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endometrial cancer - Top 30 Publications

Maintenance hormonal therapy after treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for patients with atypical polypoid adenomyoma.

As atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) has been reported to be a hormone-related tumor, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of maintenance hormonal therapy after fertility-preserving treatment of these patients with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).

Tibolone and risk of gynecological hormone sensitive cancer.

Risk of ovarian cancer with hormone therapy is associated with use of both unopposed estrogen therapy and combined estrogen-progestin therapy, whereas for endometrial cancer addition of continuous progestin decreases the estrogen induced increased risk. Less is known about risk with use of tibolone; a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, progestagenic, and androgenic properties. We assessed these associations in a prospective cohort study, including all Danish women 50-79 years of age and followed 1995-2009. National Danish Registers captured individually updated exposure information, cancer cases including histology and confounding factors. Poisson regression analyses provided multiple adjusted incidence rate ratio's (IRR). More than 900,000 women were followed for 9.8 years on average; 4,513 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 6,202 with endometrial cancer. Compared to women never on postmenopausal hormone therapy, current users of tibolone had an increased IRR for ovarian cancer (1.42(95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.00) and serous ovarian tumors (2.21(95%CI 1.48-3.32)). The risk increased with duration of use, particularly for serous ovarian tumors. Compared to never users, the IRR of endometrial cancer was 3.56(95%CI 2.94-4.32) among current users of tibolone and 3.80(95%CI 3.08-4.69) of Type 1 endometrial cancer. The steepest risk increase with duration of use was for Type I tumors. In conclusion, tibolone is associated with increased risk for ovarian and endometrial cancer overall; and particular the risk of serous ovarian tumors and Type 1 endometrial cancer. Because the associations are stronger with increasing durations of use - and for hormone sensitive tumors -the results seem indicative of causality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The suppressive role of calcium sensing receptor in endometrial cancer.

Studies have shown that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the progressions of several human cancers. However, the role of CaSR in endometrial cancer remains unknown. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the CaSR effect on endometrial cancer development. Ectopic CaSR expression by lentiviral transfection (CaSR-OV) in Ishikawa cells significantly increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels and cell apoptosis. E-cadherin and β-catenin expression and complex formation at the membrane were increased in CaSR-OV Ishikawa cells relative to control Ishikawa cells (vector). Furthermore, CaSR-OV Ishikawa cells showed a reduced invasive potential, which was attributed to E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation. Moreover, a reduction in CaSR expression in endometrial cancer relative to normal specimens was evident by immunohistochemistry and was positively associated with E-cadherin, but not β-catenin, expression. Furthermore, VEGFR3 was significantly down-regulated in CaSR-OV Ishikawa cells. Additionally, an immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGFR3 was significantly increased in endometrial cancer compared with the normal endometrium and was inversely correlated with CaSR expression. However, the CaSR knockdown produced the opposite effects. These findings suggest an inhibitory role for CaSR in endometrial cancer. Therefore, reduced CaSR expression may be a suitable explanation and valuable predictor for endometrial cancer progression.

Modification of the Associations Between Duration of Oral Contraceptive Use and Ovarian, Endometrial, Breast, and Colorectal Cancers.

Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women.

Pik3ca is required for mouse uterine gland development and pregnancy.

The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in the maintenance of equilibrium between cell survival and apoptosis. The Pik3ca gene is mutated in a range of human cancers. It has been found to be oncogenic, and mutations lead to constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. The expression patterns of PIK3CA proteins in the uterus of mice during early pregnancy indicate that it may play a role in the regulation of glandular epithelial cells, which is required to support uterine receptivity. To further investigate the role of Pik3ca in uterine function, Pik3ca was conditionally ablated only in the PGR-positive cells (Pgrcre/+Pik3caf/f; Pik3cad/d). A defect of uterine gland development and decidualization led to subfertility observed in Pik3cad/d mice. Pik3cad/d mice showed significantly decreased uterine weight compared to Pik3caf/f mice. Interestingly, a significant decrease of gland numbers were detected in Pik3cad/d mice compared to control mice. In addition, we found a decrease of Foxa2 expression, which is a known uterine gland marker in Pik3cad/d mice. Furthermore, the excessive proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells was observed in Pik3cad/d mice. Our studies suggest that Pik3ca has a critical role in uterine gland development and female fertility.

The rise of a novel classification system for endometrial carcinoma; integration of molecular subclasses.

Endometrial cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease and it is becoming increasingly clear that this heterogeneity may be a function of the diversity of the underlying molecular alterations. Recent large scale genomic studies have revealed that endometrial cancer can be divided into at least four distinct molecular subtypes, with well described underlying genomic aberrations. These subtypes can be reliably delineated and carry significant prognostic as well as predictive information; embracing and incorporating them into clinical practice is thus attractive. The road towards the integration of molecular features into current classification systems is not without obstacles. Collaborative studies engaging research teams from across the world are working to define pragmatic assays, improve risk stratification systems by combining molecular features and traditional clinicopathological parameters, and determine how molecular classification can be optimally utilized to direct patient care. Pathologists and clinicians caring for women with endometrial cancer need to engage with and understand the possibilities and limitations of this new approach, because integration of molecular classification of endometrial cancers is anticipated to become an essential part of gynaecological pathology practice. This review will describe the challenges in current systems of endometrial carcinoma classification, the evolution of new molecular technologies that define prognostically distinct molecular subtypes, and potential applications of molecular classification as a step towards precision medicine and refining care for individuals with the most common gynaecological cancer in the developed world.

Laser Capture Microdissection and Isolation of High-Quality RNA from Frozen Endometrial Tissue.

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows expression profiling of specific cell populations within tissues. However, isolation of high-quality RNA from laser capture microdissected frozen tissue is beset by problems arising from intrinsic tissue RNase activity. Herein, we describe an optimized staining/LCM/RNA extraction protocol developed for the isolation of epithelial RNA from frozen tissue sections using human endometrial cancer as a model tissue. This method combines excellent, reproducible visualization of tissue morphology with the isolation of high-integrity RNA suitable for downstream applications such as expression microarray analysis. We present quantitative and qualitative RNA data obtained from >200 endometrial epithelial samples (normal, hyperplastic, and cancerous), where 92% of samples had RIN values of 7 and above and highlight common pitfalls faced by investigators. This method should also be broadly applicable to a range of other tissue types.

Synchronous Uterine Metastases from Breast Cancer: Case Study and Literature Review.

Breast cancer rarely metastasizes to the uterus. Here, we report two breast cancer patients with synchronous metastases to the uterus. Case 1 highlights a 46-year-old female with invasive ductal carcinoma who presented with a breast mass and was found to have uterine enlargement on positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Biopsy revealed a metastatic 4 mm focus of breast cancer in the background of endometrial hyperplasia. Case 2 reports a 62-year-old postmenopausal female diagnosed with lobular carcinoma of the breast following an abnormal screening mammogram. A routine pap smear necessitated further workup, revealing simultaneous endometrial and cervical metastasis. Both patients did not have any gynecologic symptoms and presented a diagnostic challenge.

Improving attendance to genetic counselling services for gynaecological oncology patients.

Gynaecological cancers may be the sentinel malignancy in women who carry a mutation in BRCA1 or 2, a mis-match repair gene causing Lynch Syndrome or other genes. Despite published guidelines for referral to a genetics service, a substantial number of women do not attend for the recommended genetic assessment. The study aims to determine the outcomes of systematic follow-up of patients diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer from Gynaecologic-oncology multidisciplinary meetings who were deemed appropriate for genetics assessment.

Expression of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma and its effects on proliferation and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells.

Expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in cancer pathology, but research on its mechanistic activity is limited. The present study sought to assess the levels expression of EZH2 in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) and to explore the effects of EZH2 downregulation on the biological behavior of endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells. Samples were obtained from a total of 104 patients with EC and an immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of EZH2 in cancer and adjacent tissues. The relationship between the expression of EZH2 and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. Endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells were transfected with chemically synthesized siRNA to conduct targeting inhibition of EZH2 expression. The expression levels of EZH2 protein were detected by immunoblotting. MTT and Transwell assays were used to detect the changes of cell proliferation and invasion after EZH2 downregulation. Of the 104 cases of endometrial carcinoma samples, 71 cases showed positive expression of EZH2, with an expression rate of 68.27%. In 104 cases of adjacent tissue samples, 25 cases showed positive expression of EZH2, with an expression rate of 24.03%. The expression of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma tissue was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissue (P<0.05). The expression of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma tissue was not correlated with the menopausal status and age of patients (P>0.05), but was correlated with the histological grade, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05). The expression of E2H2 was significantly downregulated by si-E2H2 and the proliferation and invasion abilities of cells were significantly reduced after EZH2 downregulation (P<0.05). EZH2 is closely related to the development of endometrial carcinoma and can enhance the proliferative activity of endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells and promote cell invasion.

Prospective Comparative Study of Laparoscopic Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Versus Standard Imaging in Gynecologic Oncology.

Narrow band imaging (NBI) is an optic filtration enhancement for endoscopy that uses two wavelengths of light (415 and 540 nm) to highlight superficial microvascular patterns. It has been successfully utilized to improve identification of lesions with abnormal vasculature, which is associated with endometriosis and endometrial cancer. Case studies suggest it may also facilitate surgical staging of gynecologic cancer, which is critical in determining appropriate adjuvant therapies. A technology that enhances the ability to identify metastatic disease during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) could make an important difference in patient outcomes.

MicroRNA-34a inhibits cells proliferation and invasion by downregulating Notch1 in endometrial cancer.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs composed of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate the expression of approximately 30% of human protein coding genes. Dysregulation of miRNAs plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of malignancies. Our study has shown that microRNA-34a (miR-34a) was upregulated in human endometrial cancer stem cells (ECSCs). However, it is unknown how miR-34a regulates endometrial cancer itself. Here, we report that miR-34a directly and functionally targeted Notch1. MiR-34a inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, EMT-associated phenotypes by downregulating Notch1 in endometrial cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-34a also suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Importantly, further results suggested miR-34a was significantly downregulated in endometrial cancer tissues and negatively correlated with Notch1 expression. There was a significant association between decreased miR-34a expression and worse patient prognosis. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-34a plays tumor-suppressive roles in endometrial cancer through downregulating Notch1. Thus miR-34a could be a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of endometrial cancer.

Robotic Surgery in Elderly and Very Elderly Gynecologic Cancer Patients.

To investigate feasibility, safety and short-term outcomes of robotic surgery (RS) for gynecological oncologic indications (cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer) in elderly patients, especially women aged from 65 to 74 (Elderly group - EG), compared to women ≥ 75 (Very Elderly group - VEG).

Minimally invasive hysterectomy surgery rates for endometrial cancer performed at National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Centers.

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a quality measure for endometrial cancer (EC) established by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American College of Surgeons. Our study objective was to assess the proportion of EC cases performed by MIS at National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) centers and evaluate perioperative outcomes.

Extraperitoneal Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy by Robot-Assisted Laparoscopy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopy.

Case Report: Synchronous primary malignancy including the breast and endometrium.

Breast and endometrial cancer are the most common types of female cancers, but the incidence of both of these malignancies in a single patient is a rare event. Multiple primary malignancy has been increasingly reported over the past decade, and double primary cancer is considered as the most common type.  In this study, we present a 53-year-old woman with synchronous primary malignancy of breast and endometrium. This patient had a history of breast and endometrial cancer in her family. Mammography and chest CT of the patient revealed a mass in the right breast and left supraclavicular region. However, the patient did not want to initiate treatment. Subsequently, the patient returned with a chief complaint of persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Abdominopelvic CT scan of the patient revealed a huge soft tissue mass in the pelvic cavity. She underwent hysterectomy, and pathology revealed endometrioid carcinoma, which had invaded the full thickness of uterine wall. Since this type of malignancy is rare and several risk factors are associated with it, it is worth being considered by clinicians when making decisions about screening or strategy for prevention.

Circular RNA expression in extracellular vesicles isolated from serum of patients with endometrial cancer.

We aimed to explore the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from serum of patients with endometrial cancer.

Evaluation of universal immunohistochemical screening of sebaceous neoplasms in a service setting.

Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is a subtype of Lynch syndrome, which encompasses the combination of sebaceous skin tumours or keratoacanthomas and internal malignancy, due to mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) may occur before other malignancies, and may lead to the diagnosis, which allows testing of other family members, cancer surveillance, risk-reducing surgery or prevention therapies.

Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers: Results from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers overall and by histologic subtype.

Role of miR-203 in Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Signaling in the Rat Uterus and Endometrial Carcinoma.

The role of microRNAs (miRNA) in estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the uterus and in endometrial cancer is not well understood. We therefore analyzed miRNA expression in uterine samples from a standard three-day uterotrophic assay using young female adult rats to identify E2-regulated miRNAs. Microarray analysis identified 47 E2 down-regulated miRNAs including miR-30a, and 25 E2up-regulated miRNAs including miR-672, miR-203 and miR-146b. The strongly E2-upregulated miR-203 was selected for further analysis. miR-203 was deleted in the rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, RUCA-I, using CRISPR/CAS9. Five clones devoid of miR-203 expression were generated. Proliferation was reduced and G2-arrest was observed in all miR-203 deficient RUCA-I clones. Transfection with a miR-203-3p mimic partially rescues this effect. Comparison of mRNA expression in three miR-203 knockout clones to wild type RUCA-I cells reveals 566 miR-203-upregulated and 592 miR-203-downregulated genes. 43 of the genes that are upregulated by miR-203 knockout in vitro are downregulated in the uterus by E2. Of these Acer2, Zbtb20, Ptn, Rcbtb2, Mum1l1, Hmgn3, and Nfat5 possess one or more seed sequence matches in their 3'-UTR that are predicted to be targets of miR-203. These data demonstrate the importance of E2 regulated miRNAs in general, and miR-203 in particular, for E2 regulated gene expression and physiological processes including proliferation and cell migration, in the uterus as well as in the etiology of endometrial carcinomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Defining and mitigating the challenges of an older and obese population in minimally invasive gynecologic cancer surgery.

