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magnetic resonance imaging - Top 30 Publications

Multiple Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD271+ Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Overcomes Drug-Resistant Epilepsy in Children.

There is a need among patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) for more efficient and less toxic treatments. The objective of the present study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in pediatric patients with DRE. Two females and two males (11 months to 6 years) were enrolled and underwent a combined therapy consisting of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) transplantation (intrathecal: 0.5 × 109 ; intravenous: 0.38 × 109 -1.72 × 109 ) followed by four rounds of intrathecal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) transplantation (18.5 × 106 -40 × 106 ) every 3 months. The BMMSCs used were a unique population derived from CD271-positive cells. The neurological evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography (EEG), and cognitive development assessment. The characteristics of BMMSCs were evaluated. Four intravenous and 20 intrathecal transplantations into the cerebrospinal fluid were performed. There were no adverse events, and the therapy was safe and feasible over 2 years of follow-up. The therapy resulted in neurological and cognitive improvement in all patients, including a reduction in the number of epileptic seizures (from 10 per day to 1 per week) and an absence of status epilepticus episodes (from 4 per week to 0 per week). The number of discharges on the EEG evaluation was decreased, and cognitive improvement was noted with respect to reactions to light and sound, emotions, and motor function. An analysis of the BMMSCs' characteristics revealed the expression of neurotrophic, proangiogenic, and tissue remodeling factors, and the immunomodulatory potential. Our results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of BMNCs and BMMSCs transplantations and the considerable neurological and cognitive improvement in children with DRE. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

Magnetic resonance imaging of cardiovascular thrombi in children.

Cardiovascular thrombosis is rare in children and usually occurs in the presence of predisposing conditions, such as indwelling vascular catheters, tumors, aneurysms, ventricular dysfunction, or after surgery. Clots can occur in the cardiac chambers, arteries or veins, or inside conduits. Detection of thrombi is feasible with a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including unenhanced methods but also contrast-enhanced MR angiography. In this essay we illustrate the MRI appearance of cardiovascular thrombosis in children and suggest an imaging protocol based on our clinical experience.

Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation as cause of acute pancreatitis treated by endovascular access.

Arteriovenous malformation in the pancreas is a rare anatomic abnormality that may produce acute pancreatitis. The diagnosis was suspected by computed tomography with intravenous contrast and by magnetic resonance imaging and it was confirmed by arteriography of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery. The treatment received was endovascular, although the other valid option for the treatment of this disease is the surgical resection. The objective of this communication is to present a case of acute pancreatitis due to arteriovenous malformation treated by endovascular approach.

Task-based and resting-state fMRI reveal compensatory network changes following damage to left inferior frontal gyrus.

Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network. We examined neural activity while participants listened to spoken sentences that varied in their levels of lexical ambiguity and during rest. We found group differences in two regions thought to be good candidates for functional compensation: ventral anterior temporal lobe (vATL), which is strongly implicated in comprehension, and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which is hypothesized to work together with left inferior prefrontal cortex to support controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. The patients recruited both of these sites more than controls in response to meaningful sentences. Subsequent analysis identified that, in control participants, the recruitment of pMTG to ambiguous sentences was inversely related to functional coupling between pMTG and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) at rest, while the patients showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, stronger connectivity between pMTG and aSTG in patients was associated with better performance on a test of verbal semantic association, suggesting that this temporal lobe connection supports comprehension in the face of damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex. These results characterize network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits and converge with studies of healthy participants in providing evidence for a distributed system underpinning semantic control that includes pMTG in addition to left inferior prefrontal cortex.

Intensity ratio to improve black hole assessment in multiple sclerosis.

Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions.

Theranostic liposomes as a bimodal carrier for magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and photosensitizer.

