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diagnosis - Top 30 Publications

Can clinical scoring systems improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected adult appendicitis and equivocal preoperative computed tomography findings?

Adult appendicitis (AA) with equivocal computed tomography (CT) findings remains a diagnostic challenge for physicians. Herein we evaluated the diagnostic performance of several clinical scoring systems in adult patients with suspected appendicitis and equivocal CT findings.

Bladder Metastases from Breast Cancer: Managing the Unexpected. A Systematic Review.

Breast cancer (BrC) has the highest incidence among females world over and it is one of the most common causes of death from cancer overall. Its high mortality is mostly due to its propensity to rapidly spread to other organs through lymphatic and blood vessels in spite of proper treatment. Bladder metastases from BrC are rare, with 50 cases having been reported in the last 60 years. This review aims to discuss some critical points regarding this uncommon condition. First, we performed a systematic review of the literature in order to draw a clinical and pathological profile of this entity. On this basis, its features in terms of diagnostic issues, imaging techniques, and survival are critically examined. Most bladder metastases from BrC are secondary lobular carcinoma, which mimic very closely the rare variant of urothelial cancer with lobular carcinoma-like features (uniform cells with an uncohesive single-cell, diffusely invasive growth pattern); thus, immunohistochemistry is mandatory to arrive at a correct diagnosis. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of bladder metastases in patients with BrC.

Cryptogenic Cirrhosis and Sitosterolemia: A Treatable Disease If Identified but Fatal If Missed.

Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes which encode for the (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are responsible for the trafficking of xenosterols. Liver involvement is not a recognized manifestation of this disease, and cirrhosis has been reported only once in the medical literature. We describe a fatal case of a 21-year old South Asian male who presented with decompensated cirrhosis, and biochemical abnormalities consistent with sitosterolemia. Genetic testing showed a homozygous pathogenic mutation in ABCG5, confirming the diagnosis. Sitosterolemia is a rare, but likely under-recognized condition, and a high degree of suspicion is imperative to make the diagnosis. We propose that sitosterolemia should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, especially as there are effective oral therapies to treat this condition. Newly diagnosed sitosterolemia patients should undergo a thorough hepatology evaluation and follow-up to evaluate for the presence, development, and progression of any hepatic involvement.

Congenital Shunts of the Portal Venous System: Case-series of Uncommon Shunts.

Congenital shunts of the portal venous system are rare entities that can present in children with clinical heterogeneity. To evaluate the clinical course of children with uncommon shunts presenting to our institution and examine the available literature on this topic. Medical records of children with rare forms of congenital shunts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, symptoms, management, and outcome between 2003 and 2016.

An Inexpensive Digital Image Analysis Technique for Liver Fibrosis Quantification in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients.

Quantitative digital imaging analysis to evaluate liver fibrosis is accurate, but its clinical use is limited by its high cost and lack of standardization. We aimed to validate an inexpensive digital imaging analysis technique for fibrosis quantification in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Fibrogenic/Angiogenic Linker for Non-Invasive Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis Staging in Chronic Hepatitis C Among Egyptian Patients.

Background and rationale for the study. Liver biopsy is the golden standard for staging liver fibrosis, but it may be accompanied by complications. Because of this complication, the aim of this study is to evaluate a simple noninvasive score to assess hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients which is very may have an important in diagnosis and therapeutic decision. This score [HA vascular (HAV) score] is a combination of direct markers [hyaluronic acid (HA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and indirect markers [aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR)].

Endoscopic Management of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but potentially devastating chronic, cholestatic liver disease. PSC causes obstruction of intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts by inflammation and fibrosis, leading to biliary obstruction, cirrhosis and portal hypertension with all associated sequelae. The most dreaded consequence of PSC is cholangiocarcinoma, occurring in 10-20% of patients with PSC, and with population-based estimates of a 398-fold increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with PSC compared to the general population. We use the 4-D approach to endoscopic evaluation and management of PSC based on currently available evidence. After laboratory testing with liver chemistries and high-quality cross-sectional imaging with MRCP, the first D is Dominant stricture diagnosis and evaluation. Second, Dilation of strictures found during ERCP is performed using balloon dilation to as many segments as possible. Third, Dysplasia and cholangiocarcinoma diagnosis is performed by separated brushings for conventional cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and consideration for direct cholangioscopy with SpyGlass™. Fourt and finally, Dosing of antibiotics is critical to prevent peri-procedural cholangitis. The aim of this review article is to explore endoscopic tools and techniques for the diagnosis and management of PSC and provide a practical approach for clinicians.

