PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

evidence synthesis - Top 30 Publications

Interlayer bond formation in black Phosphorus at high pressure.

Black Phosphorus was compressed at room T across the A17, A7 and simple-cubic phases up to 30 GPa, using a diamond anvil cell and He as pressure transmitting medium. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed the persistence of two previously unreported peaks related to the A7 structure in the pressure range of the simple-cubic one. The Rietveld refinement of the data demonstrates the occurrence of a two-step mechanism for the A7 to simple-cubic phase transition, indicating the existence of an intermediate pseudo simple-cubic structure. From a chemical point of view this study represents a deep insight on the mechanism of interlayer bond formation during the transformation from the layered A7 to the non-layered simple-cubic phase of Phosphorus, opening new perspectives for the design, synthesis and stabilization of Phosphorene based systems. As superconductivity is concerned, a new experimental evidence to explain the anomalous pressure behavior of Tc in Phosphorus below 30 GPa is provided.

Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia: The role of ceramide.

Inflammation within the CNS is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. A characteristic feature is the generation of microglia-derived factors that play an essential role in the immune response. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by activated microglia, able to exacerbate injury at elevated levels. In the presence of caspase-1, pro-IL-1β is cleaved to the mature cytokine following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Growing evidence suggests that ceramide plays a critical role in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, however, the relationship between ceramide and inflammasome activation in microglia remains unknown. Here, we investigated potential mechanistic links between ceramide as a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the resulting secretion of IL-1β using small bioactive enzyme stimulators and inhibitors of ceramide signaling in wild-type (WT) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD knockout (ASC(-/-) ) primary microglia. To induce the expression of inflammasome components, microglia were primed prior to experiments. Treatment with sodium palmitate (PA) induced de novo ceramide synthesis via modulation of its synthesizing protein serine-palmitoyl-transferase (SPT) resulting in increased IL-1β secretion in microglia. Exposure of microglia to the SPT-inhibitor L-Cycloserine (LCS) significantly prevented PA-induced IL-1β secretion. Application of the ceramide analogue C2 and the sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor agonist Fingolimod (FTY720) up-regulated levels of IL-1β and cleaved caspase-1 in WT microglia while ASC(-/-) microglia were unaffected. HPA-12 inhibition of ceramide transport did not affect inflammasome activation. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for ceramide as a positive modulator of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the resulting release of IL-1β. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Targeting metabolic abnormalities to reverse fibrosis in iatrogenic laryngotracheal stenosis.

Management of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) remains primarily surgical, with a critical need to identify targets for adjuvant therapy. Laryngotracheal stenosis scar fibroblasts exhibit a profibrotic phenotype with distinct metabolic shifts, including an increased glycolysis/oxidative phosphorylation ratio. This study examines the effects of the glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) on collagen production, gene expression, proliferation, and metabolism of human LTS-derived fibroblasts in vitro.

Validity and reliability of clinical prediction rules used to screen for cervical spine injury in alert low-risk patients with blunt trauma to the neck: part 2. A systematic review from the Cervical Assessment and Diagnosis Research Evaluation (CADRE) Collaboration.

To update findings of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) on the validity and reliability of clinical prediction rules used to screen for cervical spine injury in alert low-risk adult patients with blunt trauma to the neck.

Proteomic analysis of the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans exposed to a Roundup formulation at a dose causing no macroscopic effect: a functional study.

Roundup® is a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) used worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. Thus, it constitutes a substantial source of environmental contaminations, especially for water and soil, and may impact a number of non-target organisms essential for ecosystem balance. The soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has been shown to be highly affected by a commercial formulation of Roundup® (R450), containing 450 g/L of glyphosate (GLY), at doses far below recommended agricultural application rate. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined to mass spectrometry to analyze proteomic pattern changes in A. nidulans exposed to R450 at a dose corresponding to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for macroscopic parameters (31.5 mg/L GLY among adjuvants). Comparative analysis revealed a total of 82 differentially expressed proteins between control and R450-treated samples, and 85% of them (70) were unambiguously identified. Their molecular functions were mainly assigned to cell detoxification and stress response (16%), protein synthesis (14%), amino acid metabolism (13%), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis/glycerol metabolism/pentose phosphate pathway (13%) and Krebs TCA cycle/acetyl-CoA synthesis/ATP metabolism (10%). These results bring new insights into the understanding of the toxicity induced by higher doses of this herbicide in the soil model organism A. nidulans. To our knowledge, this study represents the first evidence of protein expression modulation and, thus, possible metabolic disturbance, in response to an herbicide treatment at a dose that does not cause any visible effect. These data are likely to challenge the concept of "substantial equivalence" when applied to herbicide-tolerant plants.

Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in critically ill patients (Part I): Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017.

To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is largely dependent on iron availability to form biofilms.

Staphylococcus epidermidis has long been known as a major bacterial coloniser of the human skin, yet it is also a prominent nosocomial pathogen. Its remarkable ability to assemble structured biofilms has been its major known pathogenic feature to date. Notwithstanding important discoveries that have been accomplished, several questions about S. epidermidis biofilm formation still remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to assess whether iron availability modulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation and, if so, to explore how such modulation occurs. Biofilms of three S. epidermidis strains were grown under iron-enriched/-deficient conditions and several physiologic and transcriptomic changes were assessed. Our data revealed that while physiologic iron levels do not compromise biofilm formation, iron excess or deficiency is detrimental for this process. Conversely, biofilm cells were not affected in the same way when grown planktonically. By studying biofilm cells in detail we found that their viability and cultivability were seriously compromised by iron deficiency. Also, a temporal analysis of biofilm formation revealed that iron excess/deficiency: i) impaired biomass accumulation from 6h onwards, and ii) induced changes in the biofilm structure, indicating that iron availability plays a pivotal role from an early biofilm development stage. The expression of several putative iron-related genes, namely encoding siderophore biosynthesis/transport-related proteins, was found to be modulated by iron availability, providing a biological validation of their function on S. epidermidis iron metabolism. This study therefore provides evidence that iron plays a pivotal role on S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

A study of human resource competencies required to implement community rehabilitation in less resourced settings.

It is estimated that over one billion persons worldwide have some form of disability. However, there is lack of knowledge and prioritisation of how to serve the needs and provide opportunities for people with disabilities. The community-based rehabilitation (CBR) guidelines, with sufficient and sustained support, can assist in providing access to rehabilitation services, especially in less resourced settings with low resources for rehabilitation. In line with strengthening the implementation of the health-related CBR guidelines, this study aimed to determine what workforce characteristics at the community level enable quality rehabilitation services, with a focus primarily on less resourced settings.

Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review.

Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders.

PPA1 regulates tumor malignant potential and clinical outcome of colon adenocarcinoma through JNK pathways.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most prevalent malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate, therefore participates in the energy metabolism. Proteomic studies have demonstrated the up-regulated expression of PPA1 in various tumors, however, its expression pattern in CRC hasn't been reported. In the current study, we used RT-qCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to explore the expression of PPA1 in 113 paired colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues, which revealed that PPA1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis. The prognostic value of PPA1 was confirmed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis. We further purified PPA1 and obtained the phosphor-JNK1 protein and performed enzymatic studies, which identified that PPA1 can directly dephosphorylate pJNK1, while showed no catalytic activity towards pERK or p-p38 proteins. Moreover, overexpression of PPA1 enhanced cell viability through JNK-p53 signaling pathways, and it may also prevent cell apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 cleavage. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrated the expression and clinical significance of PPA1 in colon cancer, which also provided evidence that figuring out PPA1 specific inhibitors can be invaluable in the future chemotherapy development towards colon cancer.

Growth Hormone and the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

Previous studies have implicated growth hormone (GH) in the progression of several cancers, including breast, colorectal and pancreatic. A mechanism by which GH may play this role in cancer is through the induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During the EMT process, epithelial cells lose their defining phenotypes causing loss of cellular adhesion and increased cell migration. This review aims to carefully summarize the previous two decades of research that points to GH as an initiator of EMT, in both cancerous and non-cancerous tissues.

Dose - specific effects of Di-isononyl phthalate on the endocannabinoid system and on liver of female zebrafish.

Phthalates, used as plasticizers, have become a ubiquitous contaminant and have been reported for their potential to induce toxicity in living organisms. Among them, the Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been recently used to replace the bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Nowadays, there is evidence that DiNP is an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC), however little is known about its effects on the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and lipid metabolism. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of DiNP on the ECS in zebrafish liver and brain and on hepatic lipid storage. To do so, adult female zebrafish were exposed to three concentrations (0.42 µg/L; 4.2 µg/L; 42 µg/L) of DiNP via water for 3 weeks. Afterwards, we investigated transcript levels for genes involved in the ECS of brain and liver as well as liver histology and image analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) imaging, and measurement of EC levels. Our results demonstrate that DiNP upregulates orexigenic signals and causes hepatosteatosis together with deregulation of peripheral ECS and lipid metabolism. A decrease in the levels of ECS components at the central level was observed after exposure to the highest DiNP concentration tested. These findings suggest that replacement of DEHP with DiNP should be considered with caution because of observed adverse DiNP effects on aquatic organisms.

Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis: a guide to optimal management.

Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and osteoporosis are affected by aging and quite often co-exist. Furthermore, the fracture risk in patients with T2D is increased. The aim of this article is to review updated information on osteoporosis and fracture risk in patients with T2D, to discuss the effects of diabetes treatment on bone metabolism, as well as the effect of anti-osteoporotic medications on the incidence and control of T2D and to provide a personalized guide to the optimal management.

Bone structural characteristics and response to bisphosphonate treatment in children with Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome.

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, multisystem, bone disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the NOTCH2 gene. Histomorphometric and bone ultrastructural analyses in children have not been reported and sparse evidence exists on response to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy.

Change in weight and body mass index associated with all-cause mortality in Korea: A nationwide longitudinal study.

Many studies have reported conflicting evidence on the association between weight change and mortality.

The Pathophysiological Sequence of Glucocorticoid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Male Mice.

In search of the sequence of pathogenic events leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis, we determined the molecular, biomechanical, cellular, and vascular changes in the femur of C57BL/6 mice receiving prednisolone for 14, 28 or 42 days. The femoral head, but not the distal femur, of mice treated for 14 days showed a decrease in the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the number of osteoblasts, bone formation rate and strength and an increase in osteoclasts. These changes were accompanied by conversion of the normal dendritic vasculature to pools of edema as detected by magnetic resonance imaging - robust diagnostic evidence of early osteonecrosis. At that time point, there were no detectable changes in bone density, cortical or cancellous bone architecture, midshaft or distal cancellous bone, or osteocyte apoptosis. In mice treated for 28 days, femoral head cancellous density, cortical width and trabecular thickness decreased and by 42 days, the femoral heads had full depth cortical penetrations and cancellous tissue osteonecrosis. These results indicate that the femoral head is a particularly sensitive anatomical site to the adverse effects of glucocorticoid excess on bone; and decreases of Hif-1α and VEGF expression, bone vascularity, and strength precede the loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, thus rendering the femoral head vulnerable to collapse.

Multimodality Neuromonitoring in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury: A Narrative Review.

Neuromonitoring plays an important role in the management of traumatic brain injury. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism allows an individualized approach to patient management in which therapeutic interventions intended to prevent or minimize secondary brain injury are guided by monitored changes in physiologic variables rather than generic thresholds. This narrative review describes various neuromonitoring techniques that can be used to guide the management of patients with traumatic brain injury and examines the latest evidence and expert consensus guidelines for neuromonitoring.

Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Critical Illness-Related Corticosteroid Insufficiency (CIRCI) in Critically Ill Patients (Part I): Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017.

To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients.

Selective immuno-modulatory effect of prolactin upon pro-inflammatory response in human fetal membranes.

During pregnancy, prolactin (PRL) is a neuro-immuno-cytokine that contributes actively to the crosstalk between the immune and endocrine systems and, thus, to the creation of an immune-privileged milieu. This work aims to analyze the capacity of PRL to modulate the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory markers associated with labor. Studies were conducted using human fetal membranes at term mounted in a model of two independent chambers. The choriodecidual region was stimulated with 500-ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the amnion and choriodecidual region were co-simulated with different concentrations of PRL that can arise during pregnancy: 250, 500, 1000, and 4000ng/mL. Following these co-treatments, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured in both compartments. As expected, treatment with LPS induced all cytokines to increase. Co-stimulation with the highest tested concentration of PRL induced significant decreases in TNF-α in the choriodecidual region and IL-1β in both regions of the fetal membranes. PRL did not modified the IL-6 and IL-10 secretion profile. These findings, coupled with clinical evidence, suggest that the high level of PRL in the amniotic cavity is involved the mechanism by which the fetal-placental unit regulates the equilibrium between pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators.

How people from ethnic minorities describe their experiences of managing type-2 diabetes mellitus: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

The increasing prevalence of diabetes is well-documented along with the findings that some ethnic minorities have a higher prevalence than non-minority individuals. Along with possible biological differences between ethnicities, access to economic, social, cultural and symbolic capital may impact on the success of managing type-2 diabetes.

Do nurses' personal health behaviours impact on their health promotion practice? A systematic review.

There is a growing expectation in national and international policy and from professional bodies that nurses be role models for healthy behaviours, the rationale being that there is a relationship between nurses' personal health and the adoption of healthier behaviours by patients. This may be from patients being motivated by, and modelling, the visible healthy lifestyle of the nurse or that nurses are more willing to promote the health of their patients by offering public health or health promotion advice and referring the patient to support services.

Protein Supplements: Pros and Cons.

To provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature examining the pros and cons of protein supplementation, various articles on protein supplementation were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Over the past few years, protein supplementation has become commonplace for gym-goers as well as for the public. A large segment of the general population relies on protein supplementation for meal replacement, weight reduction, and purported health benefits. These protein supplements have varying pros and cons associated with them, which are often overlooked by the public. This review aims to assimilate existing studies and form a consensus regarding the benefits and disadvantages of protein supplementation. The purported health benefits of protein supplementation have led to overuse by both adults and adolescents. Although the pros and cons of protein supplementation is a widely debated topic, not many studies have been conducted regarding the same. The few studies that exist either provide insufficient evidence or have not employed proper conditions for the conduct of the tests. It should be considered that protein supplements are processed materials and often do not contain other essential nutrients required for the sustenance of a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that the required protein intake should be obtained from natural food sources and protein supplementation should be resorted to only if sufficient protein is not available in the normal diet.

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: A Narrative Review and Comparison with Open and Robotic Partial Nephrectomy.

Kidney cancer ranks among the top 10 most prevalent cancers in Western society, ∼90% of which are renal cell carcinomas. There has been a paradigm shift in the management of small renal masses with strong emphasis now placed on nephron-sparing surgery and increased utilization of laparoscopic approaches to partial nephrectomy. In this review, the current state of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is discussed.

Anionic silicate organic frameworks constructed from hexacoordinate silicon centres.

Crystalline frameworks composed of hexacoordinate silicon species have thus far only been observed in a few high pressure silicate phases. By implementing reversible Si-O chemistry for the crystallization of covalent organic frameworks, we demonstrate the simple one-pot synthesis of silicate organic frameworks based on octahedral dianionic SiO6 building units. Clear evidence of the hexacoordinate environment around the silicon atoms is given by (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Characterization by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculation and analysis of the pair-distribution function showed that those anionic frameworks-M2[Si(C16H10O4)1.5], where M = Li, Na, K and C16H10O4 is 9,10-dimethylanthracene-2,3,6,7-tetraolate-crystallize as two-dimensional hexagonal layers stabilized in a fully eclipsed stacking arrangement with pronounced disorder in the stacking direction. Permanent microporosity with high surface area (up to 1,276 m(2) g(-1)) was evidenced by gas-sorption measurements. The negatively charged backbone balanced with extra-framework cations and the permanent microporosity are characteristics that are shared with zeolites.

The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The molecule was detected in all samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.11 and 6.43 µmol/L. Further analysis on CSF revealed that a total of 22 subjects were affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), 16 were affected by non-AD related dementia, and 20 were affected by other neurological disorders. However, the stratification of TMAO levels according to the neurological diagnoses revealed no differences among the three groups. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that TMAO can be assessed in human CSF, but the actual impact of this dietary metabolite in the patho-physiolgy of the central nervous system requires further study.

Association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and nephropathy in Iranian diabetic patients.

Approximately one-third of diabetic patients develop evidence of nephropathy. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear; however, some genetic and metabolic risk factors have been determined for the development and progression of DN. In the recent genetic studies, polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene has been reported as a risk factor for the development of DN; however, the results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between ApoE polymorphism and nephropathy in Iranian patient with type 2 diabetes. A total of 197 patients with type 2 diabetes in two groups with and without nephropathy (n = 99 and n = 98, respectively) participated in this case-control study. ApoE genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Biochemical factors of all patients were measured. The frequency of Apo ε4 allele was significantly (P <0.05) lower in DN patients (10.6%) than in diabetic patients without nephropathy (20.4%). No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding Apo ε2 and Apo ε3 allele frequencies. Serum level of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Apo ε2 carriers was lower than Apo ε3 and Apo ε4 carriers, but this difference was not statistically significant. Frequency of Apo ε4 allele is higher in diabetic patients without nephropathy than DN participants. Given to the result, it seems that Apo ε4 has a protective effect in diabetic patients against nephropathy.

A literature review on work transitioning of youth with disabilities into competitive employment.

The marginalisation of youth with disabilities from employment opportunities is evident from literature in as far as they form part of the larger groups 'people with disabilities' and 'youth'. A focused view of programmes that assist youth with disabilities into employment has not been presented, despite the worldwide crisis of youth unemployment.

The effects of CO2 and H2 on CO metabolism by pure and mixed microbial cultures.

Syngas fermentation, the bioconversion of CO, CO2, and H2 to biofuels and chemicals, has undergone considerable optimization for industrial applications. Even more, full-scale plants for ethanol production from syngas fermentation by pure cultures are being built worldwide. The composition of syngas depends on the feedstock gasified and the gasification conditions. However, it remains unclear how different syngas mixtures affect the metabolism of carboxidotrophs, including the ethanol/acetate ratios. In addition, the potential application of mixed cultures in syngas fermentation and their advantages over pure cultures have not been deeply explored. In this work, the effects of CO2 and H2 on the CO metabolism by pure and mixed cultures were studied and compared. For this, a CO-enriched mixed culture and two isolated carboxidotrophs were grown with different combinations of syngas components (CO, CO:H2, CO:CO2, or CO:CO2:H2).

Functional Role of Gonadotrope Plasticity and Network Organization.

Gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary are characterized by their ability to mount a cyclical pattern of gonadotropin secretion to regulate gonadal function and fertility. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that gonadotropes exhibit dramatic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) exposure. GnRH engagement of actin is critical for gonadotrope function on multiple levels. First, GnRH-induced cell movements lead to spatial repositioning of the in vivo gonadotrope network toward vascular endothelium, presumably to access the bloodstream for effective hormone release. Interestingly, these plasticity changes can be modified depending on the physiological status of the organism. Additionally, GnRH-induced actin assembly appears to be fundamental to gonadotrope signaling at the level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which is a well-known regulator of luteinizing hormone (LH) β-subunit synthesis. Last, GnRH-induced cell membrane projections are capable of concentrating LHβ-containing vesicles and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton reduces LH secretion. Taken together, gonadotrope network positioning and LH synthesis and secretion are linked to GnRH engagement of the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we will cover the dynamics and organization of the in vivo gonadotrope cell network and the mechanisms of GnRH-induced actin-remodeling events important in ERK activation and subsequently hormone secretion.

Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes.

The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal.