A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

diagnosis - Top 30 Publications

Diagnosis of small pulmonary lesions by transbronchial lung biopsy with radial endobronchial ultrasound and virtual bronchoscopic navigation versus CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Advances in bronchoscopy and CT-guided lung biopsy have improved the evaluation of small pulmonary lesions (PLs), leading to an increase in preoperative histological diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transbronchial lung biopsy using radial endobronchial ultrasound and virtual bronchoscopic navigation (TBLB-rEBUS&VBN) and CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (CT-TNB) for tissue diagnosis of small PLs.

The Effect of Caudal Epidural Pulsed Radiofrequency Stimulation in Patients with Refractory Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy.

Many patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) suffer from neuropathic pain, which is managed using several oral medications and modalities. However, despite these treatments, pain persists in some patients.

Dual Site Pudendal Nerve Infiltration: More than Just a Diagnostic Test?

Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a very painful and often disabling condition in which pudendal nerve blocks play an important role in both the diagnosis and management of PN. Some previous reports have advocated the use of pudendal nerve infiltration (PNI) as a diagnostic test only.

Epigenetics, microbiota, and intraocular inflammation: New paradigms of immune regulation in the eye.

Sight threatening immune responses that damage the eye characterize intraocular inflammatory diseases. These diseases including uveitis and age-related macular degeneration are worryingly common and quality of life shattering. Genetic studies in past decades significantly advanced our understanding of the etiology of these devastating diseases. Unfortunately, patient genetics alone failed to adequately explain disease origin, susceptibility, and progression. Non-genetic factors such as the epigenetic regulation of ocular diseases and the environmental factors triggering intraocular inflammation offer new insight into intraocular inflammatory disorders. Importantly, mounting evidence is signaling that dysbiosis of human microbiota leads to rapid epigenomic reprograming of host cells and results in the onset of many diseases. In this review, we discuss how epigenetic mechanisms and microbiota may cooperate to initiate and perpetuate ocular inflammation. Lastly, we propose that the discovery of intraocular microbiota presents a significant shift in thought affecting current approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of intraocular inflammatory diseases such as uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. The geographical and genetic background difference in both disease presentation and genetic association of intraocular inflammatory diseases may be due to the variation of intraocular microbiota.

Fusion genes: A promising tool combating against cancer.

The driving roles of fusion genes during tumorigenesis have been recognized for decades, with efficacies demonstrated in clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy. With advances in sequencing technologies and computational biology, a surge in the identification of fusion genes has been witnessed during the past decade. The discovery and presence of splicing based fusions in normal tissues have challenged our canonical conceptions on fusion genes and offered us novel medical opportunities. The specificity of fusion genes to neoplastic tissues and their diverse functionalities during carcinogenesis foster them as promising tools in the battle against cancer. It is time to re-visit and comb through our cutting-edge knowledge on fusion genes to accelerate clinical translation of these internal markers. Urged as such, we are encouraged to categorize fusion events according to mechanisms leading to their generation, oncological consequences and clinical implications, offer insights on fusion occurrence across tumors from the system level, highlight feasible practices in fusion-related pharmaceutical development, and identify understudied yet important niches that may lead future research trend in this field.

Non Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer: a Modern Perspective.

Non-metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (NMCRPC) presents a challenge to Urologists as currently there are no FDA approved therapies. However, there are new imaging modalities, including Fluciclovine PET/CT and Ga-PSMA PET/CT which are improving accuracy of diagnosis. With improved imaging, we are better able to target therapy. Today there are three ongoing clinical trials studying second generation antiandrogens in NMCRPC which hold the promise of a new treatment paradigm. In this article we will review the new imaging techniques and the rationale behind novel treatment modalities in NMCRPC.

Severe Maternal Morbidity During Delivery Hospitalizations.

Severe maternal morbidities include 25 complications resulting from, or exacerbated by, pregnancy. Nationally, in the last decade, these rates have doubled.

Candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of drug-induced liver injury: An international collaborative effort.

Current blood biomarkers are suboptimal in detecting drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and predicting its outcome. We sought to characterize the natural variabilty and performance characteristics of fourteen promising DILI biomarker candidates. Serum or plasma from multiple cohorts of healthy volunteers (n=192 and =81), subjects who safely took potentially hepatotoxic drugs without adverse effects (n=55 and =92) and DILI patients (n=98, =28, and =143) were assayed for microRNA-122 (miR-122), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), total keratin 18 (K18), caspase cleaved K18 (ccK18), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTα), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), arginase-1 (ARG1), osteopontin (OPN), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), cadherin-5 (CDH5), macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (MCSFR), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, normalized to prothrombin protein), and leucocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2). Most candidate biomarkers were significantly altered in DILI cases compared to healthy volunteers. GLDH correlated more closely with gold standard alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than miR-122 and there was a surprisingly wide inter- and intra-individual variability of miR-122 levels among the healthy volunteers. Serum K18, OPN, and MCSFR levels were most strongly associated with liver-related death or transplant within 6 months of DILI-onset. Prediction of prognosis among DILI patients using Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) was improved by incorporation of K18 and MCSFR levels.

Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by Ktrans.

What is your diagnosis? Mediastinal mass in a dromedary camel.

Atrial fibrillation diagnosed by a medical checkup is associated with a poor outcome of catheter ablation.

Atrial fibrillation (AF), especially asymptomatic cases, is often detected by medical checkups. We investigated the outcome of AF ablation in cases detected by medical checkups. We reviewed the data of 735 patients with AF (56 ± 10 years, paroxysmal: 441 patients) who underwent initial catheter ablation. All patients were divided into two groups based on their AF being diagnosed either by a medical checkup (group M) or not (group NM). AF was diagnosed by medical checkups in 263 (36%) patients. In Group M, the age was younger, time from the diagnosis to ablation shorter, left atrium dimension larger, and left ventricular ejection fraction lower than in Group NM. Male gender, persistent AF, and asymptomatic AF were more frequently seen in Group M than in Group NM. A mean of 13 ± 11 months after the initial ablation procedure, AF recurrence was more frequently observed in group M compared to group NM (P = 0.018). While the AF recurrence rate was similar in both groups in persistent AF patients (P = 0.87), it was more frequently observed in Group M than in Group NM in paroxysmal AF patients (P = 0.005). AF diagnosed by medical checkups was often associated with a worse outcome of catheter ablation, especially in paroxysmal AF patients.

Multiple small bowel perforations due to invasive aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: case report and a systematic review of the literature.

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by Aspergillus is mostly reported as part of a disseminated infection from a primary pulmonary site and only rarely as an isolated organ infection.

New Developments in the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Monitoring of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has transformed over the past two decades from a little-known entity to a significant cause of morbidity in the adult and pediatric population. We reviewed the most recent advancements in the diagnosis, therapy, and long-term monitoring of EoE.

Ipsilateral Saccade Hypometria and Contralateral Saccadic Pursuit in a Focal Brainstem Lesion: a Rare Oculomotor Pattern.

Eye movement examination may be used to rapidly differentiate peripheral and central vestibular syndromes in patients with acute unsteadiness. The analysis of oculomotor impairments may also support the accurate localization of cerebral lesions, particularly those in the brainstem, that are often loosely defined by cerebral MRIs. Saccades, smooth pursuit, and nystagmus were recorded with video-oculography in a patient who had developed sudden vertigo as a consequence of a focal lesion in the depth of the brachium pontis. The patient had shown a previously unreported pattern of eye movement impairments consisting of (i) ipsilesional hypometric saccades, (ii) contralesional saccadic smooth pursuit, and (iii) unilateral gaze-evoked nystagmus. These symptoms enabled the precise localization of the trajectory of pontocerebellar saccadic tracts in the depth of the brachium pontis. We propose that this rare association resulted from a disruption of cerebellar afferents of saccadic pathways and of cerebellar efferents of horizontal smooth pursuit pathways. This reported case emphasizes the crucial role of careful bedside oculomotor examination in order to discriminate between peripheral and central vestibular syndromes in the diagnosis of sudden vertigo. Moreover, it reveals an exceptional pattern of oculomotor impairments that may allow for the precise localization of the trajectory of cerebellar saccadic afferent pathways in the depth of the brachium pontis.

Identification and production of mouse scFv to specific epitope of enterovirus-71 virion protein-2 (VP2).

Enterovirus-71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus-A16 (CA16) frequently cause hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics among infants and young children. CA16 infections are usually mild, while EV71 disease may be fatal due to neurologic complications. As such, the ability to rapidly and specifically recognize EV71 is needed to facilitate proper case management and epidemic control. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to generate antibodies to EV71-virion protein-2 (VP2) by phage display technology for further use in specific detection of EV71. A recombinant peptide sequence of EV71-VP2, carrying a predicted conserved B cell epitope fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (designated GST-EV71-VP2/131-160), was produced. The fusion protein was used as bait in in-solution biopanning to separate protein-bound phages from a murine scFv (MuscFv) phage display library constructed from an immunoglobulin gene repertoire from naïve ICR mice. Three phage-transformed E. coli clones (clones 63, 82, and 83) produced MuscFvs that bound to the GST-EV71-VP2/131-160 peptide. The MuscFv of clone 83 (MuscFv83), which produced the highest ELISA signal to the target antigen, was further tested. MuscFv83 also bound to full-length EV71-VP2 and EV71 particles, but did not bind to GST, full-length EV71-VP1, or the antigenically related CA16. MuscFv83 could be a suitable reagent for rapid antigen-based immunoassay, such as immunochromatography (ICT), for the specific detection and/or diagnosis of EV71 infection as well as epidemic surveillance.

Short- and long-term clinical outcomes of use of beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate for people with clinically isolated syndrome: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and network meta-analysis.

Beta-interferon (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) have been evaluated in people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) with the aim to delay a second clinical attack and a diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). We systematically reviewed trials evaluating the short- and long-term clinical effectiveness of these drugs in CIS.

Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

To report pitfalls in the clinical diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.

Pheochromocytomas and Hypertension.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are uncommon catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine neoplasms that usually present with secondary hypertension. This review is to update the current knowledge about these neoplasms, the pathophysiology, genetic aspects and diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms based on scientific literature mostly within the past 3 years.

Headache following head injury: a population-based longitudinal cohort study (HUNT).

Headache is the most frequent symptom following head injury, but long-term follow-up of headache after head injury entails methodological challenges. In a population-based cohort study, we explored whether subjects hospitalized due to a head injury more often developed a new headache or experienced exacerbation of previously reported headache compared to the surrounding population.

Mechanical birth-related trauma to the neonate: An imaging perspective.

Mechanical birth-related injuries to the neonate are declining in incidence with advances in prenatal diagnosis and care. These injuries, however, continue to represent an important source of morbidity and mortality in the affected patient population. In the United States, these injuries are estimated to occur among 2.6% of births. Although more usual in context of existing feto-maternal risk factors, their occurrence can be unpredictable. While often superficial and temporary, functional and cosmetic sequelae, disability or even death can result as a consequence of birth-related injuries. The Agency for Healthcare research and quality (AHRQ) in the USA has developed, through expert consensus, patient safety indicators which include seven types of birth-related injuries including subdural and intracerebral hemorrhage, epicranial subaponeurotic hemorrhage, skeletal injuries, injuries to spine and spinal cord, peripheral and cranial nerve injuries and other types of specified and non-specified birth trauma. Understandably, birth-related injuries are a source of great concern for the parents and clinician. Many of these injuries have imaging manifestations. This article seeks to familiarize the reader with the clinical spectrum, significance and multimodality imaging appearances of neonatal multi-organ birth-related trauma and its sequelae, where applicable. Teaching points • Mechanical trauma related to birth usually occurs with pre-existing feto-maternal risk factors.• Several organ systems can be affected; neurologic, musculoskeletal or visceral injuries can occur.• Injuries can be mild and transient or disabling, even life-threatening.• Imaging plays an important role in injury identification and triage of affected neonates.

A Retrospective Assessment of Four Antigen Assays for the Detection of Invasive Candidiasis Among High-Risk Hospitalized Patients.

Because of their high mortality rates and non-specific symptoms, invasive Candida infections pose a huge diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In this study, we evaluated the three mannan antigen assays Platelia, Platelia Plus and Serion, and the (1-3)-β-D-glucan assay Fungitell in a group of high-risk (hematological and surgical) patients. Test results of 305 patients hospitalized at the Vienna General Hospital and the University Hospital of Innsbruck were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed the test accuracy by means of descriptive statistics. Nine (2.95%) patients were affected by invasive candidiasis (IC), and 25 (8.2%) patients had a probable/possible infection. The majority of patients (271; 88.9%) showed no signs of infection. The Platelia and Serion mannan assays had a low sensitivity (65% and 52%, respectively), but high specificity (98% for both tests). The newer version of the Platelia assay, the Platelia Plus, had a higher sensitivity (85%) but a lower specificity (89%). The sensitivity of the Fungitell assay was high (100%), while its specificity was low (58%). The positive predictive values were 0.48 for the Platelia and 0.41 for the Serion assay, 0.26 for the Platelia Plus and 0.09 for the Fungitell assay. Our limited, retrospective study suggests the efficacy of mannan assays as screening (Platelia Plus) and confirmatory (Serion) tests, while the Fungitell assay can be used to exclude invasive Candida infections.

Does Aeroallergen Sensitization Cause or Contribute to Eosinophilic Esophagitis?