The Great Chinese Famine Exposure in Early Life and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adult Women.

Previous studies found famine exposure was associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In the study, we investigated the relationship between Chinese famine exposure and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adult women.

Macular imaging by optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.

The macular area is important to the detection of glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Macular thickness complementary to peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness can well reflect glaucomatous damage, given that the macula contains more than 50% of the RGCs in a multilayered pattern and larger RGC bodies compared with their axons. Thus, macular ganglion cell thickness parameters recently have been considered to be an effective glaucoma-diagnostic tool comparable to RNFL thickness parameters. Furthermore, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness and deviation maps can provide additional information essential for distinguishing glaucomatous changes from other, myopia-associated or macular disease-associated changes. Therefore, our aim with this study was to review the clinical application of macular imaging by optical coherence tomography and to provide essential clinical tips for its use in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.

Significant correlation between meibomian gland dysfunction and keratitis in young patients with Demodex brevis infestation.

To report the clinical characteristics and correlation between meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and keratitis in young patients with ocular demodicosis.

Umbilical metastasis mimicking symptomatic hernia: Report of a case of Sister Mary Joseph Syndrome.

An umbilical mass can be the first symptom of an intra-abdominal neoplasia, and this condition is also defined as Sister Mary Joseph Syndrome.

In vitro uptake and metabolism of (14)Cacetate in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries: biological basis for atherosclerosis imaging with (11)Cacetate.

Detection of vulnerable plaques is critically important for the selection of appropriate treatment and/or the prevention of atherosclerosis and ensuing cardiovascular diseases. In order to clarify the utility of [(11)C]acetate for atherosclerosis imaging, we determined the uptake and metabolism of acetate by in vitro studies using rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and [(14)C]acetate.

Prevalence and pathways of recovery from drug and alcohol problems in the United States population: Implications for practice, research, and policy.

Alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems confer a global, prodigious burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality. Even so, little is known regarding how, and by what means, individuals successfully resolve AOD problems. Greater knowledge would inform policy and guide service provision.

Retroperitoneal nodal metastasis in primary adult type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: Can routine lymphadenectomy be omitted?

To investigate the incidence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis among patients with primary adult type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) of the ovary.

Progress toward standardized diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment: Guidelines from the Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study.

Progress in understanding and management of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been hampered by lack of consensus on diagnosis, reflecting the use of multiple different assessment protocols. A large multinational group of clinicians and researchers participated in a two-phase Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study (VICCCS) to agree on principles (VICCCS-1) and protocols (VICCCS-2) for diagnosis of VCI. We present VICCCS-2.

Facile synthesis of metal-organic frameworks/ordered mesoporous carbon composites with enhanced electrocatalytic ability for hydrazine.

The cooper-based metal-organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) loaded on ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) hybrids has been synthesized by a simple and rapid method for the first time. The composite materials were characterized comprehensively by SEM, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, nitrogen adsorption method, etc. The as-prepared novel Cu-MOFs/OMC nanohybrids extend the applications of support materials and provide new features of electrocatalytic activities. Hydrazine is performed as an electrochemical probe, which showed low limit of detection, wide linear range, and high sensitivity. The successful fabrication of Cu-MOFs/OMC holds great promise for the design of electrochemical sensors, and is a promising material to promote the development of new electrode materials.

Management of wet AMD in France in 2015.

Intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF agents, available in France since 2007, allows stabilization and improvement in visual acuity in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the past few years, the management of this disease has evolved in terms of both diagnostic methods and treatment schedules, which have been adapted to the pathophysiology of AMD. The goal of this survey, performed in a representative sample of French ophthalmologists, was to describe the evolution of medical practices one year after a similar survey (Massé et al., J Fr Ophtalmol 2016; 39: 40-7).

Proteomics and metabolomics characterizing the pathophysiology of adaptive reactions to the metabolic challenges during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cows.

The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes. Proteomics and metabolomics have emerged as valuable techniques to characterize proteins and metabolite assets from tissue and biological fluids, such as milk, blood and urine. In this review we provide an overview on metabolic status and physiological changes during the transition period and the related production diseases in dairy cows, and summarize the state of art on proteomics and metabolomics of biological fluids and tissues involved in metabolic stress during the peripartum period. We also provide a current and prospective view of the application of the recent achievements generated by omics for biomarker discovery and their potential in diagnosis.

