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intracranial hemorrhages - Top 30 Publications

Dual-energy bone removal computed tomography (BRCT): preliminary report of efficacy of acute intracranial hemorrhage detection.

One of the major applications of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is automated bone removal (BR). We hypothesized that the visualization of acute intracranial hemorrhage could be improved on BRCT by removing bone as it has the highest density tissue in the head. This preliminary study evaluated the efficacy of a DE BR algorithm for the head CT of trauma patients.

Terson Syndrome Associated With Acute Macular Neuropathy Type 2.

Terson syndrome is defined as the incidence of intraocular hemorrhage in patients following a subarachnoid or intracranial bleed. A 38-year-old female with both intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages secondary to Terson syndrome underwent repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. One month following resolution of the macular hemorrhages, a paracentral scotoma persisted. Multimodal imaging (morphological and functional) confirmed the presence of acute macular neuroretinopathy Type 2 associated with deep retinal capillary ischemia. Optical coherence tomography angiography illustrated the selective involvement of the deep retinal capillary plexus. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:764-767.].

Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin Sodium in the Ultra-Early Period After Atrial Fibrillation-Related Mild Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

In atrial fibrillation (AF)-related acute ischemic stroke, the optimal oral anticoagulation strategy remains unclear.

Stereotactic radiosurgery for Spetzler-Martin Grade IV and V arteriovenous malformations: an international multicenter study.

OBJECTIVE Due to the complexity of Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grade IV-V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the management of these lesions remains controversial. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the outcomes after single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for SM Grade IV-V AVMs and determine predictive factors. METHODS The authors retrospectively pooled data from 233 patients (mean age 33 years) with SM Grade IV (94.4%) or V AVMs (5.6%) treated with single-session SRS at 8 participating centers in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Pre-SRS embolization was performed in 71 AVMs (30.5%). The mean nidus volume, SRS margin dose, and follow-up duration were 9.7 cm(3), 17.3 Gy, and 84.5 months, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with post-SRS outcomes. RESULTS At a mean follow-up interval of 84.5 months, favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RIC) and was achieved in 26.2% of patients. The actuarial obliteration rates at 3, 7, 10, and 12 years were 15%, 34%, 37%, and 42%, respectively. The annual post-SRS hemorrhage rate was 3.0%. Symptomatic and permanent RIC occurred in 10.7% and 4% of the patients, respectively. Only larger AVM diameter (p = 0.04) was found to be an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of favorable outcome was significantly lower for unruptured SM Grade IV-V AVMs compared with ruptured ones (p = 0.042). Prior embolization was a negative independent predictor of AVM obliteration (p = 0.024) and radiologically evident RIC (p = 0.05) in the respective multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS In this multi-institutional study, single-session SRS had limited efficacy in the management of SM Grade IV-V AVMs. Favorable outcome was only achieved in a minority of unruptured SM Grade IV-V AVMs, which supports less frequent utilization of SRS for the management of these lesions. A volume-staged SRS approach for large AVMs represents an alternative approach for high-grade AVMs, but it requires further investigation.

Intracranial hemorrhage and oral anticoagulants of patients treated between 2011 and 2013 at the Nancy Regional University Hospital.

To perform a descriptive analysis of intracranial hemorrhages of patients treated with an antivitamin K (fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) or a direct oral anticoagulant (dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban) at the Nancy Regional University Hospital.

Frontal lobe syndrome associated with intracranial hemorrhages.

A Case Series of 18 Patients Receiving Ticagrelor After Carotid Stenting.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist is often used to prevent thrombotic complications after endovascular stent placement. Most of the published experience surrounding DAPT after carotid stenting is with clopidogrel. Ticagrelor may be a promising alternative, especially in patients who may be considered nonresponders to clopidogrel. However, clinical outcomes utilizing DAPT with ticagrelor in a cohort with carotid stenting is lacking. In this case series, we describe our experience with systematic prescribing of ticagrelor after carotid stent placement in 18 patients.

The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic subdural haematoma.

Tumor cerebri: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma with dural venous sinus compression leading to intracranial hypertension; a case report.

Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is a condition associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of radiographic findings such as mass lesions or cerebral edema.

In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Safety and Efficacy of Noncompliant Balloon Angioplasty for the Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm: A Multicenter Study".

Letter to the Editor Regarding "Safety and Efficacy of Noncompliant Balloon Angioplasty for the Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm: A Multicenter Study".

In Reply to "Intraocular Silicone Oil Migration into the Ventricles Resembling Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Case Report and Review of the Literature".

