continues to be a life-threatening and difficult clinical situation. Salvage surgery can result in significant morbidities, and survival following recurrence is poor.

Goniodysgenesis variability and activity of CYP1B1 genotypes in primary congenital glaucoma.

Mutations in the CYP1B1 gene are currently the main known genetic cause of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a leading cause of blindness in children. Here, we analyze for the first time the CYP1B1 genotype activity and the microscopic and clinical phenotypes in human PCG. Surgical pieces from trabeculectomy from patients with PCG (n = 5) and sclerocorneal rims (n = 3) from cadaver donors were processed for transmission electron microscopy. Patients were classified into three groups depending on goniodysgenesis severity, which was influenced by CYP1B1 enzymatic activity. The main histological changes observed in the outflow pathway of patients with PCG and mutations in CYP1B1 were: i) underdeveloped collector channels and the Schlemm's canal; ii) abnormal insertion of the ciliary muscle; iii) death of the trabecular endothelial cells. Our findings could be useful in improving treatment strategy of PCG associated with CYP1B1 mutations.

Clinical presentation and management of stable coronary artery disease in Austria.

Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Austria. However, no systematic information exists regarding characteristics and treatments of contemporary patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in Austria. We assembled two retrospective physicians' databases to describe demographics, clinical profiles, and therapeutic strategies in patients with stable CAD. In addition, we compared patient profiles of secondary care internists and hospital-based cardiologists with those of general practitioners in a primary care setting outside of hospital.

Personalized glucose forecasting for type 2 diabetes using data assimilation.

Type 2 diabetes leads to premature death and reduced quality of life for 8% of Americans. Nutrition management is critical to maintaining glycemic control, yet it is difficult to achieve due to the high individual differences in glycemic response to nutrition. Anticipating glycemic impact of different meals can be challenging not only for individuals with diabetes, but also for expert diabetes educators. Personalized computational models that can accurately forecast an impact of a given meal on an individual's blood glucose levels can serve as the engine for a new generation of decision support tools for individuals with diabetes. However, to be useful in practice, these computational engines need to generate accurate forecasts based on limited datasets consistent with typical self-monitoring practices of individuals with type 2 diabetes. This paper uses three forecasting machines: (i) data assimilation, a technique borrowed from atmospheric physics and engineering that uses Bayesian modeling to infuse data with human knowledge represented in a mechanistic model, to generate real-time, personalized, adaptable glucose forecasts; (ii) model averaging of data assimilation output; and (iii) dynamical Gaussian process model regression. The proposed data assimilation machine, the primary focus of the paper, uses a modified dual unscented Kalman filter to estimate states and parameters, personalizing the mechanistic models. Model selection is used to make a personalized model selection for the individual and their measurement characteristics. The data assimilation forecasts are empirically evaluated against actual postprandial glucose measurements captured by individuals with type 2 diabetes, and against predictions generated by experienced diabetes educators after reviewing a set of historical nutritional records and glucose measurements for the same individual. The evaluation suggests that the data assimilation forecasts compare well with specific glucose measurements and match or exceed in accuracy expert forecasts. We conclude by examining ways to present predictions as forecast-derived range quantities and evaluate the comparative advantages of these ranges.

Occupational Fatalities Resulting from Falls in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry, United States, 2005-2014.

During 2003-2013, fatality rates for oil and gas extraction workers decreased for all causes of death except those associated with fall events, which increased 2% annually during 2003-2013 (1). To better understand risk factors for these events, CDC examined fatal fall events in the oil and gas extraction industry during 2005-2014 using data from case investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Sixty-three fatal falls were identified, accounting for 15% of all fatal events. Among fatal falls, 33 (52%) workers fell from a height of >30 feet (9 meters), and 22 (35%) fell from the derrick board, the elevated work platform located in the derrick (structure used to support machinery on a drilling rig). Fall fatalities occurred most frequently when drilling rigs were being assembled or disassembled at the well site (rigging up or rigging down) (14; 22%) or when workers were removing or inserting drill pipe into the wellbore (14; 22%). Measures that target derrickmen and workers engaged in assembling and disassembling drilling rigs (rigging up and down) could reduce falls in this industry. Companies should annually update their fall protection plans and ensure effective fall prevention programs are in place for workers at highest risk for falls, including providing trainings on proper use, fit, and inspection of personal protective equipment.

A Resident's Perspective of Ovarian Cancer.

Identifying, understanding, and curing disease is a lifelong endeavor for any medical practitioner. Equally as important is to be cognizant of the impact a disease has on the individual suffering from it, as well as on their family. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Symptoms are vague, and the disease is generally at an advanced stage at diagnosis. Efforts have been made to develop methods to identify ovarian cancer at earlier stages, thus improving overall mortality. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), with and without laboratory tests, can be used to screen for ovarian cancer. For over thirty years, the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center Ovarian Cancer Screening Program has been studying the efficacy of TVUS for detecting early stage ovarian cancer. After 285,000+ TVUS examinations provided to over 45,000 women, the program has demonstrated that regular TVUS examinations can detect ovarian cancer at early stages, and that survival is increased in those women whose ovarian cancer was detected with screening and who undergo standard treatment. These results demonstrate the utility of TVUS as an efficacious method of ovarian cancer screening.

A Flor de Piel.

Surgical Techniques for Closure of a Scalp Defect After Resection of Skin Malignancy.

Surgery for scalp malignancies is aimed at the complete resection and a good aesthetic outcome. The goal was to develop an algorithm for scalp reconstruction based on the authors' surgical experience.

Oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla inhibits glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is related to excessive oxidative stress accumulation and results in the increase of neuronal cell death. In addition, glutamate has been reported to lead to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.It is well known that Fraxinus rhynchophylla contains a significant level of oleuropein (Ole), which exerts various pharmacological effects. However, the mechanism of neuroprotective effects of Ole is still poorly defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Ole prevents glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. The exposure of the glutamate treatment caused neuronal cell death through an alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the cytoplasm of HT-22 cells. In addition, glutamate induced an increase in dephosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The pretreatment of Ole decreased Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited the translocation of mitochondrial AIF to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, Ole amended a glutamate-induced mitochondrial dynamic imbalance and reduced the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria, regulating the phosphorylation of Drp1 at amino acid residue serine 637. In conclusion, our results show that Ole has a preventive effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. Therefore, these data imply that Ole may be an efficient approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Epidemiology of newly diagnosed hypertensives in a tertiary care hospital in a developing country.

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in most countries and the past two decades have shown a global increase. Hypertension (HTN) was found to be the leading risk factor in 2010 as qualified by Disability Adjusted Life Years. Epidemiological studies in this regard in Sri Lanka are scarce. Thus, describing epidemiological patterns of HTN in the Sri Lankan population will help policy makers in planning preventive healthcare programs and aid in preparing strategies to cope with the increasing demand for healthcare facilities.