The incidence of endometrial cancer (EC) is steadily increasing due in large part to an aging world population and rise in rates of obesity. Patients with obesity and advancing age can be seen as vulnerable populations, as they are both often subject to physician bias regarding surgical choices and assumptions regarding long-term outcomes. As we operate on an older and/or obese patient population, it is increasingly important that we adopt peri-operative management strategies and surgical techniques to best serve this complex patient population. Careful orchestration pre-, intra- and postoperatively is key to successful outcomes in robotic and laparoscopic surgery. Here, we review existing literature regarding EC in women with older age and/or obesity, outline recommendations for peri-operative management and common intra-operative issues-specifically common anesthetic issues surrounding cardiovascular, respiratory and neuromuscular systems-that are of heightened importance in women with older age and/or obesity. The goal of this review is to help define and mitigate common complications for these vulnerable patients with an EC diagnosis who, in accordance with carefully assessed health risks, can and should be offered standard of care surgery and treatment.

Accuracy of four mononucleotide-repeat markers for the identification of DNA mismatch-repair deficiency in solid tumors.

To screen tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI) arising due to DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), a panel of five quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide-repeat markers amplified in a multiplex PCR (Pentaplex) are commonly used. In spite of its several strengths, the pentaplex assay is not robust at detecting the loss of MSH6-deficiency (dMSH6). In order to overcome this challenge, we designed this study to develop and optimize a panel of four quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide-repeat markers (Tetraplex) for identifying solid tumors with dMMR, especially dMSH6.

ATX‑LPA axis facilitates estrogen‑induced endometrial cancer cell proliferation via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

Autotaxin (ATX) is a key enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is a crucial factor that facilitates cancer progression; however, the effect of ATX on endometrial cancer has not been explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ATX in the progression of endometrial cancer. The immunohistochemical results revealed higher protein expression levels of ATX and LPA receptors (LPA 1, 2 and 3) in human endometrial cancer tissue than in non‑carcinoma tissue. In addition, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis demonstrated that ATX and LPA receptor mRNA and protein expression was greater in Ishikawa cells, which are positive for estrogen receptor (ER), than in Hec‑1A cells that exhibit low ER expression. Short interfering RNA knockdown of ATX in Ishikawa cells led to decreased cell proliferation and cell colony number, as determined by Cell Counting kit‑8 and colony formation assays. Estrogen stimulated ATX mRNA expression. Inhibition of ATX decreased estrogen and LPA‑induced cell proliferation. High LPA levels markedly elevated the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK). ATX downregulation moderately decreased estrogen‑ and LPA‑induced phosphorylation of ERK. In addition, the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, reduced cell proliferation with estrogen, ATX and LPA treatment. The present study suggested that the ATX‑LPA axis may facilitate estrogen‑induced cell proliferation in endometrial cancer via the mitogen‑activated protein kinase/ERK signaling pathway. The present study may provide ideas and an experimental basis for clinicians to identify new molecular targeted drugs for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of blood microvessel density in endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis.

The study aimed to systematically review the association between angiogenesis and clinicopathological characteristics and its prognostic value in patients with endometrial cancer.

A rare case of endometrial cancer metastatic to the uveal choroid.

•Choroid metastases are extremely rare in endometrial cancer.•Choroid metastases can present as many different eye complaints.•Comprehensive eye exams are important in patients with visual complaints.

Endometrial Adenocarcinoma With Pulmonary Recurrence.

Role of Intraoperative Ultrasound to Extend the Application of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Treatment of Recurrent Gynecological Cancer.

To describe the potential role of intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in the detection and localization of recurrent disease in gynecological cancer patients during minimally invasive surgery (MIS).

Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery and Decrease in Surgical Morbidity for Endometrial Cancer Treatment in the United States.

To assess how the widespread adoption of minimally invasive surgery in the United States is associated with changes in 30-day morbidity and mortality in endometrial cancer treatment.

Intrauterine Manipulator Use During Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy and Risk of Lymphovascular Space Invasion in Endometrial Cancer.

This study aimed to examine an association between intrauterine manipulator (IUM) use and frequency of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) in women with endometrial cancer undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy.

Trial of Optimal Personalised Care After Treatment-Gynaecological Cancer (TOPCAT-G): A Randomized Feasibility Trial.

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of completing a parallel-group randomized controlled trial to compare usual follow-up care for women who have completed treatment of gynecological cancer against a nurse-led telephone intervention, known as Optimal Personalised Care After Treatment-Gynaecological.