Comparison of the CHA2DS2-VASc, CHADS2, HAS-BLED, ORBIT, and ATRIA Risk Scores in Predicting Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants-Associated Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

The increasing adoption of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitates a reassessment of bleeding risk scores. Because known risk factors for bleeding are largely the same as for stroke, we hypothesize that stroke risk scores could also be used to identify patients with high bleeding risks. We aimed to compare the performance of 2 stroke risk scores (Congestive Heart failure, hypertension, Age ≥75 [doubled], Diabetes, Stroke [doubled], Vascular disease, Age 65-74, and Sex [female] [CHA2DS2-VASc] and Cardiac failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke [Doubled] [CHADS2]) and 3 bleeding risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function [1 point each], stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly [.65 years], drugs/alcohol concomitantly [1 point each] [HAS-BLED], Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation [ORBIT], and AnTicoagulation and Risk factors In Atrial fibrillation [ATRIA]) in predicting major and intracranial bleeding. Using a large US commercial insurance database, we identified 39,539 patients with nonvalvular AF who started NOACs between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2015. The performance of risk scores was compared using C-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Over a total of 22,583 person-years, 665 patients (2.94% per year) had major bleeding, including 74 intracranial hemorrhages (0.33% per year). For the prediction of major bleeding, CHA2DS2-VASc had the highest C-statistic both as a continuous score (C-statistic 0.68) and as a categorical score (C-statistic 0.65). For the prediction of intracranial bleeding, CHADS2 had the highest C-statistic both as a continuous score (C-statistic 0.66) and as a categorical score (C-statistic 0.66). There were no statistically significant differences between scores based on NRI. In conclusion, CHA2DS2-VASc, CHADS2, HAS-BLED, ORBIT, and ATRIA had similar, albeit modest, performance in predicting NOAC-associated bleeding in patients with AF. Careful assessment and active management of bleeding risk factors may be warranted in all patients on NOACs who have high stroke risk scores.

Management of Factor Xa inhibitor-associated life-threatening major hemorrhage: A retrospective multi-center analysis.

Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism treatment and prevention, are the dominant non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants on the market. While major bleeding may be less common with these agents compared to warfarin, it is always a risk, and little has been published on the most serious bleeding scenarios. This study describes a cohort of patients with FXa inhibitor-associated life-threatening bleeding events, their clinical characteristics, interventions and outcomes.

The natural history and outcomes of line-associated upper extremity deep venous thromboses in critically ill patients.

Anticoagulation remains the standard of care for line-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). This treatment carries the risk of hemorrhagic complications, possibly more so in surgical patients. Considering the low-risk profile of UEDVT-which is associated with fewer, less severe pulmonary emboli than lower extremity deep venous thrombosis-current UEDVT treatment guidelines may be overly aggressive. The goal of this study was to review outcomes of line-associated UEDVT in critically ill patients and to define the efficacy of current treatment protocols in pulmonary embolism (PE) prevention while avoiding hemorrhagic complications.

Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by transverse sinus thrombosis: A case report and review of literature.

Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH. The underlying venous pathology such as straight sinus stenosis, jugular vein occlusion may contribute to PNSAH. We describe a patient in whom transverse sinus thrombosis preceded intracranial venous hypertension and PNSAH. These findings supported that the source of the subarachnoid hemorrhage is venous in origin.

Direct oral anticoagulant- vs vitamin K antagonist-related nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

To compare the neuroimaging profile and clinical outcomes among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

The Severity of Intracranial Hemorrhages Measured by Free Hemoglobin in the Brain Depends on the Anticoagulant Class: Experimental Data.

Background and Purpose. Anticoagulant therapy is broadly used to prevent thromboembolic events. Intracranial hemorrhages are serious complications of anticoagulation, especially with warfarin. Direct oral anticoagulants reduce but do not eliminate the risk of intracranial hemorrhages. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of intracranial hemorrhage after application of anticoagulants without additional triggers. Methods. Rats were treated with different anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, heparin, direct thrombin inhibitor, and factor Xa inhibitor). Brain hemorrhages were assessed by the free hemoglobin concentration in the brain parenchyma. Results. Vitamin K antagonists (warfarin and brodifacoum) significantly increased free hemoglobin in the brain. Among direct oral anticoagulants, thrombin inhibitor dabigatran also significantly increased free hemoglobin in the brain, whereas treatment with factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban did not have significant effect on the free hemoglobin concentration. Conclusions. Our data indicates that the severity of brain hemorrhages depends on the anticoagulant class and it is more pronounced with vitamin K antagonists.

Acute Management of Hemostasis in Patients With Neurological Injury.

Neurological injuries can be divided into those with traumatic and nontraumatic causes. The largest groups are traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic stroke. TBI patients may present with intracranial hemorrhages (contusions, or subdural or epidural hematomas). Strokes are ischemic or hemorrhagic. In all these disorders, thrombosis and hemostasis play a major role. Treatment aims to either cease bleeding and/or restore perfusion. We reviewed hemostatic and thrombolytic therapies in patients with neurological injuries by MEDLINE and EMBASE search using various key words for neurological disorders and hemostatic therapies restricted to English language and human adults. Review of articles fulfilling inclusion criteria and relevant references revealed that, in patients with ischemic stroke, intravenous thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5-5 hours after onset of symptoms improves clinical outcome. In contrast, there are no hemostatic therapies that are proven to improve clinical outcome of patients with hemorrhagic stroke or TBI. In patients with hemorrhagic stroke who use vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulants, there is evidence that specific reversal therapies improve hemostatic laboratory parameters but without an effect on clinical recovery. In patients with hemorrhagic stroke or TBI who use concomitant antiplatelet therapy, there is evidence for harm of platelet transfusion. In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, tranexamic acid was shown to reduce rebleeding rate without improving clinical outcome. The effects of tranexamic acid in patients with TBI are still under investigation. We conclude that, in patients with ischemic stroke, thrombolytic therapy improves outcome when given within 4.5-5 hours. In hemorrhagic stroke and TBI, most hemostatic therapies improved or corrected laboratory parameters but not clinical outcome. Currently, in several trials, the effects of tranexamic acid are being studied of which the results are eagerly awaited. Because improving clinical outcome should be the goal of new therapies, we encourage to use clinical outcome scales as the primary outcome measure in trials that investigate effects of hemostatic therapies in patients with neurological injury.

Sex-specific stroke incidence over time in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study.

Recent data suggest stroke incidence is decreasing over time, but it is unknown whether incidence is decreasing in women and men to the same extent.

Validating and comparing stroke prognosis scales.

To compare the prognostic accuracy of various acute stroke prognostic scales using a large, independent, clinical trials dataset.

External ventricular drain causes brain tissue damage: an imaging study.

An external ventricular drain (EVD) is used to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) and to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence. We investigated the mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion and their clinical significance in acute brain-injured patients, with a special focus on hemorrhagic lesions.

The Australian Snakebite Project, 2005-2015 (ASP-20).

To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia.

Magnesium, hemostasis, and outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

We tested the hypothesis that admission serum magnesium levels are associated with hematoma volume, hematoma growth, and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Brain hemorrhage recurrence, small vessel disease type, and cerebral microbleeds: A meta-analysis.

We evaluated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ICH survivors, stratified by the presence, distribution, and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI (i.e., the presumed causal underlying small vessel disease and its severity).

Influence of Renal Impairment on Outcome for Thrombolysis-Treated Acute Ischemic Stroke: ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study) Post Hoc Analysis.

Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with poor prognosis after stroke. We assessed the effects of RD on outcomes and interaction with low- versus standard-dose alteplase in a post hoc subgroup analysis of the ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study).

Real-Time Cineangiography Visualization of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture in an Awake Patient: Anatomic, Physiological, and Functional Correlates.

Intracranial aneurysms are common and, on a population-based perspective, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality as a result of mass effect or rupture. Cerebral angiography is the primary technique used for the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, and the imaging data have additional utility for planning medical, endovascular, or surgical treatments. An extremely rare periprocedural complication of cerebral angiography is rupture of the aneurysm, either as a chance phenomenon or as a result of some physiologic change or mechanical effect. We report on a single awake, alert patient who experienced intraprocedural aneurysm rupture that was recorded in real time during diagnostic cerebral angiography and subsequently proved fatal. Rupture occurred shortly after the completion of contrast material injection into a semi-open vascular bed and appeared to be temporally unrelated to any supranormal change in systemic physiology. No therapeutic endovascular procedure was planned or attempted. From the high-quality sequential, frame-by-frame images, and electronic sedation and anesthesiology records, plus our own real-time observations (G.L., W.L.L.), we were able (for educational purposes) to reconstruct the time course of rupture of the aneurysm, the velocity and pattern of blood escaping the aneurysm and entering the subarachnoid space, and other physiologic and functional correlates (blood pressure changes, alterations in consciousness) that may be critical to our understanding of the mechanism and consequences of aneurysm rupture.

Surgery for Cerebellar Hemorrhage - a NSQIP-Database Analysis of Patient Outcomes and Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality and Prolonged Ventilation.

Primary cerebellar hemorrhage accounts for 10% of all intracranial hemorrhages. Given the confined space of the posterior fossa, cerebellar hemorrhage management sometimes necessitates suboccipital decompression and hematoma evacuation. In this study, we examine outcomes following surgery for primary cerebellar hemorrhage, and identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes.

In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Acute Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Acupuncture: Case Report and Literature Review".

Letter to the Editor Regarding "Acute Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Acupuncture: Case Report and Literature Review".