Eosinophilic esophagitis is an atopic disease defined clinically by esophageal symptoms in combination with a dense esophageal eosinophilia. EoE is triggered and maintained by exposure to certain foods and it is known that dietary modification controls symptoms and achieves disease remission. Recently, aeroallergens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. To examine the role of aeroallergens in EoE, we reviewed the published literature. Sensitization and production of IgE antibodies to foods and aeroallergens in subjects with EoE has been demonstrated. However, the evidence suggests only a minor role for IgE-mediated immune reactions in EoE. There is some evidence to support an association of EoE diagnosis and flares with environmental allergen exposure, and animal studies support the notion that EoE may be induced by exposure to inhalant allergens. Some studies show that newly diagnosed cases of EoE follow a seasonal pollen distribution (summer and spring), but the weight of evidence does not support the seasonal occurrence of diagnosis or worsening of symptoms. Overall, we conclude that the current evidence does not support causality in inhalant allergen exposure and the genesis nor exacerbations of EoE in humans, although there is a possibility that inhalant allergen sensitization could play a modifying role in EoE in the context of cross-reacting food allergens.

Management and outcomes of women diagnosed with primary breast lymphoma: a multi-institution experience.

Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) comprises < 1% of breast malignancies, leading to a paucity of data to guide management. We evaluated PBL recurrence patterns across two academic hospitals in the era of modern systemic-therapy and radiotherapy.

Tubercular retinal vasculitis mimicking frosted branch angiitis: a case report.

Tubercular vasculitis is an important manifestation of ocular tuberculosis and this report highlights the mimicking nature of the disease with frosted branch angiitis.

Management of spinal infection: a review of the literature.

Spinal infection (SI) is defined as an infectious disease affecting the vertebral body, the intervertebral disc, and/or adjacent paraspinal tissue and represents 2-7% of all musculoskeletal infections. There are numerous factors, which may facilitate the development of SI including not only advanced patient age and comorbidities but also spinal surgery. Due to the low specificity of signs, the delay in diagnosis of SI remains an important issue and poor outcome is frequently seen. Diagnosis should always be supported by clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remaining the most reliable method. Management of SI depends on the location of the infection (i.e., intraspinal, intervertebral, paraspinal), on the disease progression, and of course on the patient's general condition, considering age and comorbidities. Conservative treatment mostly is reasonable in early stages with no or minor neurologic deficits and in case of severe comorbidities, which limit surgical options. Nevertheless, solely medical treatment often fails. Therefore, in case of doubt, surgical treatment should be considered. The final result in conservative as well as in surgical treatment always is bony fusion. Furthermore, both options require a concomitant antimicrobial therapy, initially applied intravenously and administered orally thereafter. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy remains controversial, but should never undercut 6 weeks. Due to a heterogeneous and often comorbid patient population and the wide variety of treatment options, no generally applicable guidelines for SI exist and management remains a challenge. Thus, future prospective randomized trials are necessary to substantiate treatment strategies.

National changes in pediatric tracheotomy epidemiology during 36 years.

Information on the incidence, indications and morbidity of pediatric tracheotomy from a nationwide setting is sparse.

The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients in routine care and the risk of interactions.

Patients suffering from cancer often make use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Only few data exist on the prevalence and clinical significance of interactions of a biological CAM method and conventional drugs.

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas Parafulva PRS09-11288, a Biocontrol Strain Produces the Antibiotic Phenazine-1-carboxylic Acid.

Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus, which can infect a wide range of economic crops including rice. In this case, biological control of this pathogen is one of the fundmental way to effectively control this pathogen. The Pseudomonas parafulva strain PRS09-11288 was isolated from rice rhizosphere and shows biocontrol ability against R. solani. Here, we analyzed the P. parafulva genome, which is ~ 4.7 Mb, with 4310 coding sequences, 76 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. Genome analysis identified a phenazine biosynthetic pathway, which can produce antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). This compound is responsible for biocontrol ability against R. solani Kühn, which is one of the most serious fungus disease on rice. Analysis of the phenazine biosynthesis gene mutant, ΔphzF, which is very important in this pathway, confirmed the relationship between the pathway and PCA production using LC-MS profiles. The annotated full genome sequence of this strain sheds light on the role of P. parafulva PRS09-11288 as a biocontrol bacterium.

Clinical, Biomarker, and Molecular Delineations and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations of Ataxia With Oculomotor Apraxia Type 1.

Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia due to mutations in the aprataxin gene (APTX) that is characterized by early-onset cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, axonal motor neuropathy, and eventual decrease of albumin serum levels.

Opioid Use Disorders are Associated with Perioperative Morbidity and Mortality in the Hip Fracture Population.

To determine if opioid use disorders are associated with adverse perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgical fixation for proximal femur fractures.