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glycosylation - Top 30 Publications

Serum Proteomic Variability Associated with Clinical Phenotype in Familial Transthyretin Amyloidosis (ATTRm).

Transthyretin (TTR), normally a plasma circulating protein, can become misfolded and aggregated, ultimately leading to extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils usually targeted to heart or nerve tissues. Referred to as TTR-associated amyloidoses (ATTR), this group of diseases is frequently life threatening and fatal if untreated. ATTR, caused by amyloid-forming variant TTR proteins (ATTRm) which arise from point mutations in the TTR gene, were classically referred to as familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC) or familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) reflecting the clinical phenotype. FAC and FAP are pathologies that can be challenging to diagnose as there are no definitive biomarkers of disease; moreover, disease-specific measures of progression are lacking and treatment options are limited. Thus, the discovery of sensitive and specific indicators of disease has the potential to improve recognition, enable accurate measurement of amyloid progression and response to treatment, and reveal key information regarding FAC and FAP pathobiological mechanisms. In this study, the goal was to investigate serum proteomic features unique to FAC and FAP types of ATTRm. Multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), a powerful technique in profiling proteomes, was used to measure the serum concentrations of 160 proteins in samples from FAC and FAP patients. Results were compared to data from healthy control sera obtained from individuals matched to age (≥ 60 years), gender (male), and race (Caucasian). Proteomic analyses of ATTRm (FAC and FAP) and control samples showed significant concentration differences in 107 of 192 (56%) of the serum proteins that were studied. In comparing FAC to FAP, differences in concentrations, and interactions and functions of several proteins were identified as unique to each disease; significantly lower levels of TTR were specific to FAC, but not to FAP. Annotated functional clustering identified extracellular region, signal and signal peptide as terms common to FAC and FAP. Conversely, disulfide bond was unique to FAC; secreted, glycosylation site:N-linked, glycosylation, glycoprotein, polymorphism, and sequence variant were associated solely with FAP. Predicted protein-protein associations in FAC were seen for reaction, binding, and activation processes; no associations were found in FAP. This study demonstrates significant proteomic differences between ATTRm patient and control sera, as well as ATTRm phenotype-associated variations in the circulating levels of several proteins including TTR. The identification of serum proteins unique to FAC and FAP may have diagnostic and prognostic utility, and could possibly provide important clues about disease mechanisms.

Lectin BS-I inhibits cell migration and invasion via AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is most common malignant cancer worldwide; however, the mortality rate of HCC remains high due to the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Thus, exploring novel treatments to prevent the invasion of HCC is needed for improving clinical outcome of this fatal disease. In this study, we identified lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia seeds (BS-I) binds to metastasis-associated HCC cell surface glycans by a lectin microarray and inhibits HCC cell migration and invasion through downregulating the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) production. These effects of BS-I were mediated by inhibiting the activation of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway and depended on specificity of lectin BS-I binding to GalNAc. GSK3β inhibitors rescued BS-I-mediated inhibition of migration and invasion of HCC cell. Further, we identified that lectin BS-I interacts with sGrp78, affects membrane localization of sGrp78 and attenuates the binding of sGrp78 and p85 to inhibit the activation of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Overexpression of Grp78 or P85 rescues BS-I-mediated inhibition of migration and invasion of HCC cell. These findings demonstrated for the first time that BS-I can act as a novel potential drug to prevent the invasion of HCC.

Total Synthesis of the Diglycosidic Tetramic Acid Ancorinoside A.

Ancorinoside A, a metabolite of a sponge Ancorina sp., was prepared in 18 steps as the first derivative of this class of glycosylated 3-acyltetramic acids. It features a β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galacturonic acid linked to a D-aspartic acid derived tetramic acid via a 3-docosanoyl spacer. The diglycoside was built up by connecting the protected monosaccharides D-galactose and D-glucose via a thioglycoside glycosylation. Attachment of the spacer by a subsequent Schmidt glycosylation of this diglycoside, TEMPO oxidation to the uronic acid, functionalisation of the spacer terminus with an N-(β-ketoacyl)aspartate, and a final Dieckmann cyclisation of the latter were the key steps leading to ancorinoside A. This approach should also allow access to ancorinoside D.

