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exacerbations - Top 30 Publications

Oral Glucocorticoid-Sparing Effect of Benralizumab in Severe Asthma.

Background Many patients with severe asthma rely on oral glucocorticoids to manage their disease. We investigated whether benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-5 receptor that significantly reduces the incidence of asthma exacerbations, was also effective as an oral glucocorticoid-sparing therapy in patients relying on oral glucocorticoids to manage severe asthma associated with eosinophilia. Methods In a 28-week randomized, controlled trial, we assessed the effects of benralizumab (at a dose of 30 mg administered subcutaneously either every 4 weeks or every 8 weeks [with the first three doses administered every 4 weeks]) versus placebo on the reduction in the oral glucocorticoid dose while asthma control was maintained in adult patients with severe asthma. The primary end point was the percentage change in the oral glucocorticoid dose from baseline to week 28. Annual asthma exacerbation rates, lung function, symptoms, and safety were assessed. Results Of 369 patients enrolled, 220 underwent randomization and started receiving benralizumab or placebo. The two benralizumab dosing regimens significantly reduced the median final oral glucocorticoid doses from baseline by 75%, as compared with a reduction of 25% in the oral glucocorticoid doses in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The odds of a reduction in the oral glucocorticoid dose were more than 4 times as high with benralizumab as with placebo. Among the secondary outcomes, benralizumab administered every 4 weeks resulted in an annual exacerbation rate that was 55% lower than the rate with placebo (marginal rate, 0.83 vs. 1.83, P=0.003), and benralizumab administered every 8 weeks resulted in an annual exacerbation rate that was 70% lower than the rate with placebo (marginal rate, 0.54 vs. 1.83, P<0.001). At 28 weeks, there was no significant effect of either benralizumab regimen on the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), as compared with placebo. The effects on various measures of asthma symptoms were mixed, with some showing significant changes in favor of benralizumab and others not showing significant changes. Frequencies of adverse events were similar between each benralizumab group and the placebo group. Conclusions Benralizumab showed significant, clinically relevant benefits, as compared with placebo, on oral glucocorticoid use and exacerbation rates. These effects occurred without a sustained effect on the FEV1. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ZONDA number, NCT02075255 .).

Cyclamen europaeum improves the effect of oral antibiotics on exacerbations and recurrences of chronic rhinosinusitis: a real-life observational study (CHRONOS).

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses affecting 11% of the European population. Cyclamen europaeum plant extract (CE) has demonstrated efficacy in treating acute rhinosinusitis, but its role in CRS exacerbations remains unknown. In this real-life, prospective, epidemiological, observational study, a total of 317 patients with exacerbations of CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) of moderate severity were treated using three different options: oral antibiotics, CE extract nasal spray, or the combination of oral antibiotic with CE extract. The main outcomes were the effect of treatment on sinonasal symptoms and endoscopic appearance after 6 weeks of therapy, and the number of recurrences of CRS exacerbations after 6 months of follow-up. On the top of oral antibiotics, CE extract significantly improved sinonasal symptoms and endoscopic findings and caused a 4-fold reduction of CRS recurrences. When administered in monotherapy, CE extract was at least as effective as antibiotic in monotherapy on relief of both symptoms and reduction of CRS recurrences. In patients with CRS exacerbation of moderate severity, CE extract nasal spray in monotherapy or added to standard antibiotic treatment significantly reduces sinonasal symptoms and CRS recurrences compared to antibiotics in monotherapy.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy. This study aims to assess the differences between obese and non-obese COPD patients. The main clinical aspect assessed is the number of COPDexacerbation related hospital admissions.


Macrolide agents have both antibacterial properties as well as various effects on the inflammatory system. In recent years there is growing evidence regarding the favourable effects of macrolides in a range of chronic respiratory conditions. Historically, erythromycin and clarithromycin were found to stabilize pulmonary deterioration in diffuse panbronchiolitis. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized with pseudomonas aeruginosa, long term treatment with azithromycin reduces exacerbations and presents improved lung function. A similar effect on prevention of exacerbations has been demonstrated in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In patients undergoing lung transplantation, long term azithromycin prevents bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), azithromycin prevents acute exacerbations. Chronic treatment with macrolides is associated with adverse effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, interactions with other drugs and cardiovascular complications. Of the macrolides, azithromycin is associated with the lowest interactions and adverse effects and is also the most investigated.

Clinical effects of air pollution on the central nervous system; a review.

The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical and epidemiological studies examining the adverse effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Air pollution and particulate matter (PM) are associated with neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These processes affect multiple CNS pathways. The conceptual framework of this review focuses on adverse effects of air pollution with respect to neurocognition, white matter disease, stroke, and carotid artery disease. Both children and older individuals exposed to air pollution exhibit signs of cognitive dysfunction. However, evidence on middle-aged cohorts is lacking. White matter injury secondary to air pollution exposure is a putative mechanism for neurocognitive decline. Air pollution is associated with exacerbations of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Increases in stroke incidences and mortalities are seen in the setting of air pollution exposure and CNS pathology is robust. Large populations living in highly polluted environments are at risk. This review aims to outline current knowledge of air pollution exposure effects on neurological health.

Budesonide, fluticasone propionate, and azithromycin do not modulate the membrane vesicle release by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection.

Patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience exacerbations and it is estimated that up to 50% of these exacerbations are associated with bacterial infections. The mainstay treatment for these infection-related exacerbations constitutes the administration of glucocorticoids, alone or in combination with antibiotics. A recent line of evidence demonstrates that many hormones including the steroid beclomethasone can also directly affect bacterial growth, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. The effect of these regimens on the release of potentially virulent and toxic membrane vesicles (MVs) is at present unclear. In this study, we determined the effect of several pharmacological agents on MVs release by and bacterial growth of common respiratory pathogens. We found that neither the release of MVs nor the bacterial growth was affected by the glucocorticoids budesonide and fluticasone. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin only inhibited the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but no effects were observed on bacterial MV release at a concentration that is achieved locally in the epithelial lining on administration. The macrophage pro-inflammatory response to MVs was significantly reduced after treatment with budesonide and fluticasone but not by azithromycin treatment. Our findings suggest that these glucocorticoids may have a positive effect on infection-related inflammation although the bacterial growth and MV release remained unaffected.

Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death.

Acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: tough to define; tougher to manage.

Acute exacerbations in the INPULSIS trials of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Time to first investigator-reported acute exacerbation was a key secondary end-point in the INPULSIS trials of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).We used the INPULSIS trial data to investigate risk factors for acute exacerbation of IPF and to explore the impact of nintedanib on risk and outcome of investigator-reported and adjudicated confirmed/suspected acute exacerbations. Mortality following these events and events adjudicated as not acute exacerbations was analysed using the log rank test.Risk of acute exacerbations was most strongly associated with the following variables: baseline forced vital capacity (higher risk with lower value), baseline supplemental oxygen (higher risk with use), baseline antacid medication (higher risk with use), treatment (higher risk with placebo), and for confirmed/suspected acute exacerbations, cigarette smoking. Mortality was similar following investigator-reported and adjudicated confirmed/suspected acute exacerbations. Nintedanib had no significant effect on risk of mortality post-exacerbation.Investigator-reported acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with similar risk factors and outcomes as adjudicated confirmed/suspected acute exacerbations.

ERJ May Podcast: Acute exacerbations in patients with IPF treated with nintedanib.

The SENSOR Study: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study of Self-Management Checks to Predict Exacerbations of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Patients with Long-Term Respiratory Conditions.

There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease. Earlier detection of exacerbations may improve morbidity and mortality by expediting treatment. Aseptika Ltd has developed a system for patients to self-monitor important physiological measurements including levels of physical activity, peak flow, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and biomarkers for P aeruginosa in sputum.

Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on exacerbation number and severity in people with COPD: An historical cohort study using electronic health records.

In previous systematic reviews, predominantly of randomised controlled trials, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been shown to reduce hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). However, findings have been less consistent for cohort studies. We aimed to compare rates of hospitalized and general practice (GP) treated AECOPD before and after PR.

Breathe easy: 5 steps to better breathing with your metered-dose inhaler (MDI).

Proper use of the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is essential for medications to prevent and treat acute asthma exacerbations. This training video teaches children and clinicians correct technique for MDI use.

Early control treatment with montelukast in preschool children with asthma: A randomized controlled trial.

While Japanese guideline recommends initial control treatment for preschool children with asthma symptoms more than once a month, Western guidelines do not. To determine whether control treatment with montelukast was more effective than as-needed β2-agonists in this population, we conducted a randomized controlled trial.

Interleukin-17 Inhibition: Role in Psoriasis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) antagonism provides a highly effective approach for treating psoriasis. Exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease have been reported in anti-IL-17 psoriasis trials.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) kills more than 3 million people worldwide every year. Despite progress in the treatment of symptoms and prevention of acute exacerbations, few advances have been made to ameliorate disease progression or affect mortality. A better understanding of the complex disease mechanisms resulting in COPD is needed. Smoking cessation programmes, increasing physical activity, and early detection and treatment of comorbidities are further key components to reduce the burden of the disease. However, without a global political and economic effort to reduce tobacco use, to regulate environmental exposure, and to find alternatives to the massive use of biomass fuel, COPD will remain a major health-care problem for decades to come.

Serum periostin in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.

Serum periostin has been proposed as a surrogate biomarker of Th2 inflammatory response in patients with asthma, but its predictive role in hospitalized patients with COPD has not been evaluated. The aim of the present observational prospective cohort study was to evaluate the possible role of serum periostin as predictor of outcome in COPD patients hospitalized for AECOPD. Serum periostin was measured on admission and at discharge in patients admitted to the hospital for a COPD exacerbation. Patients were followed-up for 1year for future exacerbations, hospitalizations and mortality. 155 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital for AECOPD were included to the study. Periostin levels on admission were elevated compared to discharge [34.7 (25.2-52.2) vs. 25.9 (17.4-41.0) ng/mL, p=0.003], but serum periostin levels did not differ between patients with or without prolonged hospitalization, or those who required non-invasive ventilation, intubation, or died during hospitalization. Frequent exacerbators had higher serum periostin levels at the time of discharge compared to non-frequent exacerbators [37.9 (26.6, 64.5) vs. 23.9 (16.2, 37.9), p<0.001]. Periostin levels above the median value (25ng/mL) were not related to the time of next exacerbation, time of next COPD hospitalization, (p=0.858) or time to death. The role of serum periostin levels as a predictive biomarker of future risk in hospitalized patients with COPD is of limited value.

ADCY5-related movement disorders: Frequency, disease course and phenotypic variability in a cohort of paediatric patients.

ADCY5 mutations have been recently identified as an important cause of early-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders. The phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in this gene is expanding. However, the ADCY5 mutational frequency in cohorts of paediatric patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders has not been evaluated.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the dermatology patient.

Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers and impaired epidermal barrier function have been reported in situations involving sustained psychologic stress and sleep deprivation. Some PTSD patients show hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyporesponsiveness and higher circulating T lymphocytes, which can exacerbate immune-mediated dermatologic disorders. PTSD should be considered an underlying factor in the chronic, recurrent, or treatment-resistant stress-reactive dermatoses and in patients with self-induced dermatoses.

Study on Steroid Induced Ocular Findings in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome.

Long term use of corticosteroids in Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is associated with ocular complications such as Posterior Subcapsular Cataract (PSC), glaucoma, increased intra-ocular pressure, ptosis, mydriasis, eyelid skin atrophy, keratisis, thinning of cornea and sclera, repeated hordeolum exacerbations.

The Vitamin D for Enhancing the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC) trial: Rationale and design of a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high dose bolus administration of vitamin D3 during acute pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis.

Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies have found an association between vitamin D status and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in children and adults with CF. The ongoing Vitamin D for enhancing the Immune System in Cystic fibrosis (DISC) study is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that will test the hypothesis of whether high dose vitamin D given as a single oral bolus of 250,000 IU to adults with CF during a pulmonary exacerbation followed by a maintenance dose of vitamin D will improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation and re-hospitalization, improve survival and lung function compared to placebo and reduce the rates of pulmonary exacerbation,. Subjects will be randomized 1:1 at each clinical site to vitamin D or placebo within 72 hours of hospital admission for pulmonary exacerbation. Clinical follow-up visits will occur at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after randomization. Blood and sputum will be collected and determination of clinical outcomes will be assessed at each visit. The primary endpoint will be the time to next pulmonary exacerbation requiring antibiotics, re-hospitalization or death. The secondary endpoints will include lung function assessed by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), blood markers of inflammatory cytokines, anti-microbial peptide expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating concentrations in blood. Other exploratory endpoints will examine the phenotype of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages in sputum. Nutritional status will be assessed by 3 day food records and food frequency questionnaire.

BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings.

British Thoracic Society Oxygen Guidelines: another clinical brick in the wall.

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps are associated with disease severity and microbiota diversity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in the airway in COPD, but their clinical and pathophysiological implications have not been defined.

The role of extracorporeal removal of CO2 (ECCO2R) in the management of respiratory diseases.

The aim of extracorporeal removal of CO2 (ECCO2R) is to ensure the removal of CO2 without any significant effect on oxygenation. ECCO2R makes use of low to moderate extracorporeal blood flow rates, whereas extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires high blood flows.

The effects of inhaled steroids withdrawal in COPD.

The key pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an abnormal inflammatory bronchial reaction after inhalation of toxic substances. The priority is the avoidance of such toxic inhalations, but the use of anti-inflammatory drugs also seems appropriate, especially corticosteroids that are the sole anti-inflammatory drug available for this purpose in France. The risks associated with the prolonged use of these parenteral drugs are well known. Inhalation is therefore the optimal route, but inhaled drugs may also lead to adverse consequences. In COPD, there is an inhaled corticosteroids overuse, and a non-satisfactory respect of the guidelines. Consequently, their withdrawal should be considered. We reviewed seven clinical studies dealing with inhaled corticosteroids withdrawal in patients with COPD and found that included populations were heterogenous with different concomitant treatments. In non-frequent exacerbators receiving inhaled corticosteroids outside the recommendations, withdrawal appears to be safe under a well-managed bronchodilator treatment. In patients with severe COPD and frequent exacerbations, the risk of acute respiratory event is low when they receive concomitant optimal inhaled bronchodilators. However, other risks may be observed (declining lung function, quality of life) and a discussion of each case should be performed, especially in case of COPD and asthma overlap.

Decreased serum sirtuin-1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

The protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an anti-aging molecule that is decreased in the lung from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, SIRT1 was reported to be detectable in serum, but serum SIRT1 levels have not yet been reported in patients with COPD.

Exacerbation of COPD.

Acute worsenings of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were for a long time regarded as transient deteriorations, although occasionally life-threatening. No connection to disease progression was recognized. Data emerging during the last decade showed that patients had a considerably worse survival outcome after severe exacerbations. This insight was consolidated in 2012 by a large population-based cohort analysis. At present, severe exacerbations are regarded as key risk factors for COPD disease progression. The present article summarises the current knowledge on exacerbations of COPD, as delineated during an expert workshop in February 2017. It comprises pathogenic mechanisms, exacerbation triggers, the characteristics of frequent exacerbators, and the predictors of worse survival outcome. The role of comorbidities is considered more closely. The presentation of the pharmacotherapy of acute exacerbation is supplemented by an overview of ventilatory support. Finally, pharmacological and nonpharmacological preventive measures are summarised.

Emerging treatments for ulcerative colitis: a systematic review.

Various investigational medicinal products have been developed for ulcerative colitis (UC). Our aim was to systematically evaluate novel pharmacological therapeutic agents for the treatment of UC.

Use of airway epithelial cell culture to unravel the pathogenesis and study treatment in obstructive airway diseases.

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses following inhalation of particles, allergens and pathogens. Through triggering and inducing immune responses, airway epithelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD. Various in vitro research models have been described to study airway epithelial cell dysfunction in asthma and COPD. However, various considerations and cautions have to be taken into account when designing such in vitro experiments. Epithelial features of asthma and COPD can be modelled by using a variety of disease-related invoking substances either alone or in combination, and by the use of primary cells isolated from patients. Differentiation is a hallmark of airway epithelial cells, and therefore models should include the ability of cells to differentiate, as can be achieved in air-liquid interface models. More recently developed in vitro models, including precision cut lung slices, lung-on-a-chip, organoids and human induced pluripotent stem cells derived cultures, provide novel state-of-the-art alternatives to the conventional in vitro models. Furthermore, advanced models in which cells are exposed to respiratory pathogens, aerosolized medications and inhaled toxic substances such as cigarette smoke and air pollution are increasingly used to model e.g. acute exacerbations. These exposure models are relevant to study how epithelial features of asthma and COPD are affected and provide a useful tool to study the effect of drugs used in treatment of asthma and COPD. These new developments are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the complex gene-environment interactions that contribute to development and progression of asthma and COPD.