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helical tomotherapy - Top 30 Publications

An in silico comparative dosimetric study of postmastectomy locoregional irradiation using intensity-modulated vs 3-dimensional conventional radiotherapy.

An in silico dosimetric evaluation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) vs 3-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) treatment plans in postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to the chest wall and regional lymphatics was conducted. Twenty-five consecutive patients with breast cancer referred for locoregional PMRT, stages T2-4 with N1-3, were planned to receive 50 Gy in 25 fractions with IMRT. Additionally, a 3D-CRT plan was generated using identical contours for the clinical target volumes (CTV), planning target volumes (PTV), and organs at risk (OAR). Treatment plans were assessed using dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of D98, D95, D50, D2, and homogeneity index for individual CTVs and PTVs. OARs evaluated were ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, heart, spinal cord, and opposite breast. Most DVH parameters pertaining to CTVs and PTVs significantly favored IMRT. V20 for ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, D33 of heart and maximum dose to spinal cord favored IMRT (all p < 0.001). The mean dose to the opposite breast was significantly lesser with 3D-CRT (5.8 ± 1.8 Gy vs 2.0 ± 1.0 Gy, p < 0.001). Thus, except for the mean dose to the opposite breast, the compliance to DVH constraints applied to PTV and OARs were significantly better with IMRT. At a median follow-up of 76 months (7-91), none had locoregional failure or pulmonary or cardiac morbidity. For PMRT, requiring comprehensive irradiation to both chest wall and regional lymphatics, IMRT offers superior dosimetric advantages over 3D-CRT. This was also corroborated by long-term outcomes in these patients treated with IMRT.

Use of helical tomotherapy in locally advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer for locoregional treatment.

Helical tomotherapy (HT) is a new promising tool whose use remains to be studied. This work assesses its impact for local irradiation in terms of side effects, as well as tumour control in locally advanced (LABC) and metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Quality of training in radiation oncology in Germany: where do we stand? : Results from a 2016/2017 survey performed by the working group "young DEGRO" of the German society of radiation oncology (DEGRO).

To evaluate the current situation of young radiation oncologists in Germany with regard to the contents and quality of training and level of knowledge, as well as their working conditions and professional satisfaction.

Dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy leads to an increase in pain relief for spinal metastases: a comparison study with a regimen of 30 Gy in 10 fractions.

Under the existing condition that the optimum radiotherapy regimen for spinal metastases is controversial, this study investigates the benefits of dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) with 60-66 Gy in 20-30 fractions for spinal metastases.

Application of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the application values of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 124 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinomas were included into the study and randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, with 62 patients in each group. The 3D-CRT combined with postoperative chemotherapy were performed on the control group and the observation group received IMRT combined with postoperative chemotherapy, and then were followed up for a median duration of 25.5 months. Comparison of the survival analysis of the two groups showed no differences between them in terms of the total effective rate and effectiveness (P>0.05), or radiotherapy complications (P>0.05). In addition, no significant differences between the two groups were found in the follow-up local tumor control probability (TCP), regional lymph node control rate, distant metastasis-free rate, tumor-free survival rate, recurrence rate and overall survival rate (P>0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference between the two groups in the overall score of quality of life (P>0.05). The present study concludes that the IMRT and the 3D-CRT have almost the same short-term and long-term clinical effects in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and both of them have high effectiveness and safety.

Clinical outcome of extended-field irradiation vs. pelvic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distinctions in survival and toxicity between patients with cervical cancer with common iliac node or para-aortic node involvement, who were treated with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and patients with or without lower involved pelvic nodes, who were treated with pelvic IMRT. A total of 55 patients treated with EF-IMRT and 52 patients treated with pelvic IMRT at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated with EF-IMRT had the highest level of lymph node involvement to the para-aortic or common iliac nodes, while patients treated with pelvic IMRT had no para-aortic or common iliac nodes involved (P<0.001). The median follow-up time was 29.5 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 79.4 and 82.3% (P=0.45), respectively, and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 61.0 and 73.7% (P=0.55), respectively. Cox's regression analysis revealed that EF irradiation was a protective prognostic factor for OS and DFS. A total of 16 patients in the EF-IMRT group and 13 patients in the pelvic IMRT group experienced treatment failure (P=0.67), with the patterns of failure being the same for the two groups (P=0.88). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 acute toxicities in the EF-IMRT group was 34.5%, in comparison with 19.2% in the pelvic group (P=0.048). The results of the present study suggest that patients with cervical cancer with grossly involved common iliac or para-aortic nodes should be electively subjected to EF irradiation to improve the survival and alter patterns of recurrence. Notably, EF irradiation delivered via IMRT exhibits an increased toxicity incidence, however, this remains within an acceptable range.

Relationship between Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion in radiotherapy patients.

This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.

Current and Future Challenges of Radiation Oncology in Iran: A Report from the Iranian Society of Clinical Oncology.

Growth of the cancer incidence rate in Iran has been very high in recent years. Therefore, the Iranian health care system should be prepared for the treatment of a huge number of patients in the foreseeable future. One of the most important treatment options for cancer is radiation. However, there is no comprehensive information on infrastructure for radiation oncology in this country.

The predictive value of pre- and post-induction chemotherapy plasma EBV DNA level and tumor volume for the radiosensitivity of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

This study was dedicated to investigate the predictive value of pre- and post-induction chemotherapy plasma EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) DNA level and tumor volume for the radiosensitivity of locally advanced NPC. 129 previously untreated locally advanced NPC patients were enrolled. Plasma EBV-DNA copy number and tumor volume was detected before and after induction chemotherapy. The tumor volume was also measured after radiotherapy. Among 129 patients, 98 were positive for EBV DNA. The residual gross target volume of the primary tumor (GTVnx) and GTVnd after radiotherapy was positively correlated with post-induction chemotherapy EBV copy number (rho=0.357, P<0.001; rho=0.356, P<0.001, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that the AUC of ROC curves of post-induction chemotherapy tumor volume, tumor regression rate before and after induction chemotherapy, post-induction EBV copy number, EBV decrease rate for predicting no residual nasopharyngeal tumor were 0.859, 0.782, 0.678 and 0.657, respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses showed that T stage, post-induction chemotherapy EBV copy number and tumor volume were independent predictors for no residual nasopharyngeal tumor after radiotherapy. The changes in plasma EBV DNA and tumor volume during treatment could be used to predict the sensitivity of locally advanced NPC patients in response to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

Evaluation of Deformable Image Registration (DIR) Methods for Dose Accumulation in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients during Radiotherapy.

Deformable image registration (DIR) is used to modify structures according to anatomical changes for observing the dosimetric effect. In this study, megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images were used to generate cumulative doses for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients by various DIR methods. The performance of the multiple DIR methods was analysed, and the impact of dose accumulation was assessed.

Carcinogenesis Induced by Low-dose Radiation.

Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population. Research shows that because of the phenomena characteristic for low dose radiation the risk of cancer induction from exposure of healthy tissues to low dose radiation can be greater than the risk calculated from linear no-threshold model. Epidemiological data collected from radiation workers and atomic bomb survivors confirms that exposure to low dose radiation can contribute to increased cancer risk and also that the risk might correlate with the age at exposure.

Helical Therapy is Safe for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Despite Limitations in Achieving Sharp Dose Gradients.

We observed that many of our helical therapy lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans did not meet the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recommended R50% (volume of 50% of the prescription dose/planning target volume), which characterizes the steepness of dose fall off. We hypothesized that despite not meeting R50%, helical therapy lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans would confer similar local control and minimal side effects as previously reported using nonhelical treatment platforms.

Haploidentical hematopoietic SCT using helical tomotherapy for total-body irradiation and targeted dose boost in patients with high-risk/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

A novel conditioning regimen using helical tomotherapy (HT) was developed to deliver 10 Gy for total body irradiation (TBI) and simultaneously augment dose to 12 Gy for targeted dose boost to total marrow, central nervous system leukemia, and extramedullary disease sites in patients with high-risk or relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Fourteen patients were included, eight of these patients were in first complete remission (CR1), one was in CR2, one had a partial response and four patients had refractory disease at transplantation. The median delivered average dose was 11.395 Gy (range 10.06-12.17). The median planning target volume D95 was 8.2 Gy (range 7.52-9.01). The median delivered dose to skeleton bone with active bone marrow sites was 12.685 Gy (range 11.12-13.52). The results of this trial suggest that using HT TBI confers satisfactory immunosuppression and excellent eradication of malignant cells in patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT, especially in those with refractory ALL. After a median follow-up of 14.6 months (range 4-28), four patients experienced non-relapse mortality, ten patients are alive in durable CR including remission of extramedullary leukemic infiltration. One-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates post-transplantation were both 70.7%.

Spatiotemporal radiotherapy planning using a global optimization approach.

This paper aims at quantifying the extent of potential therapeutic gain, measured using biologically effective dose (BED), that can be achieved by altering the radiation dose distribution over treatment sessions in fractionated radiotherapy. To that end, a spatiotemporally integrated planning approach is developed, where the spatial and temporal dose modulations are optimized simultaneously. The concept of equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) is used to quantify and compare the clinical quality of spatiotemporally heterogeneous dose distributions in target and critical structures. This gives rise to a large-scale non-convex treatment-plan optimization problem, which is solved using global optimization techniques. The proposed spatiotemporal planning approach is tested on two stylized cancer cases resembling two different tumor sites and sensitivity analysis is performed for radio-biological and EUBED parameters. Numerical results validate that spatiotemporal plans are capable of delivering a larger BED to the target volume without increasing the BED in critical structures compared to conventional time-invariant plans. In particular, this additional gain is attributed to the irradiation of different regions of the target volume at different treatment sessions. Additionally, the trade-off between the potential therapeutic gain and the number of distinct dose distributions is quantified, which suggests a diminishing marginal gain as the number of dose distributions increases.

Cost of treatment for head and neck cancer in India.

There are no published data on the cost of cancer treatment for guiding reimbursement decisions in India. The present study was designed to estimate the cost of treating head and neck cancer (HNC) with the aim of determining package rates. The present study was undertaken in the Departments of Radiotherapy and Otolaryngology of a large tertiary care hospital in North India. Economic health system costs incurred were assessed using a bottom-up methodology. Data on all resources-capital or recurrent, incurred on the delivery of HNC treatment were collected from April 2014 to March 2015. Following the cost-of-illness approach, patients were interviewed to elicit out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure. A total of INR 40,993,017 (USD 0.67 million) was spent on radiotherapy care for treating HNC during 1 year. Salaries constituted the major component (42.6%) of this cost, followed by equipment/furniture (29%), space rent (20.7%), overheads and consumables (7.7%). In addition, INR 47,191 (USD 773) per HNC patient was spent on the surgery. Furthermore, patients spent an average amount ranging from INR 12,575 (USD 206) to INR 65,257 (USD 1069) on the different treatment therapies. In terms of package rates, cobalt radiotherapy alone was the cheapest (INR 38,714, USD 634), while intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was most expensive (INR 192,914, USD 3161). The estimates from the present study could be used for developing package rates under various publicly financed health insurance schemes as well as for the planning for creation of new cancer centres.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Brachytherapy Boost Modalities in Invasive Cervical Cancer: A Study of the National Cancer Data Base.

Our objective was to determine whether stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and brachytherapy boost techniques have comparable overall survival in treating cervical cancer when adjusted for known prognostic factors.

Image-guided, whole-pelvic, intensity-modulated radiotherapy for biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer patients.

The optimal field size of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) for biochemical recurrence, particularly for patients with high-risk prostate cancer, remains undefined. This retrospective analysis was performed to investigate oncological outcomes as well as treatment-related toxicity following salvage intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to the whole pelvis and to compare the results with other studies implementing a small field size of the prostate bed.

The use of adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of small-cell carcinoma lung refractory to chemotherapy in a patient with preexisting interstitial lung disease.

This is a case report of a 60-year-old diabetic, hypertensive male with a good performance status and a history of bilateral interstitial lung disease with a left upper lobe lung mass diagnosed to be a Stage IIB mixed small-cell/squamous cell carcinoma which was refractory to carboplatin- and etoposide-based chemotherapy. The patient was then taken up for adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy with tighter margin under image guidance with a mid-treatment replanning done at 25#. Acute toxicities were assessed weekly and showed no Grade 3 or more reactions. Pulmonary function test showed no detrimental changes during or after radiation. Response assessment at 12 and 20 weeks showed a partial response with decrease in metabolic activity on serial scans.

Is a clinical target volume (CTV) necessary for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy? -a dosimetric evaluation of three different treatment plans.

The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of omitting the clinical target volume (CTV) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by comparing dosimetric characteristics of three different IMRT plans with or without CTV implementation.

Comparison of calculated dose distributions reported as dose-to-water and dose-to-medium for intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients.

Advanced dose calculation algorithms for radiation therapy treatment planning can report external beam photon dose 2-sided, in terms of dose-to-medium (Dm) and dose-to-water (Dw). The purpose of our study was to determinate the effect of Dw and Dm reporting modes built in Elekta Monaco treatment planning system on intensity-modulated radiotherapy dose distributions for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. For 13 patients involved in this retrospective study, 2 plans were created: 1 using Dw and another according to Dm reporting mode. Treatment plans were normalized such that 100% planning target volume should be covered by 95% of prescribed dose. Dose-volume constraints were assigned according to international standards. The comparison between dose distributions was performed evaluating quantities important for respective volumes of interest. For target volumes, heterogeneity index and conformity index methodology were used along with the maximum dose concept. Also, for the comparisons over particular organ at risk, maximum dose or mean dose as well as dose-volume concepts were used. For all target volumes and majority of organs at risk, the differences between 2 reporting modes are statistically insignificant, but this is not the case for bony structured organs at risks: mandible and cochlea. It was observed that Dw is higher than Dm with mean difference of 9.91% (p = 0.000009) of the mandible volume covered with 70 Gy. The same trend was observed for left and right cochlea with difference in mean dose of 8.74% (p = 0.037) and 6.87% (p = 0.029), respectively. The comparative analysis of dosimetric parameters in this study shows that the selection of reporting modes in Monaco treatment planning system can produce dose differences up to 15% in high-density volumes such as mandible and cochlea, which might have clinical consequences.

A randomized phase III study between sequential versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

This study was performed to compare the acute and late toxicities between sequential (SEQ) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Childhood Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: State-of-the-Art, and Questions for the Future.

In children, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a very rare tumor, mostly Epstein-Barr Virus related and quite always diagnosed at a locally advanced stage. With current protocols associating induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy, prognosis is excellent with overall survival higher than 85%. However, long-term toxicities are frequent. Improvement in radiation therapy modalities like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and new strategies with radiation dose adaptation to chemotherapy response have been introduced to reduce acute and long-term toxicities. Actually, 2 main questions remain: is it possible to pursue a therapeutic deescalation in children with low-risk NPC or very good response to induction chemotherapy in order to reduce the risk of late effects? Could an immunologic maintenance treatment improve prognosis of children with high-risk NPC? International collaborative groups and prospective trials including biological studies are necessary to answer these questions to improve childhood NPC treatment and knowledge.

Optimization of the margin expanded from the clinical to the planned target volume during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

During the radiotherapy process, the emergence of set-up errors is nearly inevitable. Because set-up errors were not detected and corrected daily, planned target volumes were formed by expanding the clinical target volume according to each unit's experience. We optimized the margins of clinical and planned target volumes during administration of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 72 patients newly diagnosed with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma and treated with Tomotherapy were prospectively enrolled in the study. For each patient, one megavoltage computed tomography scan was obtained after conventional positioning, online correction, and daily tomotherapy delivery. The interfraction set-up errors were determined using a planning CT based on the registered scan. The mean interfraction errors were -2.437±2.0529 mm, 0.0652±2.3844 mm, 0.318±1.8314 mm, and 0.197±1.8721° for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, and the direction of rotation, respectively. The total MPTV in the three directions was 7.53 mm, 1.83 mm, and 2.08 mm, respectively. The 3-mm margins in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions uniformly expanded from the clinical target volume should be sufficient, and the marging in the medial-lateral direction was up to 7.5 mm. These results suggest that personalized MPTV may be adopted for intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning.

Evaluation and Performance of ArcCheck and Film using Gamma Criteria in Pre-treatment Quality Assurance of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy.

The aim of this study is to assess the use of ArcCHECK (AC) as an alternative method to replace film dosimetry for pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) treatment plans.

Estimating Second Malignancy Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy using a Mechanistic Radiobiological Model in Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of Left Breast.

The aim of this study is to estimate second cancer risk (SCR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a mechanistic radiobiological model. The model also takes into account patient age at exposure and the gender-specific correction factors of SCR.

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: treatment results from a prospective observational study.

A prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the results of treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (CESCC). Patients had CESCC, no distant metastasis, were 18-75 years old, and had PS 0-2. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered as either three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a total dose of 60 Gy/30 fractions. All patients were treated with platinum-based doublet concurrent chemotherapeutic regimens. CCRT was followed by 2-3 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy. The endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), toxicities, and failure patterns. Ninety-two patients were enrolled from March 2007 to July 2014. The median follow-up time was 34 months. For all patients, the 3-year OS was 49.8% (median OS: 36 months, 95% CI: 24.963-47.051), and the 3-year PFS was 42.1%, (median PFS: 25 months, 95% CI: 17.097-32.903). Treatment failures occurred in 54 patients, including 30 cases (32.6%) with locoregional failure alone, 14 cases (15.2%) with distant metastasis alone, and 10 cases (10.9%) with both locoregional failure and distant metastasis. There were 51 (55.4%) and 3 cases (3.3%) of grade 3 and grade 5 radiation esophagitis, respectively. One patient (1%) had grade 5 laryngeal edema. Overall, CCRT has tolerable acute toxicities, and this regimen is an option for the treatment of patients with CESCC.

Impact of minimum point dose on local control and toxicity in T3-4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy plus chemotherapy.

We aim to explore the relationship between minimum point dose (Dmin) to the primary gross tumor volume (GTV_P) and local control in treating T3-4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Bayesian Adaptive Randomization Trial of Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated Photon Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Purpose This randomized trial compared outcomes of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) versus intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT), both with concurrent chemotherapy, for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that PSPT exposes less lung tissue to radiation than IMRT and thereby reduces toxicity without compromising tumor control. The primary end points were grade ≥ 3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) and local failure (LF). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had stage IIB to IIIB NSCLC (or stage IV NSCLC with a single brain metastasis or recurrent lung or mediastinal disease after surgery) who were candidates for concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Pairs of treatment plans for IMRT and PSPT were created for each patient. Patients were eligible for random assignment only if both plans satisfied the same prespecified dose-volume constraints for at-risk organs at the same tumor dose. Results Compared with IMRT (n = 92), PSPT (n = 57) exposed less lung tissue to doses of 5 to 10 Gy(RBE), which is the absorbed Gy dose multiplied by the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) factor for protons; exposed more lung tissue to ≥ 20 Gy(RBE), but exposed less heart tissue at all dose levels between 5 and 80 Gy(RBE). The grade ≥ 3 RP rate for all patients was 8.1% (IMRT, 6.5%; PSPT, 10.5%); corresponding LF rates were 10.7% (all), 10.9% (IMRT), and 10.5% (PSPT). The posterior probability of IMRT being better than PSPT was 0.54. Exploratory analysis showed that the RP and LF rates at 12 months for patients enrolled before versus after the trial midpoint were 21.1% (before) versus 18.2% (after) for the IMRT group (P = .047) and 31.0% (before) versus 13.1% (after) for the PSPT group (P = .027). Conclusion PSPT did not improve dose-volume indices for lung but did for heart. No benefit was noted in RP or LF after PSPT. Improvements in both end points were observed over the course of the trial.

A comparison of weekly versus 3-weekly cisplatin during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma using intensity modulated radiation therapy: a matched study.

Purpose: To compare the long-term survival outcomes and acute toxicity between locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received either weekly or 3-weekly cisplatin during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: Between November 2008 and August 2011, 241 biopsy-proved NPC patients receiving concurrent cisplatin with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were included. 90 patients treated with 4-7 weeks of 30-40 mg/m2 cisplatin weekly were matched with 90 patients who received two or three cycles of 80 mg/m2 cisplatin three-weekly by sex, age, T stage, N stage, Karnosky performance score (KPS). IMRT was presented to the nasopharyngeal gross target volume at 66-72 Gy/30-32 fractions and those involved neck area at 60-66 Gy/30-32 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 69 months (range, 2-91 months), and the 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 85.6% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.207), 85.6% vs. 92.6% (P = 0.152), 94.4% vs. 96.7% (P = 0.411), and 88.9% vs. 95.6% (P = 0.107) for the group treated weekly and 3-weekly cisplatin, respectively. No statistically significant survival differences were found between the two treatment groups in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The similar incidence of acute toxicities was observed between two groups. Conclusions: Concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy administered weekly or three-weekly in combination with IMRT leads to similar acute toxicities and long-term survival outcomes in locoregionally advanced NPC patients.

Pre-treatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase is Predictive of Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Undergoing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy.

Objective: To analyze the prognostic value of pre-treatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH) level in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy. Methods: From January 2010 to March 2013, 427 eligible patients were reviewed. Pre-treatment SLDH level was measured within 2 weeks prior to treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to select the optimal cutoff point. The impact of pre-treatment SLDH on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Further propensity score matching was carried out to adjust bias. Results: The optimal cutoff point of 168.5 IU/L was selected based on ROC curve analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that high pre-treatment SLDH level was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.001), PFS (P=0.004) and DMFS (P=0.001). After propensity score matching was performed, it remained to be significantly associated with poor OS (P=0.009), PFS (P=0.015) and DMFS (P=0.008) in the adjusted model. Conclusion: High pre-treatment SLDH level predicts poor survival in patients with NPC treated with IMRT-based therapy. As a routinely performed biomarker, pre-treatment SLDH can be utilized in combination with current Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging to predict survival and to plan a personalized treatment in these patients.