One pot synthesis of GDP-mannose by a multi-enzyme cascade for enzymatic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides.

Glycosylation of proteins is a key function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Glycosylated proteins play a crucial role in cell trafficking and signaling, cell-cell adhesion, blood-group antigenicity, and immune response. In addition, the glycosylation of proteins is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In vitro glycoengineering of proteins requires glycosyltransferases as well as expensive nucleotide sugars. Here, we present a designed pathway consisting of five enzymes, glucokinase (Glk), phosphomannomutase (ManB), mannose-1-phosphate-guanyltransferase (ManC), inorganic pyrophosphatase (PmPpA) and 1-domain polyphosphate kinase 2 (1D-Ppk2) expressed in E. coli for the cell-free production and regeneration of GDP-mannose from mannose and polyphosphate with catalytic amounts of GDP and ADP. It was shown that GDP-mannose is produced at various conditions, i.e. pH 7-8, temperature 25-35°C and co-factor concentrations of 5-20 mM MgCl2 . The maximum reaction rate of GDP-mannose achieved was 2.7 µM/min at 30°C and 10 mM MgCl2 producing 566 nmol GDP-mannose after a reaction time of 240 min. With respect to the initial GDP concentration (0.8 mM) this is equivalent to a yield of 71%. Additionally, the cascade was coupled to purified, transmembrane-deleted Alg1 (ALG1▵TM), the first mannosyltransferase in the ER-associated lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) assembly. Thereby, in a one-pot reaction, phytanyl-PP-(GlcNAc)2 -Man1 was produced with efficient nucleotide sugar regeneration for the first time. Phytanyl-PP-(GlcNAc)2 -Man1 can serve as a substrate for the synthesis of LLO for the cell-free in vitro glycosylation of proteins. A high-performance anion exchange chromatography method with UV and conductivity detection (HPAEC-UV/CD) assay was optimized and validated to determine the enzyme kinetics. The established kinetic model enabled the optimization of the GDP-mannose regenerating cascade and can further be used to study coupling of the GDP-mannose cascade with glycosyltransferases. Overall, the study envisages a first step towards the development of a platform for the cell-free production of LLOs as precursors for in vitro glycoengineering of proteins.

New insights into the role of glycosylation in lipoprotein metabolism.

Human genetics has provided new insights into the role of protein glycosylation in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. Here we review these new developments and discuss the biological insights they provide.

Tool for Rapid Analysis of glycopeptide by Permethylation (TRAP) via one-pot site mapping and glycan analysis.

To overcome the challenges in the analysis of protein glycosylation, we have developed a comprehensive and universal tool through permethylation of glycopeptides and their tandem mass spectrometric analysis. This method has the potential to simplify glycoprotein analysis by integrating glycan sequencing and glycopeptide analysis in a single experiment. Moreover, glycans with unique glycosidic linkages, particularly from prokaryotes, which are resistant to enzymatic or chemical release, could also be detected and analyzed by this methodology. Here we present a strategy for the permethylation of intact glycopeptides, obtained via controlled protease digest, and their characterization by using advanced mass spectrometry. We used bovine RNase B, human transferrin, and bovine fetuin as models to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Remarkably, the glycan patterns, glycosylation site and their occupancy by N-glycans are all detected and identified in a single experimental procedure. Acquisition on a high resolution tandem-MSn system with fragmentation methodologies such as high-energy collision dissociation (HCD) and collision induced dissociation (CID), provided the complete sequence of the glycan structures attached to the peptides. The behavior of 20 natural amino acids under the basic permethylation conditions was probed by permethylating a library of short synthetic peptides. Our studies indicate that the permethylation imparts simple, limited, and predictable chemical transformations on peptides and do not interfere with the interpretation of MS/MS data. In addition to this, permethylated O-glycans in unreduced form (released by β elimination) were also detected, allowing us to profile O-linked glycan structures simultaneously.

