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infusions, intravenous - Top 30 Publications

Reactions related to asparaginase infusion in a 10-year retrospective cohort.

Although it is an essential component of the treatment of acute lymphoid leukemia in children, asparaginase causes adverse reactions that sometimes make it impossible to use it fully. Hypersensitivity reactions are the most frequent and may lead to early discontinuation of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate suspicions of adverse reactions during the infusion of asparaginase in a pediatric cohort.

Denosumab Therapy for Refractory Hypercalcemia Secondary to Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Skin in Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Hypercalcemia secondary to malignancy is rare in children and the majority is caused by tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). We report a case of hypercalcemia refractory to bisphosphonate and corticosteroid therapy, but responsive to denosumab. A 17-year-old boy with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left leg was referred with severe hypercalcemia (serum calcium, 4.2 mmol/L). The serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 0.7 pmol/L (1.1 - 6.9 pmol/L). The hypercalcemia was initially managed with hyperhydration, prednisolone and pamidronate. Following two infusions of pamidronate (1 mg/kg/dose), serum calcium fell to 2.87 mmol/L. However the hypercalcemia relapsed within a week (serum calcium, 3.61 mmol/L) needing aggressive management with intravenous fluids, prednisolone and two further doses of pamidronate. The serum calcium fell to 2.58 mmol/L over the first 4 days, but rose to 3.39 mmol/L 3 days later. As the hypercalcemia was refractory to bisphosphonate treatment, a trial dose of subcutaneous denosumab (60 mg) was administered following which the calcium fell to 2.86 mmol/L within 24 h and normocalcemia was sustained 4 days later. We report a case of refractory hypercalcemia secondary to malignant SCC, which responded well to denosumab therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of hypercalcemia of malignancy in an adolescent managed with denosumab.

A phase 1/2 study of rigosertib in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS progressed to acute myeloid leukemia.

This Phase 1/2, dose-escalating study of rigosertib enrolled 22 patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (n=9) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=13) who had relapsed or were refractory to standard therapy and for whom no second-line therapies were approved. Patients received 3- to 7-day continuous intravenous infusions of rigosertib, an inhibitor of Ras-effector pathways that interacts with the Ras-binding domains, common to several signaling proteins including Raf and PI3 kinase. Rigosertib was administered at doses of 650-1700mg/m(2)/day in 14-day cycles. Initial dose escalation followed a Fibonacci scheme, followed by recommended phase 2 dose confirmation in an expanded cohort. Rigosertib was well tolerated for up to 23 cycles, with no treatment-related deaths and 18% of patients with related serious adverse events (AEs). Common AEs were fatigue, diarrhea, pyrexia, dyspnea, insomnia, and anemia. Rigosertib exhibited biologic activity, with reduction or stabilization of bone marrow blasts and improved peripheral blood counts in a subset of patients. Ten of 19 evaluable patients (53%) demonstrated bone marrow/peripheral blood responses (n=4 MDS, n=1 AML) or stable disease (n=3 MDS, n=2 AML). Median survival was 15.7 and 2.0 months for responders and non-responders, respectively. Additional studies of rigosertib are ongoing in higher-risk MDS (NCT00854646).

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunological activities of multiple intravenous or subcutaneous doses of an anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, VRC01, administered to HIV-uninfected adults: Results of a phase 1 randomized trial.

VRC01 is an HIV-1 CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) that is active against a broad range of HIV-1 primary isolates in vitro and protects against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) when delivered parenterally to nonhuman primates. It has been shown to be safe and well tolerated after short-term administration in humans; however, its clinical and functional activity after longer-term administration has not been previously assessed.

Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Iron Deficiency: CLEVER Trial Study Design and Protocol.

HbA1c is the gold standard for glycemic control in pre-diabetes and diabetes. However, its validity has been questioned, especially in the presence of imbalanced iron homeostasis. The CLEVER trial aims to evaluate the relationship between iron deficiency and HbA1c (a biomarker for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of type 2 diabetes) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

Exogenous ghrelin administration increases alcohol self-administration and modulates brain functional activity in heavy-drinking alcohol-dependent individuals.

Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals. A 10-min loading dose of intravenous ghrelin/placebo (3 mcg kg(-1)) followed by a continuous ghrelin/placebo infusion (16.9 ng/kg/min) was administered. During a progressive-ratio alcohol self-administration experiment, participants could press a button to receive intravenous alcohol using the Computerized Alcohol Infusion System. In another experiment, brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed a task to gain points for alcohol, food or no reward. Results showed that intravenous ghrelin, compared to placebo, significantly increased the number of alcohol infusions self-administered (percent change: 24.97±10.65, P=0.04, Cohen's d=0.74). Participants were also significantly faster to initiate alcohol self-administration when they received ghrelin, compared to placebo (P=0.03). The relationships between breath alcohol concentration and subjective effects of alcohol were also moderated by ghrelin administration. Neuroimaging data showed that ghrelin increased the alcohol-related signal in the amygdala (P=0.01) and modulated the food-related signal in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (P=0.01) and nucleus accumbens (P=0.08). These data indicate that ghrelin signaling affects alcohol seeking in humans and should be further investigated as a promising target for developing novel medications for alcohol use disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 November 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.226.

GRIK1 and GABRA2 Variants Have Distinct Effects on the Dose-Related Subjective Response to Intravenous Alcohol in Healthy Social Drinkers.

The heritable risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is expressed partly through alterations in subjective alcohol response. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 AUD-risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, GABRA2 rs279858 and GRIK1 rs2832407, on the subjective response to alcohol administered intravenously to healthy social drinkers in a laboratory setting.

The efficacy of HI-6 DMS in a sustained infusion against percutaneous VX poisoning in the guinea-pig.

Post-exposure nerve agent treatment usually includes administration of an oxime, which acts to restore function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). For immediate treatment of military personnel, this is usually administered with an autoinjector device, or devices containing the oxime such as pralidoxime, atropine and diazepam. In addition to the autoinjector, it is likely that personnel exposed to nerve agents, particularly by the percutaneous route, will require further treatment at medical facilities. As such, there is a need to understand the relationship between dose rate, plasma concentration, reactivation of AChE activity and efficacy, to provide supporting evidence for oxime infusions in nerve agent poisoning. Here, it has been demonstrated that intravenous infusion of HI-6, in combination with atropine, is efficacious against a percutaneous VX challenge in the conscious male Dunkin-Hartley guinea-pig. Inclusion of HI-6, in addition to atropine in the treatment, improved survival when compared to atropine alone. Additionally, erythrocyte AChE activity following poisoning was found to be dose dependent, with an increased dose rate of HI-6 (0.48mg/kg/min) resulting in increased AChE activity. As far as we are aware, this is the first study to correlate the pharmacokinetic profile of HI-6 with both its pharmacodynamic action of reactivating nerve agent inhibited AChE and with its efficacy against a persistent nerve agent exposure challenge in the same conscious animal.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and autologous CD133-positive stem-cell therapy in liver cirrhosis (REALISTIC): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 2 trial.

Results of small-scale studies have suggested that stem-cell therapy is safe and effective in patients with liver cirrhosis, but no adequately powered randomised controlled trials have been done. We assessed the safety and efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and haemopoietic stem-cell infusions in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Protocol of a dose response trial of IV immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (DRIP study).

High peak levels of serum IgG may not be needed for maintenance treatment of CIDP with IVIg. More frequent dosing of IVIg leads to more stable IgG levels and higher trough levels which may be related with improved clinical efficacy. More frequent lower dosing leads to lower peak levels and may induce less systemic side-effects. The DRIP study is a double-blind randomized controlled cross-over intervention study. CIDP patients ≥ 18 years old, proven IVIg dependent and receiving an individually established but stable maintenance dose and interval of IVIg (Kiovig) can be included. One group (A) will be treated with their normal dosage and interval of IVIg and receive a placebo (albumin 0.5%) infusion in between their regular IVIg infusions, for a total of 4 infusions. The other group (B) will be treated with half their normal IVIg dosage (with the same volume of placebo to maintain the total volume) at half their interval (double their frequency) for 4 infusions. After a wash-out phase (2 infusions), patients will cross-over to the other treatment group. During the study the total dose of IVIg administered will remain unchanged as before start of the trial. The main objective is to investigate whether high frequent low dosage IVIg treatment is more effective than low frequent high dosage IVIg treatment as maintenance treatment for CIDP. Hand grip strength, as measured by the Martin Vigorimeter, will be used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary objective is to investigate whether high frequent low dosage of IVIg results in less adverse events compared to low frequent high dosage treatment. The DRIP study is currently ongoing and the protocol is presented.

Oral fexinidazole for late-stage African Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis: a pivotal multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

Few therapeutic options are available to treat the late-stage of human African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (g-HAT). The firstline treatment is a combination therapy of oral nifurtimox and intravenous eflornithine that needs to be administered in a hospital setting by trained personnel, which is not optimal given that patients often live in remote areas with few health resources. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of an oral regimen of fexinidazole (a 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazole with proven trypanocidal activity) versus nifurtimox eflornithine combination therapy in patients with late-stage g-HAT.

DCK expression, a potential predictive biomarker in the adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy for biliary tract cancer after surgical resection: results from a phase II study.

The role of adjuvant therapy following resection of biliary tract cancer (BTC) remains unclear. We therefore evaluated the feasibility and toxicity of adjuvant gemcitabine in patients with BTC. This clinical phase II trial was an open-label, single center, single-arm study. Within 8 weeks after gross complete resection of BTC, patients were started on intravenous infusions of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) over 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle. Intratumoral expression of cytidine deaminase (CDA), human equilibrative transporter-1 (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit 1 (RRM1) was measured by immunohistochemistry. This study enrolled 72 patients with BTC (26 with gallbladder cancer, 33 with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 13 with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). The 2-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 43% (95% CI, 33-57%). Multivariable analysis showed that DCK expression, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with RFS. Twenty-one (31.8%) were positive for DCK immunoreactivity. The median RFS was 34.95 months for DCK-positive patients, compared with 11.41 months for DCK-negative patients. Although the primary hypothesis of this study, defined as a 2-year RFS of 60%, was not met, intratumoral DCK expression was significantly associated with RFS in patients with resected BTC treated with postoperative gemcitabine chemotherapy. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted.

Evaluation of the Predictive Validity of Thermography in Identifying Extravasation With Intravenous Chemotherapy Infusions.

Early detection of extravasation is important, but conventional methods of detection lack objectivity and reliability. This study evaluated the predictive validity of thermography for identifying extravasation during intravenous antineoplastic therapy. Of 257 patients who received chemotherapy through peripheral veins, extravasation was identified in 26. Thermography was performed every 15 to 30 minutes during the infusions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using thermography were 84.6%, 94.8%, 64.7%, and 98.2%, respectively. This study showed that thermography offers an accurate prediction of extravasation.

Evaluation of NovoRapid infusion as a treatment option in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

This study evaluates the clinical efficacy and safety of NovoRapid (insulin aspart) compared to Actrapid™ (human neutral insulin) for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In this retrospective study involving 40 patients, no statistically significant differences were observed between biochemical variables, infusion duration or complications in patients treated with insulin aspart or human neutral insulin. These results support the use of insulin aspart as an effective and safe alternative to human neutral insulin in DKA.

Optimization of IL13Rα2-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy against Glioblastoma.

T cell immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful strategy to treat cancer and may improve outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We have developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy targeting IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2) for the treatment of GBM. Here, we describe the optimization of IL13Rα2-targeted CAR T cells, including the design of a 4-1BB (CD137) co-stimulatory CAR (IL13BBζ) and a manufacturing platform using enriched central memory T cells. Utilizing orthotopic human GBM models with patient-derived tumor sphere lines in NSG mice, we found that IL13BBζ-CAR T cells improved anti-tumor activity and T cell persistence as compared to first-generation IL13ζ-CAR CD8(+) T cells that had shown evidence for bioactivity in patients. Investigating the impact of corticosteroids, given their frequent use in the clinical management of GBM, we demonstrate that low-dose dexamethasone does not diminish CAR T cell anti-tumor activity in vivo. Furthermore, we found that local intracranial delivery of CAR T cells elicits superior anti-tumor efficacy as compared to intravenous administration, with intraventricular infusions exhibiting possible benefit over intracranial tumor infusions in a multifocal disease model. Overall, these findings help define parameters for the clinical translation of CAR T cell therapy for the treatment of brain tumors.

Evaluation of pharmacokinetic models of intravenous dexmedetomidine in sedated patients under spinal anesthesia.

Little information is available on the predictive ability of previously published pharmacokinetic models of dexmedetomidine in patients under spinal anesthesia. We evaluated nine published pharmacokinetic models that were constructed in different study settings.

Single-Dose Gene-Replacement Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is a progressive, monogenic motor neuron disease with an onset during infancy that results in failure to achieve motor milestones and in death or the need for mechanical ventilation by 2 years of age. We studied functional replacement of the mutated gene encoding survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) in this disease.

Persistent severe hypomagnesemia caused by proton pump inhibitor resolved after laparoscopic fundoplication.

Magnesium deficiency can cause a variety of symptoms, including potentially life-threatening complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and secondary electrolyte disturbances. Hypomagnesemia can be a serious adverse effect to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, which is worrying due to the widespread use of PPIs. Current evidence suggest that the mechanism of PPI induced hypomagnesemia is impaired intestinal magnesium absorption. In this report, we present the case of a long-term PPI user with persistent hypomagnesemia with severe symptoms at presentation. He was unable to stop PPI treatment because of severe reflux symptoms, and was dependent on weekly intravenous magnesium infusions, until his magnesium levels finally normalized without the need for supplementation after a successful laparoscopic fundoplication.

Cutaneous manifestations of phosphate solution extravasation.

Extravasation injuries are common in patients receiving multiple intravenous infusions. Although such injuries are closely associated with the infusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy, they have also been been associated with extravasation of noncytotoxic drugs. Extravasation injuries can lead to skin ulceration and nerve and tendon damage, and therefore to permanent disability. We report three cases of phosphate solution extravasation leading to unusual cutaneous manifestations.

Inpatient infliximab is ineffective at preventing colectomy for steroid refractory extensive colitis.

Despite data suggesting safety and efficacy in ulcerative colitis patients treated with inpatient infliximab, prior studies did not focus on patients with extensive colitis, the group at highest risk for requiring surgery.

Gene therapy for hemophilia.

Individuals with the inherited bleeding disorder hemophilia have achieved tremendous advances in clinical outcomes through widespread implementation of prophylactic replacement with safe and efficacious factor VIII and IX. However, despite this therapeutic approach, bleeds still occur, some with serious consequence, joint disease has not been eradicated, and patients have not yet been liberated from the need for regular intravenous infusions. The shift from protein replacement to gene replacement is offering great hope to achieve durable levels of plasma factor activity levels high enough to remove the risk for recurrent joint bleeding. For the first time, clinical trial results are showing promise for "curative" correction of the bleeding phenotype.

Cardiac Cell Therapy Evolving From Complex to Straightforward: Enabling Adoption and Affordability.

Belatacept in kidney transplantation - past and future perspectives.

Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are used widely for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients. However, their side effect profile has led researchers to attempt to find safer alternatives that can maintain effective long-term immunosuppression with less toxicity. Belatacept is a CTLA4-Ig molecule designed to block the costimulatory B7-CD28 signal needed for activation of effector T cells. While it has shown great promise in clinical trials, it has made halting progress towards replacing CNIs in actual clinical practice. The BENEFIT trial revealed some of the advantages of belatacept in terms of maintaining renal function after transplant and reducing some of the metabolic side effects of CNIs related to hypertension and dyslipidemia. Despite that, some cautionary signals have emerged as well, in that belatacept-treated patients experience higher acute rejection rates and greater risk for PTLD. Furthermore, the requirement for monthly intravenous infusions has presented logistical and cost challenges for widespread adoption.

Hypophosphatemia, severe bone pain, gait disturbance and fatigue fractures after iron substitution in inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

Intravenous infusions of different iron formulations are recognized as a cause of hypophosphatemia. Chronic hypophosphatemia can alter bone metabolism and bone material structure. As a consequence, osteomalacia may develop and lead to bone fragility. Herein, we report a patient with Crohn's disease presenting with persistent hypophosphatemia and insufficiency fractures while receiving regular iron infusions due to chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. Previously, the patient received regularly vitamin D and also zoledronic acid. The patient underwent bone biopsy of the iliac crest that showed typical signs of osteomalacia with dramatically increased osteoid volume and decreased bone formation. Analysis of the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) revealed a more complex picture: on the one hand, there was a shift to higher matrix mineralization presumably due to low bone turnover; on the other hand, a broadening of the BMDD indicating more heterogeneous mineralization due to osteomalacia was also evident. This is the first report on changes of bone histomorphometry and bone matrix mineralization in iron-induced osteomalacia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Multiple-dose ponezumab for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease: Safety and efficacy.

Multiple intravenous doses of ponezumab, an anti-amyloid antibody, were evaluated in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The effect of nicotine pre-exposure on demand for cocaine and sucrose in male rats.

The aim of the present study was to determine how nicotine pre-exposure affects the elasticity of demand for intravenous cocaine and for sucrose pellets in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, demand for cocaine was assessed in rats that had nicotine in their drinking water. Nicotine pre-exposure significantly decreased rats' willingness to defend cocaine consumption as the price (measured as the number of responses per cocaine infusion) increased compared with a control group with no nicotine pre-exposure. That is, nicotine increased the elasticity of demand for cocaine infusions. Experiment 2 repeated the first experiment, but with rats working for sucrose pellets instead of cocaine. Nicotine pre-exposure had no effect on the elasticity of demand for sucrose. This pattern of results suggests that nicotine pre-exposure can reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine, but not sucrose, in adult male rats.

Management of infusion related reactions associated with alemtuzumab in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Infusion-associated reactions (IARs) occur in >90% patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with alemtuzumab. We aimed to study the frequency of IARs at 2 sites using 5 days of steroids (1g/day of IV methylprednisolone), but otherwise distinct protocols.

Intravenous Zanamivir in Hospitalized Patients With Influenza.

Children with severe influenza infection may require parenteral therapy if oral or inhaled therapies are ineffective or cannot be administered. Results from a study investigating intravenous (IV) zanamivir for the treatment of hospitalized infants and children with influenza are presented.

Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate.

Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear. Here we systematically examine the fluxes of circulating metabolites in mice, and find that lactate can be a primary source of carbon for the TCA cycle and thus of energy. Intravenous infusions of (13)C-labelled nutrients reveal that, on a molar basis, the circulatory turnover flux of lactate is the highest of all metabolites and exceeds that of glucose by 1.1-fold in fed mice and 2.5-fold in fasting mice; lactate is made primarily from glucose but also from other sources. In both fed and fasted mice, (13)C-lactate extensively labels TCA cycle intermediates in all tissues. Quantitative analysis reveals that during the fasted state, the contribution of glucose to tissue TCA metabolism is primarily indirect (via circulating lactate) in all tissues except the brain. In genetically engineered lung and pancreatic cancer tumours in fasted mice, the contribution of circulating lactate to TCA cycle intermediates exceeds that of glucose, with glutamine making a larger contribution than lactate in pancreatic cancer. Thus, glycolysis and the TCA cycle are uncoupled at the level of lactate, which is a primary circulating TCA substrate in most tissues and tumours.

Use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute decompensated heart failure: a case report.

Refractory heart failure typically requires costly long-term, continuous intravenous inodilator infusions while patients await mechanical circulatory support or cardiac transplantation. The combined angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, is a novel therapy that can increase levels of endogenous vasoactive peptides. This therapy has been recommended as an alternative agent in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association class II-III symptoms. Here, we report a case of a patient with refractory stage D heart failure with reduced ejection fraction who was successfully weaned off continuous intravenous inodilator support using sacubitril/valsartan after prior failed attempts using standard therapies.