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infusions, intravenous - Top 30 Publications

Short communication: Short-term intravenous amino acid infusions as a method to detect limiting amino acids in dairy cattle diets.

We hypothesized that the addition of limiting AA increases dry matter intake (DMI) by reducing anaplerosis and hepatic oxidation. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to examine the effects of short-term intravenous infusions of Met, Lys, and His (which are considered the most limiting AA) on DMI as a method to detect whether specific AA are limiting in dairy cow diets. We conducted 4 experiments using Holstein cows in the immediate postpartum period to address this objective. The first experiment used 4 cows 6 to 10 d postpartum (PP) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 1-d periods including 12 h for infusions and 12 h for recovery. Treatments were continuous infusions of 5 (low), 10 (medium), or 15% (high) of the calculated requirement of metabolizable Met, Lys, and His or 0.9% saline (control, CONT). In the second and third experiments, 8 cows (4-12 d PP) were divided into 2 groups of 4 cows, and each group received a different diet formulated to either be low in Lys (experiment 2) or Met (experiment 3). Each experiment was a crossover design with two 1-d periods with 12-h infusions (continuous) and 12 h for recovery. Treatments were 15% of the calculated requirement of metabolizable Met, Lys, and His (high), or 0.9% saline (CONT). In the fourth experiment, 5 cows (4-14 d PP) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Periods were 2 d in which treatments were continuously infused for the first 46 h. Treatments were 0.9% saline (CONT), all (Lys, Met, and His), LM (Lys and Met), LH (Lys and His), and MH (Met and His); dosages were equal to the estimated shortage in each specific AA. In each experiment, feed intake was recorded by a computerized data acquisition system, milk yield was recorded, and milk composition was analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentrations. Treatments did not affect DMI or yield of milk or milk components in the first experiment. In the second experiment, AA treatment increased protein percentage and reduced lactose percentage but had no effect on protein and lactose yields or DMI. In the third experiment, the AA treatment tended to increase yields of milk, lactose, and protein as well as MUN concentration but did not affect DMI. In the fourth experiment, no effects were detected for DMI and milk yield, whereas the all, LH, and LM treatments reduced milk lactose concentration compared with CONT, and MH increased MUN concentration compared with CONT and other treatments. These results failed to provide support for our hypothesis that short-term addition of these potentially limiting AA will increase DMI. This may be due to our hypothesis being inaccurate or to other factors; other limiting AA could have prevented the effects of Lys, Met, and His infusions or the infusion periods could have been too short to induce a response in DMI. Accordingly, short-term infusion of AA is probably not a sensitive method to detect limiting AA in dairy cow diets.

Sequential Vacc-4x and romidepsin during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART): Immune responses to Vacc-4x regions on p24 and changes in HIV reservoirs.

The REDUC clinical study Part B investigated Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF therapeutic vaccination prior to HIV latency reversal using romidepsin. The main finding was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in viral reservoir measurements. Here we evaluated HIV-specific functional T-cell responses following Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF immunotherapy in relation to virological outcomes on the HIV reservoir.

Interleukin-6 blockade raises LDL via reduced catabolism rather than via increased synthesis: a cytokine-specific mechanism for cholesterol changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes.

Weight-adjusted Intravenous Reslizumab in Severe Asthma with Inadequate Response to Fixed-dose Subcutaneous Mepolizumab.

Clinical benefits of fixed-dose 100 mg subcutaneous (SC) mepolizumab in prednisone-dependent patients are modest when sputum eosinophilia is not adequately controlled. This study compared treatment response of weight-adjusted intravenous (IV) Reslizumab in patients previously treated with 100 mg SC Mepolizumab.

Clinical Manifestations of Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome.

A case-control study was performed to ascertain clinical features of children who had been diagnosed as Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS), a severe condition related to Kawasaki disease (KD). Hospitalized patients were selected in Nanjing Children's Hospital. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory data, cardiovascular findings, and therapies were analyzed. Compared with the control group, KDSS patients were older and had more serious skin rash. The proportions of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and hypoalbuminemia was higher, as was the level of while blood cell count, C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, and ferroprotein. KDSS patients had higher incidence of arrhythmias and more severe coronary artery involvement. All case patients received aspirin, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin, 33.3% required albumin, and 90.4% needed vasoactive infusions. In conclusion, KDSS patients may have more serious inflammatory responses in the acute phase. Short-term use of glucocorticoid may be important in inhibiting the inflammatory response. Albumin and vasoactive drugs are useful to rescue shock.

Duration of antiresorptive activity of zoledronate in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized, controlled multidose trial.

Intravenous zoledronate 5 mg annually reduces fracture risk, and 5 mg every 2 years prevents bone loss, but the optimal dosing regimens for these indications are uncertain.

Primary (Month-6) Outcomes of the STOP-Uveitis Study: Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients with Non-Infectious Uveitis.

To report the primary end-point analyses of the safety and efficacy of two different doses of intravenous (IV) infusions of tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6 inhibitor, in eyes with non-infectious intermediate, posterior or pan-uveitis.

Chronic 5-HT<sub>2</sub> receptor blockade unmasks the role of 5-HT<sub>1F</sub> receptors in the inhibition of the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) inhibits the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow by 5-HT<sub>1B/1D/5</sub> receptors. Since chronic blockade of sympatho-excitatory 5-HT<sub>2</sub> receptors is beneficial in several cardiovascular pathologies, this study investigated whether sarpogrelate (a 5-HT<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonist) alters the pharmacological profile of the above sympatho-inhibition. Rats were pretreated during 2 weeks with sarpogrelate in drinking water (30 mg/; sarpogrelate-treated group) or equivalent volumes of drinking water (control group). Animals were pithed and prepared for spinal stimulation (C<sub>7</sub>-T<sub>1</sub>) of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow or for intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of noradrenaline. Both procedures produced tachycardic responses remaining unaltered after saline. I.v. continuous infusions of 5-HT induced a cardiac sympatho-inhibition that was mimicked by the 5-HT receptor agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT<sub>1/5A</sub>), CP 93,129 (5-HT<sub>1B</sub>) or PNU 142633 (5-HT<sub>1D</sub>), but not by indorenate (5-HT<sub>1A</sub>) in both groups; whereas LY344864 (5-HT<sub>1F</sub>) mimicked 5-HT only in sarpogrelate-treated rats. In sarpogrelate-treated animals, i.v. GR 127935 (310 μg/kg; 5-HT<sub>1B/1D/1F</sub> receptor antagonist) attenuated 5-CT- and abolished LY344864-induced sympatho-inhibition; while GR 127935 plus SB 699551 (1 mg/kg; 5-HT<sub>5A</sub> receptor antagonist) abolished 5-CT-induced inhibition. These results confirm the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory role of 5-HT<sub>1B</sub>, 5-HT<sub>1D</sub> and 5-HT<sub>5A</sub> receptors in both groups; nevertheless, sarpogrelate treatment specifically unmasked a cardiac sympatho-inhibition mediated by 5-HT<sub>1F</sub> receptors.

Therapeutic monitoring and prediction of the efficacy of neurotrophic treatment in patients with amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment.

To perform therapeutic monitoring and prediction of the neurotrophic therapy efficacy in patients with amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a model of course cerebrolysin therapy.

An open-label, prospective, observational study of the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy for painful osteoid osteoma.

To assess the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy on bone pain in patients with osteoid osteoma (OO) (main objective), and to describe bisphosphonate-induced changes in nidus mineralisation and regional bone-marrow oedema (BMO).

Locomotor and reinforcing effects of pentedrone, pentylone and methylone in rats.

The broad diversity of synthetic cathinone psychostimulant drugs that are available to users complicates research efforts to provide understanding of health risks. Second generation cathinones pentedrone and pentylone are distinguished from each other by the 3,4-methylenedioxy structural motif (which distinguishes methamphetamine from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and each incorporates the α-alkyl chain motif contained in the transporter-inhibitor cathinones (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP)) but not in the monoamine releasers (mephedrone, methylone). Studies were conducted in male and female Wistar rats to compare locomotor and thermoregulatory effects of pentedrone, pentylone and methylone using an implanted radiotelemetry system. Reinforcing effects were assessed in female Wistar rats trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) procedure and subjected to dose-substitution (0.025-0.3 m/gkg/inf) under a fixed-ratio 1 response contingency. Pentedrone, pentylone and methylone dose-effect curves were contrasted with those for α-PVP and α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP). Dose dependent increases in locomotion were observed after intraperitoneal injection of pentylone (0.5-10.0 mg/kg), pentedrone (0.5-10.0 mg/kg) or mephedrone (0.5-10.0 mg/kg) in male and female rats. The maximum locomotor effect was similar across drugs but lasted longest after pentedrone. Mean body temperature did not vary systematically more than 0.5 °C after pentedrone or pentylone in either sex. A sustained hyperthermia (0.4-0.8 °C) was observed for four hours after 10.0 mg/kg methylone in male rats. More infusions of pentedrone or pentylone were self-administered compared with methylone, but all three were less potent than α-PVP or α-PHP. These studies support the inference that second generation cathinones pentylone and pentedrone have abuse liability greater than that of methylone.

Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Crohn's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Stem cell therapy has been applied to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD), but few studies have examined the use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). This trial sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of UC-MSCs for the treatment of CD.

Recombinant human hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion in primary immunodeficiency diseases.

Most primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) resulting in antibody deficiency require intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) replacement therapy. The flow and distribution of SCIG to the vasculature is impeded by the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix, which limits the infusion rate and volume per site, necessitating frequent infusions and multiple infusion sites. Hyaluronidase depolymerizes hyaluronan and is a spreading factor for injectable biologics. Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) increases SCIG absorption and dispersion. In patients with PIDD, SCIG facilitated with rHuPH20 (IGHy) has been shown to prevent infections, be well-tolerated and reduce infusion frequency and number of infusion sites as compared with conventional SCIG. This article reviews IGHy clinical studies and real-world practice data in patients with PIDD.

Safety and activity of microRNA-loaded minicells in patients with recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma: a first-in-man, phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study.

TargomiRs are minicells (EnGeneIC Dream Vectors) loaded with miR-16-based mimic microRNA (miRNA) and targeted to EGFR that are designed to counteract the loss of the miR-15 and miR-16 family miRNAs, which is associated with unsuppressed tumour growth in preclinical models of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the safety, optimal dosing, and activity of TargomiRs in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures.

A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps.

Osteogenesis imperfecta: diagnosis and treatment.

Here we summarize the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta, discuss newly discovered genes involved in osteogenesis imperfecta, and review the management of this disease in children and adults.

Development of idursulfase therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): the past, the present and the future.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare, multisystemic, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme. Accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate results in a broad range of disease manifestations that are highly variable in presentation and severity; notably, approximately two-thirds of individuals are affected by progressive central nervous system involvement. Historically, management of this disease was palliative; however, during the 1990s, I2S was purified to homogeneity for the first time, leading to cloning of the corresponding gene and offering a means of addressing the underlying cause of MPS II using enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Recombinant I2S (idursulfase) was produced for ERT using a human cell line and was shown to be indistinguishable from endogenous I2S. Preclinical studies utilizing the intravenous route of administration provided valuable insights that informed the design of the subsequent clinical studies. The pivotal Phase II/III clinical trial of intravenous idursulfase (Elaprase(®); Shire, Lexington, MA, USA) demonstrated improvements in a range of clinical parameters; based on these findings, intravenous idursulfase was approved for use in patients with MPS II in the USA in 2006 and in Europe and Japan in 2007. Evidence gained from post-approval programs has helped to improve our knowledge and understanding of management of patients with the disease; as a result, idursulfase is now available to young pediatric patients, and in some countries patients have the option to receive their infusions at home. Although ERT with idursulfase has been shown to improve somatic signs and symptoms of MPS II, the drug does not cross the blood-brain barrier and so treatment of neurological aspects of the disease remains challenging. A number of novel approaches are being investigated, and these may help to improve the care of patients with MPS II in the future.

Effects of arsenic trioxide on the expression of ezrin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) treatment on the expression of ezrin and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).A total of 24 patients (20 males and 4 females) with resectable HCC were treated with venous injection of As2O3 for 14 days (10 mg/d) before surgery. The ezrin expression and serum AFP levels were assessed before and after treatment, respectively.The serum AFP levels were 325.5 ng/L before treatment and 278.6 ng/L after treatment, with statistical significant difference (Z = -2.360, P < .05). The expression of ezrin was negative, weak positive, and strong positive in 11, 7, and 6 cases, respectively, before As2O3 treatment, and 17, 5, 2 cases respectively after the treatment. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (χ = 5.619, P < .05). Also, the results showed that there was a significant correlation between the high serum AFP level (AFP ≥ 500 ng/L) and high expression of ezrin (χ = 8.080, P < .05).As2O3 treatment can significantly downregulate the expression of ezrin in HCC.

Changes in transcranial motor evoked potentials during hemorrhage are associated with increased serum propofol concentrations.

Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) monitor the integrity of the spinal cord during spine surgery. Propofol-based anesthesia is favored in order to enhance TcMEP quality. During intraoperative hemorrhage, TcMEP amplitudes may be reduced. The serum concentration of propofol may increase during hemorrhage. No study has determined whether changes in TcMEPs due to hemorrhage are related to changes in propofol blood levels. We monitored TcMEPs, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) and hemoglobin in pigs (n = 6) undergoing controlled progressive hemorrhage during a standardized anesthetic with infusions of propofol, ketamine, and fentanyl. We recorded TcMEPs from the rectus femoris (RF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles bilaterally. A pulmonary artery catheter was placed to measure CO. Progressive hemorrhage of 10% blood volume increments was done until TcMEP amplitude decreased by >60% from baseline. Serum propofol levels were also measured following removal of each 10% blood volume increment. TcMEP responses were elicited every 3 min using constant stimulation parameters. We removed between 20 and 50% of total blood volume in order to achieve the >60% reduction in TcMEP amplitude. MAP and CO decreased significantly from baseline. At maximum hemorrhage, TcMEP amplitude decreased in the RF and TA by an average of 73 and 62% respectively from baseline (P < 0.01). Serum propofol levels varied greatly among animals at baseline (range 410-1720 ng/mL) and increased in each animal during hemorrhage. The mean propofol concentration rose from 1190 ± 530 to 2483 ± 968 ng/mL (P < 0.01). The increased propofol concentration correlated with decreased CO. Multivariate analysis using hierarchical linear models indicated that the decline of TcMEP amplitude was primarily associated with rising propofol concentrations, but was also independently affected by reduced CO. We believe that the decrease in blood volume and CO during hemorrhage increased the serum concentration of propofol by reducing the volume of distribution and/or rate of hepatic metabolism of the drug. Despite wide acceptance of propofol as the preferred anesthetic when using TcMEPs, intravenous anesthetics are vulnerable to altered pharmacokinetics during conditions of hemorrhage and could contribute to false-positive TcMEP changes.

Frequency and causes of lipemia interference of clinical chemistry laboratory tests.

The aims of this study were to identify the causes of severe lipemia in an academic medical center patient population and to determine the relationship between lipemia and hemolysis.

Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Overnight Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Background: The loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging has been attributed to the blunted anabolic response to protein intake. Presleep protein ingestion has been suggested as an effective strategy to compensate for such anabolic resistance.Objective: We assessed the efficacy of presleep protein ingestion on dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in older men.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, 48 older men (mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y) ingested 40 g casein (PRO40), 20 g casein (PRO20), 20 g casein plus 1.5 g leucine (PRO20+LEU), or a placebo before sleep. Ingestion of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]-leucine-labeled protein was combined with intravenous l-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]-leucine infusions during sleep. Muscle and blood samples were collected throughout overnight sleep.Results: Exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion, but to a greater extent in PRO40 than in PRO20 and PRO20+LEU (P < 0.05). Overnight myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (based on l-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine) were 0.033% ± 0.002%/h, 0.037% ± 0.003%/h, 0.039% ± 0.002%/h, and 0.044% ± 0.003%/h in placebo, PRO20, PRO20+LEU, and PRO40, respectively, and were higher in PRO40 than in placebo (P = 0.02). Observations were similar based on l-[1-(13)C]-leucine tracer (placebo: 0.047% ± 0.004%/h and PRO40: 0.058% ± 0.003%/h, P = 0.08). More protein-derived amino acids (l-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine) were incorporated into myofibrillar protein in PRO40 than in PRO20 (0.033 ± 0.002 and 0.019 ± 0.002 MPE, respectively, P < 0.001) and tended to be higher than in PRO20+LEU (0.025 ± 0.002 MPE, P = 0.06).Conclusions: Protein ingested before sleep is properly digested and absorbed throughout the night, providing precursors for myofibrillar protein synthesis during sleep in healthy older men. Ingestion of 40 g protein before sleep increases myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during overnight sleep. These findings provide the scientific basis for a novel nutritional strategy to support muscle mass preservation in aging and disease. This trial was registered at as NTR3885.

A non-controlled, single arm, open label, phase II study of intravenous and intratumoral administration of ParvOryx in patients with metastatic, inoperable pancreatic cancer: ParvOryx02 protocol.

Metastatic pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis, with a mean six-month progression-free survival of approximately 50% and a median survival of about 11 months. Despite intensive research, only slight improvements of clinical outcome could be achieved over the last decades. Hence, new and innovative therapeutic strategies are urgently required. ParvOryx is a drug product containing native parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV). Since H-1PV was shown to exert pronounced anti-neoplastic effects in pre-clinical models of pancreatic cancer, the drug appears to be a promising candidate for treatment of this malignancy.

The key points in intravenous chemotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy on retinoblastoma treatment.

Intravenous chemotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) both are the first-line treatment for retinoblastoma (RB) in clinical. There is a controversy on if intra-arterial chemotherapy can substitute the intravenous chemotherapy due to its high eye salvage rate in retinoblastoma therapy. The advantages and disadvantages of these two therapies were retrospectively reviewed here to suggest an individualized and comprehensive regimen for getting the proximal results for retinoblastoma afflicted children. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 566-569).

Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.

Many patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. Ketamine is a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 18 adults with DSM-5 SAD and compared the effects between intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) and placebo (normal saline) on social phobia symptoms. Ketamine and placebo infusions were administered in a random order with a 28-day washout period between infusions. Ratings of anxiety were assessed 3-hours post-infusion and followed for 14 days. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of ketamine and placebo on anxiety symptoms. Outcomes were blinded ratings on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and self-reported anxiety on a visual analog scale (VAS-Anxiety). We also used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the proportion of treatment responders. Based on prior studies, we defined response as a greater than 35% LSAS reduction and 50% VAS-Anxiety reduction. We found ketamine resulted in a significantly greater reduction in anxiety relative to placebo on the LSAS (Time*Treatment: F9,115=2.6, p=0.01) but not the VAS-Anxiety (Time*Treatment: F10,141=0.4, p=0.95). Participants were significantly more likely to exhibit a treatment response after ketamine infusion relative to placebo in the first two weeks following infusion measured on the LSAS (33.33% response ketamine vs 0% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.24, p=0.025) and VAS (88.89% response ketamine vs 52.94% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.12, p=0.034). In conclusion, this proof-of-concept trial provides initial evidence that ketamine may be effective in reducing anxiety. Identifier: NCT02083926Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 August 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.194.

Safety and activity of IT-139, a ruthenium-based compound, in patients with advanced solid tumours: a first-in-human, open-label, dose-escalation phase I study with expansion cohort.

This phase I clinical study (NCT01415297) evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IT-139 (formerly NKP-1339) monotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumours. IT-139, sodium trans-(tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)), is a novel small molecule that suppresses the stress induction of GRP78 in tumour cells. GRP78 is a key regulator of misfolded protein processing, and its upregulation in tumours is associated with intrinsic and drug-induced resistance.

A budget impact analysis of parenteral iron treatments for iron deficiency anemia in the UK: reduced resource utilization with iron isomaltoside 1000.

The reported prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) varies widely but estimates suggest that 3% of men and 8% of women have IDA in the UK. Parenteral iron is indicated for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron or requiring rapid iron replenishment. This study evaluated differences in the cost of treating these patients with iron isomaltoside (Monofer(®), IIM) relative to other intravenous iron formulations.

The safety and pharmacokinetics of high dose intravenous ascorbic acid synergy with modulated electrohyperthermia in Chinese patients with stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer.

Ascorbic acid (AA) infusion and modulated electrohyperthermia (mEHT) are widely used by integrative cancer practitioners for many years. However, there are no safety and pharmacokinetics data in Chinese cancer patients. We carried out a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of those methods in patients with stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Blood ascorbic acid in the fasting state was obtained from 35 NSCLC patients; selecting from them 15 patients with stage III-IV entered the phase I study. They were randomized allocated into 3 groups, and received doses 1.0, 1.2, 1.5g/kg AA infusions. Participants in the first group received intravenous AA (IVAA) when mEHT was finished, in the second group IVAA was administered simultaneously with mEHT and in the third group IVAA was applied first, and followed with mEHT. Pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained when they received solely IVAA and when IVAA in combination with mEHT. The process was applied 3 times a week (every other day, weekend days off) for 4weeks. We found that fasting plasma AA levels were significantly correlated with stage of the disease. Peak concentration of AA was significantly higher in the simultaneous treatments than in other combinations with mEHT or in solely IVAA-managed groups. IVAA synergy with simultaneous mEHT is safe and the concomitant application significantly increases the plasma AA level for NSCLC patients.

Hemolysis related to intravenous immunoglobulins is dependent on the presence of anti-blood group A and B antibodies and individual susceptibility.

Patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) rarely experience symptomatic hemolysis. Although anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins from the product are involved in most cases, the actual mechanisms triggering hemolysis are unclear.

Regional anesthesia and analgesia after surgery in ICU.

The aim is to demonstrate that ICU physicians should play a pivotal role in developing regional anesthesia techniques that are underused in critically ill patients despite the proven facts in perioperative and long-term pain, organ dysfunction, and postsurgery patient health-related quality of life improvement.

GTS-21 reduces microvascular permeability during experimental endotoxemia.

No effective pharmacological therapy is currently available to attenuate tissue edema formation due to increased microvascular permeability in sepsis. Cholinergic mediators have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) during inflammation. GTS-21, a partial α7nAChR agonist, is an appealing therapeutic substance for sepsis-induced microvascular inflammation due to its demonstrated cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties and its favorable safety profile in clinical trials. This study evaluated the effect of GTS-21 on microvascular permeability and leukocyte adhesion during experimental endotoxemia.