The present study is focused on the development of liposomes bearing gadolinium chelate (GdLip) providing two functionalities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy of cancer. A lipid derivative of gadolinium(III) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid salt (GdDTPA1) was inserted in the liposomal membrane and served as MRI contrast agent whereas a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was used as a model photosensitizer. In addition to conventional liposomes, pegylated lipids were used for the preparation of "stealth" liposomes. The characterization of different GdLip formulations involved evaluation of the liposomes size by nanoparticle tracking analysis, thermal phase behavior by differential scanning calorimetry and ZnPc-mediated singlet oxygen production. Furthermore, relaxivity measurements were performed as well as cytotoxicity and photodynamic activity against cancerous and normal cell lines was studied. Size and thermal behavior were only slightly influenced by GdLip composition, however it distinctly affected singlet oxygen production of ZnPc-loaded GdLip. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation by zinc phthalocyanine incorporated in GdLip containing cationic or/and pegylated lipids were smaller than those obtained for non-pegylated carriers with l-α-phosphatidylglycerol. In general, all formulations of GdLip, irrespectively of composition, were characterized by relaxivities higher than those of commercially used contrast agents (e.g. Magnevist®). NMR study has shown that the incorporation of ZnPc into the formulations of GdLip increases the relaxation parameters r1 and r2, compared to the values for the non-loaded vesicles. GdDTPA1 did not influence the photodynamic activity of ZnPc against HeLa cells.

Differences In Trochlear Parameters Between Native And Prosthetic Kinematically Or Mechanically Aligned Knees.

Kinematic (KA) and mechanical (MA) alignment techniques are two different philosophies of implant positioning that use the same TKA implants. This might generate differences in the resulting prosthetic trochlea parameters between the two techniques of alignment. Our study aim was to test the following hypotheses: 1) Mechanically or kinematically aligned femoral implant understuffs the native trochlear articular surface and poorly restores the native groove orientation, and 2) The orientation of the prosthetic trochlear groove and trochlear fill are different between MA and KA.

A comparison of 4D flow MRI-derived wall shear stress with computational fluid dynamics methods for intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations - A review.

4D flow MRI is a relatively quick method for obtaining wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo, a hemodynamic parameter which has shown promise in risk stratification for rupture of cerebrovascular diseases such as intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerotic plaques. The accuracy of such measurements is still largely unknown.

Diagnostic Values of DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI for Differentiation Between High-grade and Low-grade Gliomas: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

This study aimed to collect the studies on the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and evaluate the diagnostic performances of relevant quantitative parameters in glioma grading.

Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Of The Medial Femoral Condyle Treated With Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy: A Clinical And MRI Retrospective Comparative Study.

To determine the validity of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of Bone Marrow Edema (BME) of the medial condyle of the knee DESIGN: Retrospective STUDY SETTING: IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Orthopedics Outpatient Clinic PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six symptomatic patients affected by bone marrow edema of the medial condyle of the knee. Patients were equally divided in a ESWT (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy) treated group and a control group, which was managed conservatively.

Neocortical origin and progression of gray matter atrophy in nonamnestic Alzheimer's disease.

Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls. For each phenotype, the frequency of atrophy in 116 brain regions was used to infer the anatomical origin of disease and its progression across 4 phases of atrophy. Results from the amnestic cohort were used to determine appropriate parameter settings for the phase assignment algorithm, based on correspondence to Braak pathology staging. Phase 1 regions, which represent the origin of disease, included the hippocampus for the amnestic group (comprising 33 scans); left lateral temporal lobe for logopenic-variant primary progressive aphasia (88 scans); occipitoparietal cortex for posterior cortical atrophy (51 scans); temporoparietal cortex for corticobasal syndrome (31 scans); and frontotemporal cortex for behavioral/dysexecutive variant AD (37 scans). In nonamnestic patients, atrophy spread to other neocortical areas in later phases, but the hippocampus exhibited only late-phase atrophy in posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome. Region-specific phase values were also associated with regional measures of tau, beta amyloid, neuronal loss, and gliosis for the subset of patients (n = 17) with neuropathology findings; this comparison represented a first validation of the phase assignment algorithm. We subsequently assigned a phase to each patient scan based on the similarity of regional atrophy patterns with atrophy predicted for the corresponding phenotype at each phase. Scan-specific phases were correlated with disease duration as well as global and domain-specific cognition, supporting these phase values as global estimates of patients' disease progression. Logistic regression models based on spatial overlap with model-predicted atrophy patterns reliably discriminated nonamnestic phenotypes from each other and from amnestic AD. The frequency-based phase assignment algorithm used in the present study thus represents a promising approach for studying the neocortical origin and spread of disease in nonamnestic AD.

Compressively sampled MR image reconstruction using generalized thresholding iterative algorithm.

Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging area of interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CS is used for the reconstruction of the images from a very limited number of samples in k-space. This significantly reduces the MRI data acquisition time. One important requirement for signal recovery in CS is the use of an appropriate non-linear reconstruction algorithm. It is a challenging task to choose a reconstruction algorithm that would accurately reconstruct the MR images from the under-sampled k-space data. Various algorithms have been used to solve the system of non-linear equations for better image quality and reconstruction speed in CS. In the recent past, iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA) has been introduced in CS-MRI. This algorithm directly cancels the incoherent artifacts produced because of the undersampling in k-space. This paper introduces an improved iterative algorithm based on p-thresholding technique for CS-MRI image reconstruction. The use of p-thresholding function promotes sparsity in the image which is a key factor for CS based image reconstruction. The p-thresholding based iterative algorithm is a modification of ISTA, and minimizes non-convex functions. It has been shown that the proposed p-thresholding iterative algorithm can be used effectively to recover fully sampled image from the under-sampled data in MRI. The performance of the proposed method is verified using simulated and actual MRI data taken at St. Mary's Hospital, London. The quality of the reconstructed images is measured in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), artifact power (AP), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). The proposed approach shows improved performance when compared to other iterative algorithms based on log thresholding, soft thresholding and hard thresholding techniques at different reduction factors.

Multi-modal imaging investigation of anterior cingulate cortex cytoarchitecture in neurodevelopment.

Multi-modal imaging may improve our understanding of the relationship between cortical morphology and cytoarchitecture. To this end we integrated the analyses of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) metrics within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Considering the ACCs role in neurodevelopmental disorders, we also investigated the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and the various metrics. T1 and diffusion-weighted MRI and 1H-MRS (ACC voxel) data along with phenotypic information were acquired from children (8-12 years) with various neurodevelopmental disorders (n=95) and healthy controls (n=50). From within the MRS voxel mean diffusivity (MD) of the grey matter fraction, intrinsic curvature (IC) of the surface and concentrations of creatine, choline, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol were extracted. Linear models were used to investigate if the neurochemicals predicted MD and IC or if MD predicted IC. Finally, measures of various symptom severities were included to determine the influence of symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders. All five neurochemicals inversely predicted MD (all puncorrected<0.04, β=0.23-0.36). There was no association between IC and MD or IC and the neurochemicals (all p>0.05). Severity of autism symptoms related positively to MD (puncorrected=0.002, β=0.39). Our findings support the notion that the neurochemicals relate to cytoarchitecture within the cortex. Additionally, we showed that autism symptoms across participants relate to the ACC cytoarchitecture.

Long-term pulmonary and cardiovascular morbidities of neonatal hyperoxia exposure in mice.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently occurs in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), causing increased mortality and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction that persists into adulthood. A first step in developing better therapeutic options is identifying and characterizing an appropriate animal model. Previously, we characterized the short-term morbidities of a model in which C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to 70% O2 (hyperoxia) during the neonatal period. Here, we aimed to determine the long-term morbidities using lung morphometry, echocardiography (Echo), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). The major highlight of this study is the use of the state-of-the art imaging technique, cMRI, in mice to characterize the long-term cardiac effects of neonatal hyperoxia exposure. To this end, WT mice were exposed to 21% O2 (normoxia) or hyperoxia for two weeks of life, followed by recovery in normoxia for six weeks. Alveolarization, pulmonary vascularization, pulmonary hypertension, and RV function were quantified at eight weeks. We found that hyperoxia exposure resulted in persistent alveolar and pulmonary vascular simplification. Furthermore, the Echo and cMRI studies demonstrated that hyperoxia-exposed mice had signs of PH and RV dysfunction as indicated by increased RV pressure, mass, and end-systolic and -diastolic volumes, and decreased RV stroke volume and ejection fractions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that neonatal hyperoxia exposure in mice cause cardiopulmonary morbidities that persists into adulthood and provides evidence for the use of this model to develop novel therapies for BPD infants with PH.

A critical review of endpoints for non-cirrhotic NASH therapeutic trials.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease without a single, specific, diagnostic marker, hence multiple indicators are required to measure therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, drug candidates for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis target many distinct mechanisms that are believed to promote hepatic injury. Therefore, a wide range of endpoints must be reached, sequentially, as required by the drug development process. Some of these endpoints validate the mechanism of action, others are used to anticipate histological efficacy. Histological endpoints are still considered the best predictors of clinical outcome, but they can only be reliably tested in larger, late phase trials. Herein, we will review the rationale and clinical data supporting the use of specific endpoints at different stages of therapeutic trials. We will also discuss the validity and limitations of current phase IIb histological endpoints, particularly a one stage reduction in fibrosis, for their ability to predict progression to cirrhosis, which is the ultimate outcome measure in therapeutic trials.

The impact of psychosis on brain anatomy in bipolar disorder: A structural MRI study.

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness characterized by heterogeneous symptoms including psychotic features. Up until now, neuroimaging studies investigating cerebral morphology in patients with BD have underestimated the potential impact of psychosis on brain anatomy in BD patients. In this regard, psychotic and non-psychotic BD may represent biologically different subtypes of the disorder, being possibly associated with specific cerebral features.

Restoration of motor function after operative reconstruction of the acutely transected spinal cord in the canine model.

Cephalosomatic anastomosis or what has been called a "head transplantation" requires full reconnection of the respective transected ends of the spinal cords. The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed for this reason. Here, we report the first randomized, controlled study of the GEMINI protocol in large animals.

Cystinuria: One Possible Reason for Kidney and Salivary Gland Lithiasis Relationship.

Salivary gland lithiasis affects 1 to 2% of adults. The submandibular glands are concerned in 87% of cases. An association between kidney and salivary lithiases, although often mentioned, has rarely been observed. We relate an exceptional case of parotid and submandibular cystine sialolithiasis with kidney cystine lithiasis in a patient with cystinuria. Cystine lithiasis occurs in 1% of kidney lithiasis cases. The purpose of this article is to discuss the arguments, diagnosis, and therapeutic attitude in front of salivary cystine lithiasis. The patient was a 56-year-old woman treated for cystinuria undergoing a consultation for parotid lithiases. We obtained a panoramic view and performed a cervicofacial computed tomography scan, sialo-magnetic resonance imaging, and sialendoscopy. We found multiple lithiases in the distal portions of the Stensen duct, and 2 days after sialendoscopy, the patient expelled small sialoliths. Salivary lithiasis in patients with cystinuria has the same biochemical composition as kidney lithiasis. A computed tomography scan is efficient in most cases, but sialo-magnetic resonance imaging may be the only noninvasive method to diagnose small cystine salivary lithiases, such as those that can be seen in patients with cystinuria. Sialendoscopy is still an efficient diagnostic and therapeutic method for every type of salivary lithiasis.

Depressive symptoms, impaired glucose metabolism, high visceral fat, and high systolic blood pressure in a subgroup of women with recent gestational diabetes.

Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high risk group for early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Depression is a risk factor for T2D in the general population. We investigated in women after a recent pregnancy with GDM and without a clinical diagnosis of depression, whether mild to moderate depressive symptoms associate with pathologic glucose metabolism. In a cross-sectional analysis, we examined 173 women, 9 ± 3 months after delivery with several psychopathological assessments, 5-point oral glucose tolerance test with insulin, anthropometrics, and laboratory chemistry. In a subgroup of 101 women, abdominal visceral fat was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 22 women (13%) showed mild to moderate depressive symptoms, and the proportion of women with pathologic glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2D) was higher in this group than in the women without depressive symptoms (59.1% vs. 33.1%, p = 0.018). Women with depressive symptoms also had higher body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, plasma leptin, plasma resistin, and abdominal visceral fat volume. Pathologic glucose metabolism (OR = 2.594, 95% CI: 1.021-6.592), systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.076, 95% CI: 1.027-1.128), and abdominal visceral fat volume (OR = 2.491, 95% CI: 1.142-5.433) remained, even after adjustment for BMI, associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Taken together, we found depressive symptoms at a level not generally diagnosed in clinical practice in a subgroup of women with recent GDM. This subgroup also showed an unfavorable metabolic profile. Mild to moderate depressive symptoms may therefore help to identify this special subgroup.

Free-breathing whole-heart 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging with prospective respiratory motion compensation.

To develop and validate a new prospective respiratory motion compensation algorithm for free-breathing whole-heart 3D cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging.

Effective network of deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus with bimodal positron emission tomography/functional magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease.

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment strategy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the biological mechanism underlying DBS treatment remains poorly understood.

Task-related effective connectivity reveals that the cortical rich club gates cortex-wide communication.

Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs-referred to as the rich club-has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective connectivity (EC) of the structural rich club and relate these to whole-cortex dynamics and network reconfigurations. We find that the cortical rich club exhibits an increase in outgoing EC during task performance as compared with rest while incoming connectivity remains constant. Increased outgoing connectivity targets a sparse set of peripheral regions with specific regions strongly overlapping between tasks. At the same time, community detection analyses reveal massive reorganizations of interactions among peripheral regions, including those serving as target of increased rich club output. This suggests that while peripheral regions may play a role in several tasks, their concrete interplay might nonetheless be task-specific. Furthermore, we observe that whole-cortex dynamics are faster during task as compared with rest. The decoupling effects usually accompanying faster dynamics appear to be counteracted by the increased rich club outgoing EC. Together our findings speak to a gating mechanism of the rich club that supports fast-paced information exchange among relevant peripheral regions in a task-specific and goal-directed fashion, while constantly listening to the whole network.

Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early Adolescence.

High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7.8-13.0), 11.7 (range = 9.3-14.1), and 12.9 years (range = 10.1-15.2). Multilevel linear modeling indicated that high shyness was associated with a less steep negative slope of default mode network (DMN) rs-fc over early adolescence relative to low shyness. Less steep decreases in DMN rs-fc may relate to increased self-focus in adolescents with high shyness.

Comparison of qualitative and quantitative CT and MRI parameters for monitoring of longitudinal spine involvement in patients with multiple myeloma.

To compare qualitative and quantitative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters for longitudinal disease monitoring of multiple myeloma (MM) of the axial skeleton.

Prediction of outcome using pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI radiomics in locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.

The aim of this study is to determine if radiomics features from 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images could contribute to prognoses in cervical cancer.

Three-dimensional analysis of nasal physiology : Representation by means of computational fluid dynamics.

The human nose takes primary responsibility for preconditioning inhaled air. Numerous pathologies can affect the physiology of the nose. The beginnings of flow analyzes were carried out with three-dimensional casting models and differently colored liquids. Temperature and humidity could not be taken into account. Today, much more complex analyzes are possible using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which are based on three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. Here, flow velocities, temperature, humidity, and pressure differences can be simulated and displayed in high-resolution videos as a function of multiple boundary conditions. The analysis of pathological changes or surgical interventions is thereby possible.

Intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging of early cervical carcinoma: correlation between imaging parameters and tumor-stroma ratio.

To investigate if intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging can predict the tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) in patients with early cervical carcinoma.

A singular K-space model for fast reconstruction of magnetic resonance images from undersampled data.

Reconstructing magnetic resonance images from undersampled k-space data is a challenging problem. This paper introduces a novel method of image reconstruction from undersampled k-space data based on the concept of singularizing operators and a novel singular k-space model. Exploring the sparsity of an image in the k-space, the singular k-space model (SKM) is proposed in terms of the k-space functions of a singularizing operator. The singularizing operator is constructed by combining basic difference operators. An algorithm is developed to reliably estimate the model parameters from undersampled k-space data. The estimated parameters are then used to recover the missing k-space data through the model, subsequently achieving high-quality reconstruction of the image using inverse Fourier transform. Experiments on physical phantom and real brain MR images have shown that the proposed SKM method constantly outperforms the popular total variation (TV) and the classical zero-filling (ZF) methods regardless of the undersampling rates, the noise levels, and the image structures. For the same objective quality of the reconstructed images, the proposed method requires much less k-space data than the TV method. The SKM method is an effective method for fast MRI reconstruction from the undersampled k-space data. Graphical abstract Two Real Images and their sparsified images by singularizing operator.

Fractures in children with newly diagnosed hepatoblastoma.

Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy in children. We have recently noticed an increased incidence of unsuspected fractures in children with newly diagnosed hepatoblastoma. This association has been suggested in the past, but the incidence and pathophysiology remain uncertain.

Incidence and Causes of Overdiagnosis of Optic Neuritis.

Diagnostic error is an important source of medical error. Overdiagnosis of optic neuritis may prompt unnecessary and costly diagnostic tests, procedures, and treatments.