Characterization of Site-Specific glycosylation in Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin produced by Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line.

Influenza hemagglutinin is a surface glycoprotein related to virus invasion and host immune system response. Understanding site specific glycosylation of hemagglutinin will increase our knowledge about virus evolution and can improve the design and quality of vaccines. In our study, we used glycoproteomic analysis based on multienzyme digestion followed by LC tandem MS analysis to determine the glycosylation of Influenza hemagglutinin (H1/A/California/04/2009) using the following steps: PNGaseF treatment combined with trypsin or pepsin digestion were used to determine the glycosites and glycan occupancy. Three enzymes, trypsin, AspN and pepsin, were used separately to generate suitable glycopeptides for on-line LC tandem MS analysis. The glycan structure of a given glycopeptide was determined by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS fragmentation and the peptide backbone information was provided by CID-MS3 fragmentation. With this approach 100% sequence coverage of the hemagglutinin sample was obtained. Six glycosylation sites fitting the sequon N-X-S/T were successfully confirmed and the glycan heterogeneity as well as the ratios of glycoforms were determined at each site.

Exploring cellular behaviour under transient gene expression and its impact on mAb productivity and Fc-glycosylation.

Transient gene expression (TGE) is a methodology employed in bioprocessing for the fast provision of recombinant protein material. Mild hypothermia is often introduced to overcome the low yield typically achieved with TGE and improve specific protein productivity. It is therefore of interest to examine the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on both the yield and quality of transiently-expressed proteins and the relationship to changes in cellular processes and metabolism. In this study, we focus on the ability of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line to galactosylate a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product. Through experimentation and flux balance analysis, our results show that TGE in mild hypothermic conditions led to a 76% increase in qP compared to TGE at 36.5(°) C in our system. This increase is accompanied by increased consumption of nutrients and amino acids, together with increased production of intracellular nucleotide sugar species and higher rates of mAb galactosylation, despite a reduced rate of cell growth. The reduction in biomass accumulation allowed cells to redistribute their energy and resources towards mAb synthesis and Fc-glycosylation. Interestingly, the higher capacity of cells to galactosylate the recombinant product in TGE at 32°C appears not to have been assisted by the upregulation of galactosyltransferases (GalTs), but by the increased expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII) in this cell line, which facilitated the production of bi-antennary glycan structures for further processing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Bioreactor-Based Production of Glycoproteins in Plant Cell Suspension Cultures.

Recombinant glycoproteins such as monoclonal antibodies have a major impact on modern healthcare systems, e.g., as the active pharmaceutical ingredients in anticancer drugs. A specific glycan profile is often necessary to achieve certain desirable activities, such as the effector functions of an antibody, receptor binding or a sufficient serum half-life. However, many expression systems produce glycan profiles that differ substantially from the preferred form (usually the form found in humans) or produce a diverse array of glycans with a range of in vivo activities, thus necessitating laborious and costly separation and purification processes. In contrast, protein glycosylation in plant cells is much more homogeneous than other systems, with only one or two dominant forms. Additionally, these glycan profiles tend to remain stable when the process and cultivation conditions are changed, making plant cells an ideal expression system to produce recombinant glycoproteins with uniform glycan profiles in a consistent manner. This chapter describes a protocol that uses fermentations using plant cell cultures to produce glycosylated proteins using two different types of bioreactors, a classical autoclavable STR 3-L and a wave reactor.

Production of Recombinant Factor VIII in Human Cell Lines.

Human cell lines can produce recombinant proteins much more similar to their natural counterpart, compared to other mammalian cell lines, reducing potential immunogenic reactions. Recombinant proteins produced in nonhuman cells can have in its structure glycan epitopes, such as Galα1,3-Gal (alpha-Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) residues, that are antigenic to humans and can potentially affect the efficacy of the recombinant product. Therefore, the production of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) in human cell lines is a new approach to avoid nonhuman glycosylation. Here, we describe a protocol to produce rFVIII in the human cell line SK-HEP, using a lentiviral vector to produce high quantities of the recombinant protein.

Human Cells as Platform to Produce Gamma-Carboxylated Proteins.

The gamma-carboxylated proteins belong to a family of proteins that depend on vitamin K for normal biosynthesis. The major representative gamma-carboxylated proteins are the coagulation system proteins, for example, factor VII, factor IX, factor X, prothrombin, and proteins C, S, and Z. These molecules have harbored posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and gamma-carboxylation, and for this reason they need to be produced in mammalian cell lines. Human cells lines have emerged as the most promising alternative to the production of gamma-carboxylated proteins. In this chapter, the methods to generate human cells as a platform to produce gamma-carboxylated proteins, for example the coagulation factors VII and IX, are presented. From the cell line modification up to the vitamin K adaptation of the produced cells is described in the protocols presented in this chapter.

Production of Full-Length Antibody by Pichia pastoris.

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become an increasingly popular host for recombinant protein expression in recent times. MRL pioneered a glycoengineered humanized P. pastoris expression system that could produce glycoproteins with glycosylation profiles similar to mammalian systems. Therapeutic glycoproteins produced by the humanized P. pastoris platform have shown comparable folding, stability, and in vitro and in vivo efficacies in preclinical models to their counterparts produced from the CHO cells. P. pastoris offers a cost and time efficient alternative platform for therapeutic protein production. This chapter describes a protocol for using P. pastoris to produce full-length monoclonal antibodies. It covers a broad spectrum of antibody expression technologies in P. pastoris, including expression vector construction, yeast transformation, high-throughput strain selection, fermentation, and antibody purification.

Platforms for Recombinant Therapeutic Glycoprotein Production.

The majority of FDA-approved biology-derived products are recombinant glycoproteins. These proteins have been used for the treatment of several diseases, with numerous products currently approved for clinical use. The choice of the expression system is a key step toward a successful functional protein production, since glycosylation influences yield, pharmacokinetics, biological activity, and immunogenicity. This chapter covers the general aspects of therapeutic recombinant glycoproteins and the platforms that are being employed for their production.

Investigation of O-glycosylation heterogeneity of recombinant coagulation factor IX using LC-MS/MS.

Recombinant coagulation factor IX (rFIX) has extraordinarily multiple post-translational modifications including N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation which have a drastic effect on biological functions and in vivo recovery. Unlike N-glycosylation extensively characterized, there are a few studies on O-glycosylation due to its intrinsic complexity. In-depth O-glycosylation analysis is necessary to better understand and assess pharmacological activity of rFIX.

Sensitive and comprehensive analysis of O-glycosylation in biotherapeutics: a case study of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein.

Glycosylation of recombinant human erythropoietins (rhEPOs) is significantly associated with drug's quality and potency. Thus, comprehensive characterization of glycosylation is vital to assess the biotherapeutic quality and establish the equivalency of biosimilar rhEPOs. However, current glycan analysis mainly focuses on the N-glycans due to the absence of analytical tools to liberate O-glycans with high sensitivity. We developed selective and sensitive method to profile native O-glycans on rhEPOs.

Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl derivatives of phenolic acids esters.

The glycosylation of naturally occurring phenolic acids has a significant impact on their solubility, stability and physiochemical properties. D-Galactose residue was found to form a part of glycoconjugates in several tissues and involved in a variety of physiological process. To the best of our knowledge, we have noticed a little information about the glycosylation of the phenolic acids with galactose residue. In this work, we describe the glycosylation of methyl vanillate and methyl ferulate with peracetylated-β-D-galactopyranose in the presence of BF3·OEt2. The coupling reaction yielded efficiently and selectively only the acetylated β-D-galactopyranosides 3 and 6. Removal of the acetyl groups using sodium methoxide afforded the corresponding β-D-galactopyranosides 4 and 7 in good yields. Anticancer activity in vitro was evaluated against two human cancer cell lines (MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines). β-D-galactopyranosides 4 and 7 demonstrated improved cytotoxic activity compared to the parental esters.