Live or let die: Neuroprotective and anti-cancer effects of nutraceutical antioxidants.

Diet sources are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and cancers, in addition to inherited factors. Currently, natural products or nutraceuticals (commonly called medical foods) are increasingly employed for adjunctive therapy of these patients. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of the nutrient efficacy remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the neuroprotective and anti-cancer mechanisms of nutraceuticals. It was concluded that the nutraceuticals exerted neuroprotection and suppressed tumor growth possibly through the differential modulations of redox homeostasis. In addition, the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS elimination was manipulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, including cell signaling pathways, inflammation, transcriptional regulation and epigenetic modulation, which were involved in the therapeutic potential of nutraceutical antioxidants against neurological diseases and cancers. We specifically proposed that ROS scavenging was integral in the neuroprotective potential of nutraceuticals, while alternation of ROS level (either increase or decrease) or disruption of redox homeostasis (ROS addiction) constituted the anti-cancer property of these compounds. We also hypothesized that ROS-associated ferroptosis, a novel type of lipid ROS-dependent regulatory cell death, was likely to be a critical mechanism for the nutraceutical antioxidants. Targeting ferroptosis is advantageous to develop new nutraceuticals with more effective and lower adverse reactions for curing patients with neuropsychiatric diseases or carcinomas.

Combination of a structured aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycaemic control in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

Gestational diabetes mellitus, defined as any carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy, is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes, both for the mother and her child.

Impact of bariatric surgery on outcomes of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a nationwide inpatient sample analysis, 2004-2012.

Bariatric surgery in eligible morbidly obese individuals may improve liver steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis; however, population-based data on the clinical benefits of bariatric surgery in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking.

Prognostic Value of Combined Clinical and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Data Using Machine Learning.

This study evaluated the added predictive value of combining clinical information and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging (MPI) data using machine learning (ML) to predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE).

Early Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction Due to Bioprosthetic Valve Thrombosis: The Role of Echocardiography.

The purpose of this study was to review the institutional practice of surveillance transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for diagnosing early prosthetic valve dysfunction (PVD).

Qualitative and quantitative radiological analysis of non-contrast CT is a strong indicator in patients with acute pyelonephritis.

To evaluate the performance of non-contrast computed tomography (CT) by reporting the difference in attenuation between normal and inflamed renal parenchyma in patients clinically diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN).

Which transfers can we avoid: Multi-state analysis of factors associated with discharge home without procedure after ED to ED transfer for traumatic injury.

Among injured patients transferred from one emergency department (ED) to another, we determined factors associated with being discharged from the second ED without procedures, or admission or observation.

Qualitative Study to Understand Ordering of CT Angiography to Diagnose Pulmonary Embolism in the Emergency Room Setting.

To better understand the decision making behind the ordering of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department.

Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices.

Treatment of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation with orally inhaled AP301: A prospective, randomized pilot study.

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation (LTx) carries significant morbidity and mortality in the early post-operative period and is associated with the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. AP301, an activator of epithelial sodium channel-mediated Na(+) uptake represents a new concept for prevention and treatment of pulmonary edema and has shown promising results in the pre-clinical setting. This pilot study investigated the clinical effect of inhaled AP301 on patients with development of PGD > 1 according to International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria after primary LTx in a high-volume center and was conducted as a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center pilot-study including 20 patients. All consecutive patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were screened for PGD at arrival on the intensive care unit (ICU) after LTx. After randomization, inhaled AP301 or placebo was administered by nebulizer twice daily for 7 days or until extubation. Otherwise, patients were treated according to routine clinical protocol. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) values were obtained until extubation and assessed as a primary outcome parameter. Patients were monitored for 30 days within the study protocol.

Late graft dysfunction after pediatric heart transplantation is associated with fibrosis and microvasculopathy by automated, digital whole-slide analysis.

Histopathologic features of late graft dysfunction (LGD) in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) after pediatric heart transplantation (HT) have been incompletely described and rarely quantified. We employed automated, morphometric analysis of whole-slide EMB images to objectively quantify fibrosis and microvasculopathy after pediatric HT.

Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis.