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diagnosis - Top 30 Publications

Actinomycosis Involving Chronic Pancreatitis: A Case Report with Literature Review.

Actinomycosis is a slowly progressive, chronic infectious disease. It is caused by the genus Actinomyces, which are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. It presents as a mass-like lesion, composed of bacterial nidus and characteristic granulomatous inflammatory fibrosis. As such, it has frequently been mistaken for a malignancy. Surgical resection is a common procedure in these patients prior to a definite diagnosis. Although actinomycosis can occur in a variety of regions, including oral-cervicofacial, thoracic, and abdominopelvic cavities, the involvement of the pancreas is very rare. We report a case of a 44-year-old male with a symptomatic actinomycosis caused by a mass in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis was made using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy without surgical resection. After the treatment with antibiotics, the pancreatic mass was confirmed to be resolved on the follow-up computed tomography.

A Case of Endoscopically Treated Laryngopharyngitis Resulting from Clinostomum complanatum Infection.

A 46-year-old woman visited our hospital presenting throat pain and globus sensation. The symptoms occurred seven days after eating raw perch and mullet. An endoscopy under sedation showed a fluke-with an approximate length of 4.8 mm and width of 1.5 mm-on the left aryepiglottic fold, with active motility on the mucosa. It was extracted from the larynx using biopsy forceps and was identified as Clinostomum complanatum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of human infection with Clinostomum complanatum diagnosed and treated by an endoscopy in Korea. Endoscopy is a useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of patients at risk for parasitic infections complaining of throat pain.

The Fabry's Disease Cardiomyopathy as Differential Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

The progressive cardiomyopathy in patients with Fabry disease is often accompanied by angina pectoris and elevated levels of high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT), potentially mimicking acute coronary syndrome. Here, we present to representative cases with focus on clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic settings. An overview on the cardiomyopathy associated with Fabry disease and its role as differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome is provided. Fabry cardiomyopathy might exhibit similar clinical and biochemical constellations as seen in acute coronary syndrome. Thus, Fabry cardiomyopathy should be considered a differential diagnosis in acute coronary syndrome, particularly in patients demonstrating left ventricular hypertrophy of unknown origin.

Acute Abdominal Pain.

Acute abdominal pain is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires a concise and quick workup. Patient history, physical examination and laboratory studies help to establish a working diagnosis. If abdominal Ultrasound is not conclusive, contrast-enhanced Computertomography should be performed. Every patient should be treated aggressively for pain control and fluid substitution independent of the diagnostic workflow. In cases of severe disease, initiation of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy should be considered early.

Accumulation of Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis.

Objective Lactic acidosis has been associated with the use of metformin since its introduction. The cause, however, is highly controversial. The incidence of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is quoted at 3,0 to 16,7 cases per 100 000 patient-years according to current studies. The link between metformin and lactic acidosis in metformin therapy has been suggested to be causal and therefore, the use of metformin was restricted to type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment. Recent studies, however, show an acceptable use and no increased incidence of lactic acidosis in chronic mild to moderate renal insufficiency, respectively. Method Case report. Results 4 Patients were admitted to the Limmattal Hospital for treatment of severe lactic acidosis under Metformin-treatment during 9 months. These type 2 diabetic patients with previously normal renal function presented with remarkable similar clinical history of acute diarrhoea and vomiting. On the day of admission, acute renal failure (AKIN III) was found and haemofiltration was required in all patients. After a maximum duration of 24 hours of haemofiltration, the metabolic acidosis was corrected and the estimated glomerular filtration rate improved. On day 7 of hospitalization, two patients had a normal and two patients an impaired renal function (stage III or IV, respectively). Conclusion In case of diarrhoea and vomiting in patients with type 2 diabetes under metformin-treatment, the active search for lactic acidosis is essential, independently of the previous renal function. An early diagnosis and therapy of MALA allows a good prognosis.

Headache Treatment.

A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes.

The Classification of Headache: Important Aspects of Patient's History and Clinical Diagnostic.

Headache disorders are the most occuring symptoms in human population. Basis for a successful therapy of headaches is a definite diagnosis, which needs in turn valid criteria for the graduation of headaches. Corresponding to the classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) especially relevant questions about patient's history and clinical examination lead to a diagnosis.

Graves' Ophthalmopathy in a Paediatric Population.

Background Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder leading to hyperthyroidism. It is often associated with ophthalmic manifestations. Graves' disease is reported to be rare in the paediatric population. Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on all patients diagnosed with ophthalmopathy related to Graves' disease at a paediatric age (less than 18 years old) in our institution between 2004 and 2015. Results Eight patients were identified: 6 females and 2 males. The median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years (range 3-16). Ophthalmic signs were: proptosis (6/8), superficial punctate keratitis (5/8), eyelid retraction (4/8), lagophthalmos (2/8), and oculomotor dysfunction (2/8). No patients showed signs of complication such as ocular hypertension or compressive optic neuropathy. Orbital decompression was performed in one patient in a non-emergency setting. Conclusion Ophthalmic involvement in Graves' disease is rarely encountered in paediatric patients. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this entity to ensure that patients with thyroid dysfunction are identified at an early point in time.

American College of Radiology Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) for the diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a pictorial essay.

Feasibility, toxicity and response of upfront metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy therapy followed by German Pediatric Oncology Group Neuroblastoma 2004 protocol in newly diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastoma patients.

Radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an effective option in treatment of neuroblastoma (NBL) tumours. We studied feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of upfront (131)I-MIBG and induction treatment in stage 4 NBL patients.

Multiple miliary osteoma cutis of the face associated with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy in the setting of acne vulgaris: a case report.

Osteoma cutis is a condition characterized by theformation of bone within the skin. Such aberrantossification of the skin and subcutaneous tissue isconsidered primary when it arises in the absence ofunderlying tissue damage or a preceding cutaneouslesion. Conversely, secondary osteoma cutis occurswhen skin ossification is the result of a pre-existingskin lesion, trauma, or inflammatory process [1,2].Although rare, primary osteoma cutis has beenassociated with a number of different geneticdisorders. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO),a condition first described in 1942 by Fuller Albright,is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder causedby a mutation in the GNAS1 gene [3]. This disease isassociated with a variety of phenotypic traits includingcutaneous ossification, short stature, brachydactyly,obesity, and mental retardation. It should be notedthat brachydactyly is the most specific feature of AHO[4]. However, owing to variable expressivity individualsmay present only with a subset of these symptoms [5,6]. The cutaneous ossification observed in patientswith AHO may be seen in infancy or early childhoodand is sometimes the earliest presenting symptom.Nonetheless, because clinical features of AHO canbe seen in the absence of metabolic derangements(i.e. normal serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTHlevels) an early diagnosis is often missed and delayedfor many years. Herein, we present a case of miliaryosteoma cutis of the face in a 68 year-old woman withphenotypic features of AHO and laboratory studiesconsistent with type 1a PHP.

A rare case of cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in a renal transplant patient.

A 35-year-old woman receiving immunosuppressionfor renal transplantation presented with a onemonthhistory of tender skin nodules on herbilateral upper extremities. A skin biopsy revealedgranulomatous inflammation in the deep dermisand the subcutaneous fat with foci of necrosis.Within the foci of necrosis were large histiocytoidstructures with prominent nuclei. Periodic acid-Schiffstain revealed a round organism with a thick capsule,consistent with amoebal trophozoites. Testing withthe Center for Disease Control revealed the organismto be Acanthamoeba. Despite antimicrobial therapy,the patient continued to develop subcutaneousnodules that extended to the lower extremities andtrunk and ultimately extended to the bone, causingacanthamoebal osteomyelitis. Throughout thehospital course, the patient remained neurologicallyintact without evidence of central nervousinvolvement. A diagnosis of isolated disseminatedcutaneous acanthamoebiasis secondary to iatrogenicimmunosuppression was made. Historically, mostcases of granulomatous amoebic encephalitisand cutaneous acanthamoebiasis have occurredin patients with HIV/AIDS. However, with the useof newer and more effective immunosuppressiveregimens, both are occurring more frequently inthe setting of iatrogenic immunosuppression. Therare and isolated cutaneous nature of this patient'spresentation makes this case unique.

An elderly Filipino woman with follicular papules of the face and chest.

An elderly woman developed pruritic follicularpapules over a period of 5 years. A biopsy revealedfocal intraepidermal eosinophilic pustules, leading tothe diagnosis of Ofuji disease or eosinophilic pustularfolliculitis. A discussion of this condition is presented.

TNF inhibitor induced alopecia: an unusual form of psoriasiform alopecia that breaks the Renbök mold.

TNF-α-inhibitors are known to induce skin adverseeffects including psoriasis and alopecia areata. Here, wedescribe a unique pattern of hair loss that has psoriaticand alopecia areata-like features. Diagnosis requiresclinical-pathologic correlation and is supportedby increased catagen/telogen hairs, psoriasiformepidermal hyperplasia, perifollicular lymphocyticinfiltrate, and the presence of eosinophils and plasmacells. Although there are no treatment consensusguidelines, management options include stoppingtherapy, switching to a different TNF-α inhibitor orustekinumab (in severe cases), or continuing TNF-αinhibitor therapy with addition of topical, intralesional,or systemic immunosuppressants.

Purple patches in an immunocompromised patient: a report of secondary disseminated cutaneous mucormycosis in a man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

A 60-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemiadeveloped a deeply violaceous annular patchwith a halo of erythema on the right thigh duringhospitalization for neutropenic fever. Associatedsymptoms included chronic cough and fatigue.Bilateral lung opacities with hilar lymphadenopathywere noted on chest computed tomographyscan. Punch biopsy and tissue culture confirmeda diagnosis of secondary disseminated cutaneousmucormycosis. Although rare, physicians shouldinclude mucormycosis in the differential diagnosisof purpuric patches in immunosuppressed patients.Prompt skin biopsy and tissue culture may optimizethe success of treatment.

Cutaneous mucinosis in a patient taking ustekinumab for palmoplantar psoriasis.

Discrete papular lichen myxedematosus (DPLM), asubset of localized lichen myxedematosus, is a rarecutaneous mucinosis of unknown etiology. We reporta case of a 57-year-old woman with palmoplantarpsoriasis who developed DPLM 8 weeks after addingustekinumab to a long-term course of methotrexate.The patient had previously failed 2 prior tumor necrosisfactor (TNF) inhibitors, adalimumab and etanercept.This case demonstrates an association between TNFinhibitor and ustekinumab use in a psoriasis patientand localized lichen myxedematosus for the secondtime in the literature. The presented case is of interestbecause of the rare diagnosis of DPLM, especially inassociation with the start of the anti-IL 12/23 agentustekinumab. The appearance of DPLM in this settingsuggests a possible etiology for the disease.

Disseminated punctate keratoderma: a rare case report and review of the literature.

We report a rare case of a 53-year-old womanpresenting with diffuse, late-onset disseminatedhyperkeratotic papules. Biopsy showed massivehyperkeratosis overlying a crateriform epidermaldepression and hypergranulosis with mild epidermalhyperplasia. There was no parakeratosis, cornoidlamella, or dyskeratosis. Based on the clinical findingsand histopathological features, a diagnosis ofdisseminated punctate keratoderma was made. Thisis a rare subtype of palmoplantar keratoderma, whichhas a putative increased risk of malignancy. This casereport emphasizes the importance of identifyingthe clinical and histological presentation of this rarecondition; referral of the patient for age-appropriatemalignancy screening is appropriate. We also presenta concise review of treatment options.

Nódulos subcutáneos faciales de 3 meses de evolución.

Siliconomas are subcutaneous nodules that usuallyappear as a consequence of the migration of freesilicon implanted in other locations. They are morefrequent in women with abnormal breast implants,such as poly implant prostheses (PIP), but they may alsoappear after illegal injection of free silicone. We reporta 57-year-old woman who attended our Dermatologyclinic complaining of relapsing facial panniculitis ofunknown origin. After a thorough work-up, thesenodules were determined to be the consequence ofdermal filler made with fluid silicone, which had beeninjected 20 years prior. High frequency skin ultrasoundof one of the nodules showed a hyperechoic image,also known as "snowstorm," which was located in thesubcutaneous tissue. The disposition of silicone in thisplane obscures the view of any sonographic structurein the underlying plane. Cutaneous sonographyhas become one of the most useful non-invasivetechniques in diagnosis of filler complications andother inflammatory diseases. Combined treatmentwith prednisone and allopurinol was successful, withno recurrence after 1 year of follow-up.

Bullous pemphigoid of infancy - report and review of infantile and pediatric bullous pemphigoid.

A 4-month-old infant was observed with an acute itchy bullous dermatosis, predominantly involving the extremities, which revealed a dermal infiltrate rich in eosinophils, C3 deposits at the dermalepidermal junction, and circulating antibodies to BP180 antigen, confirming the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. He was initially treated with deflazacort 1 mg/kg/day, further increased to 2 mg/ kg/day, followed by reduction over seven weeks with complete clinical resolution within this period. We discuss epidemiology, etiology, relationship with vaccination, clinical features, and treatment of thisrelatively rare bullous dermatosis in the pediatric age.

Unique clinical presentations of pityriasis rosea: aphthous ulcers, vesicles and inverse distribution of lesions.

Pityriasis Rosea (PR) is a common skin disorderencountered in daily practice. Although its etiologyhas not been established, there has been widespreadresearch into possibilities. The lack of its characteristicmanifestations, specifically the herald patch andtruncal involvement, can lead to pitfalls in diagnosis.Whereas other conditions in the differential diagnosisshould be considered, PR can at times also manifest inan atypical manner. We wish to illustrate three casesof PR including those that presented with aphthousulcers, vesicles, and an inverse pattern.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma.

A 41-year-old man from Cuero, Texas with a nonhealinglesion on his left cheek was referred to ourclinic for removal of a squamous cell carcinoma. Thepatient first noticed a "pimple" on his left cheek 3-4months prior to presentation. When the lesion beganto grow he presented to his primary care physician anda biopsy was taken, showing "atypical squamous cellproliferation." Mohs surgery was performed and thenodule was removed with no evidence of malignancyseen on histopathology. Upon review of the surgicalbiopsies by consulting pathologists, the diagnosis ofleishmaniasis was established and later confirmed bythe Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)as Leishmania mexicana. The patient was referred toinfectious disease specialists for further management.

Linear atrophy and vascular fragility following ultrasoundguided triamcinolone injection for DeQuervain tendonitis.

A 64 year-old woman presented with a one-yearhistory of purpuric, atrophic, linear patches alongthe left lateral forearm. The patient had receivedtwo ultrasound-guided triamcinolone injectionsone year earlier into her left extensor pollicis brevisand abductor pollicis longus tendon sheathsfor DeQuervain tendonitis. In the seven monthsfollowing the second injection, the patient developedatrophy, purpura, and telangiectasias starting at thesite of injection and extending proximally, followingthe course of her left cephalic vein. The patient wastreated initially with amlactin and moisturizing creamcontaining alpha-hydroxy acid cream to aid in dermalrepair. Despite treatment, she continued to haveproximal progression of the atrophy and purpura.A 4mm punch biopsy revealed a normal-appearingepidermis overlying horizontal dermal fibrosis, alongwith atrophic-appearing adipocytes with accentuatedcapillaries in the subcutaneous fat, consistent witha diagnosis of corticosteroid atrophy. These grossand microscopic changes presumably resulted fromlymphatic uptake and spread of the corticosteroidfollowing the injections for tendonitis. Although localatrophy and vascular fragility are well-documentedside effects of corticosteroid injections, linear spreadof these symptoms is rarely reported, and to this pointhas not been demonstrated in the literature followingultrasound-guided steroid injection for DeQuervaintendonitis.

Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated gonococcemia.

Sexually transmitted infections, includingurogenital gonorrheal infection, are a growing healthconcern in the United States. Nearly 50% of cervicalinfections are asymptomatic. If left undiagnosedand untreated, there is a risk of disseminatedinfection.

Malignant syphilis: ostraceous, ulceronecrotic lesions in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus.

We present a 36-year-old HIV-positive man with a sixweek history of spreading, ulcerative, and necroticcutaneous lesions. Laboratory and histopathologicexamination revealed syphilis. This case of malignantsyphilis, also known as lues maligna, is an uncommonvariant of this sexually transmitted infection. This casehighlights the importance of including malignantsyphilis in the differential diagnosis of patientspresenting with a disseminated ulcerative andnecrotic rash, especially in individuals with HIV.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated Leser-Trélat sign: report and world literature review.

The sign of Leser-Trélat is characterizedby the sudden appearance of seborrheic keratosesassociated with an underlying malignancy.

Type IV Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection.

Mortality associated with correction of type IV total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is generally reported in combination with other anatomic types. The objective of this study is to review surgical outcomes associated with the repair of type IV TAPVC by analyzing a multi-institutional cohort specific for this group. We also analyze patient-specific variables that may contribute to poor operative outcomes.

The diagnosis and lived experience of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A qualitative study.

To explore the impact of the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome on health/ill health identity, how women experience this diagnosis and their health beliefs.

Nursing judgement and decision-making using the Sedation Withdrawal Score (SWS) in children.

The aim of the study was to evaluate registered children's nurses' approaches to the assessment and management of withdrawal syndrome in children.

Spiritual aspects of living with infertility: synthesis of qualitative studies.

To identify the spiritual aspects of patients experiencing infertility and seek a deeper and broader meaning of the involuntary childlessness experience.

High Rates of Transmission of Drug-resistant HIV in Aruba Resulting in Reduced Susceptibility to the WHO Recommended First-line Regimen in Nearly Half of Newly Diagnosed HIV-infected Patients.

In Western countries emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has tremendously decreased, and transmission of drug resistance has merely stabilized in recent years. However, in many endemic settings with limited resources rates of emerging and transmitted drug resistance are not regularly assessed.