The Sporothrix schenckii Gene Encoding for the Ribosomal Protein L6 Has Constitutive and Stable Expression and Works as an Endogenous Control in Gene Expression Analysis.

Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions. Most of the quantitative methodologies used nowadays require data normalization, and this is achieved measuring the expression of endogenous control genes. Reference genes, whose expression is assumed to suffer minimal changes regardless the cell morphology, the stage of the cell cycle or the presence of harsh extracellular conditions are commonly used as controls in Northern blotting assays, microarrays, and semi-quantitative or quantitative RT-PCR. Since the biology of the organisms is usually species specific, it is difficult to find a reliable group of universal genes that can be used as controls for data normalization in experiments addressing the gene expression, regardless the taxonomic classification of the organism under study. Here, we compared the transcriptional stability of the genes encoding for elongation factor 1A, Tfc1, a protein involved in transcription initiation on Pol III promoters, ribosomal protein L6, histone H2A, β-actin, β-tubulin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, UAF30, the upstream activating factor 30, and the transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 10, during the fungal growth in different culture media and cell morphologies. Our results indicated that only the gene encoding for the ribosomal protein L6 showed a stable and constant expression. Furthermore, it displayed not transcriptional changes when S. schenckii infected larvae of Galleria mellonella or interacted with immune cells. Therefore, this gene could be used as control for data normalization in expression assays. As a proof of concept, this gene was used to assess the expression of genes encoding for glycosidases involved in the protein N-linked glycosylation pathway, a histidine kinase whose expression is regulated during the fungal dimorphism, and a glycosidase that participates in sucrose assimilation.

Metabolic Links between Plasma Cell Survival, Secretion, and Stress.

Humoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy. Many of these processes are likely to be linked, thereby affording possibilities to improve vaccine design and to develop new therapies for autoimmunity. We review here aspects of plasma cell biology with an emphasis on recent studies and the relationships between intermediary metabolism, antibody production, and lifespan.

Synthesis of a trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen from Burkholderia cenocepacia and its dimer.

The trisaccharide repeating unit of an O-antigen derived from Burkholderia cenocepacia and its dimer, i.e., α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-O(CH2)3N3 (1) and α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 4)-α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-O(CH2)3N3 (2), respectively, were synthesized via a highly convergent strategy. Glycosylation of galactosaminyl acceptor 4 with galactosaminyl trichloroacetimidate donor 5 was followed by condensation of resulting disaccharide acceptor 12 with rhamnosyl imidate donor 6 to furnish stereoselectively trisaccharyl thioglycoside 3, which was used as a key and common glycosyl donor for the construction of both 1 and 2. Title molecule 1 was prepared by glycosylation of 3-azidopropanol with 3 and subsequently global deprotection, whereas coupling reaction of 3 with a trisaccharide acceptor 21 containing an 2,3-O-position acetonide-modified rhamnose residue, followed by global deprotection, generated the dimer 2 in a convergent [3 + 3] manner.

Protein O-fucosylation in Plasmodium falciparum ensures efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice. These defects can be attributed to destabilization and incorrect trafficking of proteins bearing thrombospondin repeats (TSRs). Therefore, POFUT2 plays a similar role in malaria parasites to that in metazoans: it ensures the trafficking of Plasmodium TSR proteins as part of a non-canonical glycosylation-dependent endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control mechanism.The role of O-glycosylation in the malaria life cycle is largely unknown. Here, the authors identify a Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase and show that it is important for normal trafficking of a subset of surface proteins, particularly CSP and TRAP, and efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

Automated N-Glycosylation Sequencing Of Biopharmaceuticals By Capillary Electrophoresis.

Comprehensive analysis of the N-linked carbohydrates of glycoproteins is gaining high recent interest in both the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In addition to high resolution glycosylation profiling, sugar residue and linkage specific enzymes are also routinely used for exoglycosidase digestion based carbohydrate sequencing. This latter one, albeit introduced decades ago, still mostly practiced by following tedious and time consuming manual processes. In this paper we introduce an automated carbohydrate sequencing approach using the appropriate exoglycosidase enzymes in conjunction with the utilization of some of the features of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument to speed up the process. The enzymatic reactions were accomplished within the temperature controlled sample storage compartment of a capillary electrophoresis unit and the separation capillary was also utilized for accurate delivery of the exoglycosidase enzymes. CE analysis was conducted after each digestion step obtaining in this way the sequence information of N-glycans in 60 and 128 minutes using the semi- and the fully-automated methods, respectively.

Zika virus structural biology and progress in vaccine development.

The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses. With its compact surface, ZIKV is more thermally stable than the dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV E proteins have a characteristic "herringbone" structure with a single glycosylation site. The ZIKV E protein, the major protein involved in receptor binding and fusion, is formed as a head-to-tail dimer on the surfaces of viral particles. The E monomer consists of three distinct domains: DI, DII, and DIII. The finger-like DII contains a fusion loop (FL) that is inserted into the host cell endosomal membrane during pH-dependent conformational changes that drive fusion. Quaternary E:E dimer epitopes located at the interaction site of prM and E dimers can be further divided into two dimer epitopes. To date, more than 50 ZIKV vaccine candidates are now in various stages of research and development. Candidate ZIKV vaccines that are currently in phase I/II clinical trials include inactivated whole viruses, recombinant measles viral vector-based vaccines, DNA and mRNA vaccines, and a mosquito salivary peptide vaccine. Stabilized forms of ZIKV E:E dimer proteins have been successfully obtained either by introducing additional inter-subunit disulfide bond(s) in DII or via the direct assembly of E:E dimer proteins by immobilization with monomeric E proteins. The VLP-based approach is another alternative method for presenting native E:E dimer antigens among the vaccine components. Several forms of ZIKV VLPs have been reported featuring the co-expression of the prM-E, prM-E-NS1, C-prM-E, and NS2B/NS3 viral genes in human cells. To minimize the effect of the cross-reactive ADE-facilitating antibodies between ZIKV and DENV, several novel mutations have been reported either in or near the FL of DII or DIII to dampen the production of cross-reactive antibodies. Future ZIKV vaccine design efforts should be focused on eliciting improved neutralizing antibodies with a reduced level of cross-reactivity to confer sterilizing immunity.

Highly selective and sensitive visualization and identification of glycoproteins using multi-functionalized soluble dendrimer.

Glycoproteins are the most important and complex group of posttranslational modifications known in proteins. Many clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer are glycoproteins. However, the isolation of glyco-specific antibodies and their poor stability remains a significant challenge in analytical method and diagnostic development. In this work, for the first time, we present a technology for highly efficient and selective glycosylation analysis on membrane without the use of glyco-specific antibodies. This approach, termed Nanopoly-BAV, which uses polyamidoamine dendrimers multifunctionalized with boronic acid for specific binding to glycoproteins and with biotin groups for glycoproteins visualization. The Nanopoly-BAV confers femtomolar sensitivity, exceptional glycoprotein specificity and selectivity with as high as 100000 folds for glycoproteins over nonglycoproteins. This synthetic, robust and highly selective Nanopoly-BAV has a great potential to measure cell signaling events by clearly distinguishing actual glycosylation signals from protein expression changes with superior stability. This technique may provide a powerful tool to monitor cellular signaling pathways and discovering new signaling events.

IgA nephropathy during treatment with TNF-alpha blockers: Could it be predicted?

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) may sometimes be related to exposure to pharmacological agents, among which anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha agents. The characteristic pathological feature is a deposition of IgA-containing immune complexes in vessel walls in the kidney mesangium. The link between TNF-alpha blockers and IgAN may be hypothesized examining diseases which share pathologic features. In this respect, idiopathic IgAN and Henoch Schonlein Purpura have been the object of studies revealing a pathogenetic role of aberrant glycosylation of IgA1 molecules. The Authors suggest that anti-drug antibodies against glycan structures of TNF-alpha inhibitors may cross react against serum aberrant IgA1 leading to large antigen-antibody complexes. These large polymeric IgA complexes are then able to deposit in the mesangium and activate the complement cascade. Such hypothesis may be tested by measuring serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 of patients developing IgAN following introduction of TNF-alpha blockers. Such a test would be useful also before administration of anti-TNF alpha agents. The presence of aberrant IgA1 may represent a contraindication for treatment with TNF blockers.

A quantitative assessment of the evolution of cerebellar syndrome in children with phosphomannomutase-deficiency (PMM2-CDG).

We aim to delineate the progression of cerebellar syndrome in children with phosphomannomutase-deficiency (PMM2-CDG) using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). We sought correlation between cerebellar volumetry and clinical situation. We prospectively evaluated PMM2-CDG patients aged from 5 to 18 years through ICARS at two different time points set apart by at least 20 months. We reviewed available MRIs and performed volumetric analysis when it was possible.

Recent Advances in the Chemical Synthesis of C-Glycosides.

Advances in the chemical synthesis of C-pyranosides/furanosides are summarized, covering the literature from 2000 to 2016. The majority of the methods take advantage of the construction of the glycosidic C-C bond. These C-glycosylation methods are categorized herein in terms of the glycosyl donor precursors, which are commonly used in O-glycoside synthesis and are easily accessible to nonspecialists. They include glycosyl halides, glycals, sugar acetates, sugar lactols, sugar lactones, 1,2-anhydro sugars, thioglycosides/sulfoxides/sulfones, selenoglycosides/telluroglycosides, methyl glycosides, and glycosyl imidates/phosphates. Mechanistically, C-glycosylation reactions can involve glycosyl electrophilic/cationic species, anionic species, radical species, or transition-metal complexes, which are discussed as subcategories under each type of sugar precursor. Moreover, intramolecular rearrangements, such as the Claisen rearrangement, Ramberg-Bäcklund rearrangement, and 1,2-Wittig rearrangement, which usually involve concerted pathways, constitute another category of C-glycosylations. An alternative to the C-glycosylations is the formation of pyranoside/furanoside rings after construction of the predetermined glycosidic C-C bonds, which might involve cyclization of acyclic precursors or D-A cycloadditions. Throughout, the stereoselectivity in the formation of the resultant C-glycosidic linkages is highlighted.

MicroRNA-200c impairs uterine receptivity formation by targeting FUT4 and α1,3-fucosylation.

Successful embryo implantation requires the establishment of a receptive endometrium. Poor endometrial receptivity has generally been considered as a major cause of infertility. Protein glycosylation is associated with many physiological and pathological processes. The fucosylation is catalyzed by the specific fucosyltransferases. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of α1,3-fucosylated glycans carried by glycoproteins, and the previous studies showed FUT4 expression changed dynamically during perimplantation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate specific gene expression. However, the relationship between specific miRNA and FUT4, as well as the role of miRNA/FUT4 in the establishment of uterine receptivity remains elusive. In the current study, we reported that the levels of miR-200 family members were significantly increased in serum from infertility and abortion patients relative to healthy non-pregnancy and early-pregnancy women. Among these, miR-200c was the most sensitive diagnostic criterion for infertility by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. FUT4 was lower in the serum from infertility and abortion patients compared with the healthy non-pregnancy and early-pregnancy women. Using endometrial cell lines and a mouse model, we demonstrated that miR-200c targeted and inhibited FUT4 expression, leading to the dysfunction of uterine receptivity. Our results also revealed that miR-200c decreased α1.3-fucosylation on glycoprotein CD44, which further inactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, miR-200c hampers uterine receptivity formation by targeting FUT4 and α1.3-fucosylation on CD44. miR-200c and FUT4 may be applied together as the potential markers for endometrial receptivity, and useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets for infertility.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cdd.2017.136.

Physical and Chemical Processes and the Morphofunctional Characteristics of Human Erythrocytes in Hyperglycaemia.

Background: This study examines the effect of graduated hyperglycaemia on the state and oxygen-binding ability of hemoglobin, the correlation of phospholipid fractions and their metabolites in the membrane, the activity of proteolytic enzymes and the morphofunctional state of erythrocytes. Methods: Conformational changes in the molecule of hemoglobin were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The structure of the erythrocytes was analyzed using laser interference microscopy (LIM). To determine the activity of NADN-methemoglobinreductase, we used the P.G. Board method. The degree of glycosylation of the erythrocyte membranes was determined using a method previously described by Felkoren et al. Lipid extraction was performed using the Bligh and Dyer method. Detection of the phospholipids was performed using V. E. Vaskovsky method. Results: Conditions of hyperglycaemia are characterized by a low affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen, which is manifested as a parallel decrease in the content of hemoglobin oxyform and the growth of deoxyform, methemoglobin and membrane-bound hemoglobin. The degree of glycosylation of membrane proteins and hemoglobin is high. For example, in the case of hyperglycaemia, erythrocytic membranes reduce the content of all phospholipid fractions with a simultaneous increase in lysoforms, free fatty acids and the diacylglycerol (DAG). Step wise hyperglycaemia in incubation medium and human erythrocytes results in an increased content of peptide components and general trypsin-like activity in the cytosol, with a simultaneous decreased activity of μ-calpain and caspase 3. Conclusions: Metabolic disorders and damage of cell membranes during hyperglycaemia cause an increase in the population of echinocytes and spherocytes. The resulting disorders are accompanied with a high probability of intravascular haemolysis.

Inhibition of fucosylation by 2-fluorofucose suppresses human liver cancer HepG2 cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor formation.

Core fucosylation is one of the most important glycosylation events in the progression of liver cancer. For this study, we used an easily handled L-fucose analog, 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2FF), which interferes with the normal synthesis of GDP-fucose, and verified its potential roles in regulating core fucosylation and cell behavior in the HepG2 liver cancer cell line. Results obtained from lectin blot and flow cytometry analysis clearly showed that 2FF treatment dramatically inhibited core fucosylation, which was also confirmed via mass spectrometry analysis. Cell proliferation and integrin-mediated cell migration were significantly suppressed in cells treated with 2FF. We further analyzed cell colony formation in soft agar and tumor xenograft efficacy, and found that both were greatly suppressed in the 2FF-treated cells, compared with the control cells. Moreover, the treatment with 2FF decreased the core fucosylation levels of membrane glycoproteins such as EGF receptor and integrin β1, which in turn suppressed downstream signals that included phospho-EGFR, -AKT, -ERK, and -FAK. These results clearly described the roles of 2FF and the importance of core fucosylation in liver cancer progression, suggesting 2FF shows promise for use in the treatment of hepatoma.

Structural and functional diversity in Listeria cell wall teichoic acids.

Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are the most abundant glycopolymers found on the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria, whose diverse surface structures play key roles in multiple biological processes. Despite recent technological advances in glycan analysis, structural elucidation of WTAs remains challenging due to their complex nature. Here, we employed a combination of UPLC-MS/MS and NMR to determine the structural complexity of WTAs from Listeria species. We unveiled more than 10 different types of WTA polymers that vary in their linkage and repeating units. Disparity in GlcNAc to ribitol connectivity, as well as variable O-acetylation and glycosylation of GlcNAc contribute to the structural diversity of WTAs. Notably, SPR analysis indicated that constitution of WTA determines the recognition by bacteriophage endolysins. Collectively, these findings provide detailed insight into Listeria cell wall-associated carbohydrates, and will guide further studies on the structure-function relationship of WTAs.