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magnetic resonance imaging - Top 30 Publications

Tau pathology and neurodegeneration contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35). Twelve patients additionally fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy and eight for logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. All participants underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid (11C-PiB) positron emission tomography and tau (18F-AV-1451) positron emission tomography, and episodic and semantic memory, language, executive and visuospatial functions assessment. Raw cognitive scores were converted to age-adjusted Z-scores (W-scores) and averaged to compute composite scores for each cognitive domain. Independent regressions were performed between 18F-AV-1451 binding and each cognitive domain, and we used the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox to further control for local grey matter volumes, 11C-PiB uptake, or both. Partial correlations and causal mediation analyses (mediation R package) were then performed in brain regions showing an association between cognition and both 18F-AV-1451 uptake and grey matter volume. Our results showed that decreased cognitive performance in each domain was related to increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in specific brain regions conforming to established brain-behaviour relationships (i.e. episodic memory: medial temporal lobe and angular gyrus; semantic memory: left anterior temporal regions; language: left posterior superior temporal lobe and supramarginal gyrus; executive functions: bilateral frontoparietal regions; visuospatial functions: right more than left occipitotemporal regions). This pattern of regional associations remained essentially unchanged-although less spatially extended-when grey matter volume or 11C-PiB uptake maps were added as covariates. Mediation analyses revealed both direct and grey matter-mediated effects of 18F-AV-1451 uptake on cognitive performance. Together, these results show that tau pathology is related in a region-specific manner to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. These regional relationships are weakly related to amyloid burden, but are in part mediated by grey matter volumes. This suggests that tau pathology may lead to cognitive deficits through a variety of mechanisms, including, but not restricted to, grey matter loss. These results might have implications for future therapeutic trials targeting tau pathology.

Escitalopram ameliorates hypercortisolemia and insulin resistance in low birth weight men with limbic brain alterations.

Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) is linked to development of insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis hyperactivity.

Long-term disability progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 15-year study.

Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients. Lesion load, brain and cord atrophy, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values from the brain normal-appearing white matter and grey matter were obtained. Using linear regression models, we screened the clinical and imaging variables as independent predictors of 15-year disability change (measured on the expanded disability status scale). At 15 years, 90% of the patients had disability progression. Integrating clinical and imaging variables at 15 months predicted disability changes at 15 years better than clinical factors at 5 years (R2 = 61% versus R2 = 57%). The model predicted long-term disability change with a precision within one point in 38 of 49 patients (77.6%). Integration of clinical and imaging measures allows identification of primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients at risk of long-term disease progression 4 years earlier than when using clinical assessment alone.

Abnormal intrinsic brain functional network dynamics in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Previous studies measuring spontaneous brain activity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging have reported abnormal changes in broadly distributed whole-brain networks. Although resting state functional connectivity, estimating temporal correlations between brain regions, is measured with the assumption that intrinsic fluctuations throughout the scan are stable, dynamic changes of functional connectivity have recently been suggested to reflect aspects of functional capacity of neural systems, and thus may serve as biomarkers of disease. The present work is the first study to investigate the dynamic functional connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease, with a focus on the temporal properties of functional connectivity states as well as the variability of network topological organization using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-one Parkinson's disease patients and 23 healthy controls were studied using group spatial independent component analysis, a sliding windows approach, and graph-theory methods. The dynamic functional connectivity analyses suggested two discrete connectivity configurations: a more frequent, sparsely connected within-network state (State I) and a less frequent, more strongly interconnected between-network state (State II). In patients with Parkinson's disease, the occurrence of the sparsely connected State I dropped by 12.62%, while the expression of the more strongly interconnected State II increased by the same amount. This was consistent with the altered temporal properties of the dynamic functional connectivity characterized by a shortening of the dwell time of State I and by a proportional increase of the dwell time pattern in State II. These changes are suggestive of a reduction in functional segregation among networks and are correlated with the clinical severity of Parkinson's disease symptoms. Additionally, there was a higher variability in the network global efficiency, suggesting an abnormal global integration of the brain networks. The altered functional segregation and abnormal global integration in brain networks confirmed the vulnerability of functional connectivity networks in Parkinson's disease.

In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P < 0.001), accompanied by an increased orientation dispersion (P < 0.001 by paired t-test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired t-test). Cortical thickness did not differ significantly between multiple sclerosis subjects and controls. Higher orientation dispersion in the left primary motor-somatosensory cortex was associated with increased Expanded Disability Status Scale scores in surface-based general linear modelling (P < 0.05). Microstructural pathology was frequent in early multiple sclerosis, and present mainly focally in cortical lesions, whereas more diffusely in white matter. These results suggest early demyelination with loss of cells and/or cell volumes in cortical and white matter lesions, with additional axonal dispersion in white matter lesions. In the cortex, focal lesion changes might precede diffuse atrophy with cortical thinning. Findings in the normal-appearing white matter reveal early axonal pathology outside inflammatory demyelinating lesions.

Seizure onset zone localization using postictal hypoperfusion detected by arterial spin labelling MRI.

Neurological dysfunction following epileptic seizures is a well-recognized phenomenon. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to explain postictal dysfunction, with alteration in cerebral blood flow being one possibility. These vascular disturbances may be long lasting and localized to brain areas involved in seizure generation and propagation, as supported by both animal and human studies. Therefore, measuring perfusion changes in the postictal period may help localize the seizure onset zone. Arterial spin labelling is a non-invasive, rapid and reproducible magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures cerebral perfusion. To this end, we measured postictal perfusion in patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy who were admitted to our seizure-monitoring unit for presurgical evaluation. Twenty-one patients were prospectively recruited and underwent arterial spin labelling scanning within 90 min of a habitual seizure. Patients also underwent a similar scan in the interictal period, after they were seizure-free for at least 24 h. The acquired scans were subtracted to identify the areas of significant postictal hypoperfusion. The location of the maximal hypoperfusion was compared to the presumed seizure onset zone to assess for concordance. Also, the localizing value of this technique was compared to other structural and functional imaging modalities. Postictal perfusion reductions of >15 units (ml/100 g/l) were seen in 15/21 patients (71.4%). In 12/15 (80%) of these patients, the location of the hypoperfusion was partially or fully concordant with the location of the presumed seizure onset zone. This technique compared favourably to other neuroimaging modalities, being similar or superior to structural magnetic resonance imaging in 52% of cases, ictal single-photon emission computed tomography in 60% of cases and interictal positron emission tomography in 71% of cases. Better arterial spin labelling results were obtained in patients in whom the seizure onset zone was discernible based on non-invasive data. Thus, this technique is a safe, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive tool to detect postictal hypoperfusion that may provide useful data to localize the seizure onset zone. This technique may be incorporated into the battery of conventional investigations for presurgical evaluation of patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy.

Neuroinflammation and its relationship to changes in brain volume and white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients. Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis (seven with secondary progressive disease and 14 with a relapsing remitting disease course) underwent T1- and T2-weighted and magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 1 year. Positron emission tomography scanning with the translocator protein radioligand 11C-PBR28 was performed at baseline. Brain tissue and lesion volumes were segmented from the T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and relative 11C-PBR28 uptake in the normal-appearing white matter was estimated as a distribution volume ratio with respect to a caudate pseudo-reference region. Normal-appearing white matter distribution volume ratio at baseline was correlated with enlarging T2-hyperintense lesion volumes over the subsequent year (ρ = 0.59, P = 0.01). A post hoc analysis showed that this association reflected behaviour in the subgroup of relapsing remitting patients (ρ = 0.74, P = 0.008). By contrast, in the subgroup of secondary progressive patients, microglial activation at baseline was correlated with later progression of brain atrophy (ρ = 0.86, P = 0.04). A regression model including the baseline normal-appearing white matter distribution volume ratio, T2 lesion volume and normal-appearing white matter magnetization transfer ratio for all of the patients combined explained over 90% of the variance in enlarging lesion volume over the subsequent 1 year. Glial activation in white matter assessed by translocator protein PET significantly improves predictions of white matter lesion enlargement in relapsing remitting patients and is associated with greater brain atrophy in secondary progressive disease over a period of short term follow-up.

Less is more: neural mechanisms underlying anomia treatment in chronic aphasic patients.

Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process. Before and directly after a 6-week anomia treatment programme, 18 chronic aphasic stroke patients completed our functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol-a picture naming task aided by three different types of phonemic cues (whole words, initial phonemes, final phonemes) and a noise-control condition. Patients completed a naming task based on the training materials, and a more general comprehensive battery of language tests both before and after the anomia treatment, to determine the effectiveness and specificity of the therapy. Our results demonstrate that the anomia treatment was effective and specific to speech production, significantly improving both patients' naming accuracy and reaction time immediately post-treatment (unstandardized effect size: 29% and 17%, respectively; Cohen's d: 3.45 and 1.83). Longer term gains in naming were maintained 3 months later. Functional imaging results showed that both immediate and long-term facilitation of naming involved a largely overlapping bilateral frontal network including the right anterior insula, inferior frontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices, and the left premotor cortex. These areas were associated with a neural priming effect (i.e. reduced blood oxygen level-dependent signal) during both immediate (phonemically-cued versus control-cue conditions), and long-term facilitation of naming (i.e. treated versus untreated items). Of note is that different brain regions were sensitive to different phonemic cue types. Processing of whole word cues was associated with increased activity in the right angular gyrus; whereas partial word cues (initial and final phonemes) recruited the left supplementary motor area, and right anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex, and basal ganglia. The recruitment of multiple and bilateral areas may help explain why phonemic cueing is such a successful behavioural facilitation tool for anomia treatment. Our results have important implications for optimizing current anomia treatment approaches, developing new treatments, and improving speech outcome for aphasic patients.

Spatially Resolved MR-Compatible Doppler Ultrasound: Proof of Concept for Triggering of Diagnostic Quality Cardiovascular MRI for Function and Flow Quantification at 3T.

We demonstrate the use of a Magnetic-Resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially-resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging as an initial step towards hybrid US/MR fetal imaging.

What Are We Missing? False-Negative Cancers at Multiparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate.

Purpose To characterize clinically important prostate cancers missed at multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective single-center study, which included 100 consecutive patients who had undergone MP MR imaging and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A genitourinary pathologist blinded to MP MR findings outlined prostate cancers on whole-mount pathology slices. Two readers correlated mapped lesions with reports of prospectively read MP MR images. Readers were blinded to histopathology results during prospective reading. At histopathologic examination, 80 clinically unimportant lesions (<5 mm; Gleason score, 3+3) were excluded. The same two readers, who were not blinded to histopathologic findings, retrospectively reviewed cancers missed at MP MR imaging and assigned a Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 score to better understand false-negative lesion characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to define patient characteristics, including age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density, race, digital rectal examination results, and biopsy results before MR imaging. Student t test was used to determine any demographic differences between patients with false-negative MP MR imaging findings and those with correct prospective identification of all lesions. Results Of the 162 lesions, 136 (84%) were correctly identified with MP MR imaging. Size of eight lesions was underestimated. Among the 26 (16%) lesions missed at MP MR imaging, Gleason score was 3+4 in 17 (65%), 4+3 in one (4%), 4+4 in seven (27%), and 4+5 in one (4%). Retrospective PI-RADS version 2 scores were assigned (PI-RADS 1, n = 8; PI-RADS 2, n = 7; PI-RADS 3, n = 6; and PI-RADS 4, n = 5). On a per-patient basis, MP MR imaging depicted clinically important prostate cancer in 99 of 100 patients. At least one clinically important tumor was missed in 26 (26%) patients, and lesion size was underestimated in eight (8%). Conclusion Clinically important lesions can be missed or their size can be underestimated at MP MR imaging. Of missed lesions, 58% were not seen or were characterized as benign findings at second-look analysis. Recognition of the limitations of MP MR imaging is important, and new approaches to reduce this false-negative rate are needed. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Scaphoid fracture in a seven-year-old girl.

We report a case of a seven-year-old girl, who had a scaphoid fracture, which occurred when she fell off her bicycle. She was examined in the emergency room. X-ray did not show any sign of fracture of the scaphoid, but the fracture was later verified with a magnetic resonance imaging scan. She wore a shin cast for eight weeks and recovered completely. Very few cases of children aged under eight years and diagnosed with scaphoid fracture have been reported in the literature. Scaphoid fracture should be suspected and examined for in all children with relevant trauma and symptoms, regardless of age.

Clinical improvement associated with targeted interruption of the cerebellothalamic tract following MR-guided focused ultrasound for essential tremor.

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting). Fiber tracts were displayed three-dimensionally during the procedure and used in conjunction with clinical signs of tremor control for fine correction of the ablation site. Immediately following the conclusion of the procedure, the MRgFUS head frame was removed and patients were placed in a 32-channel MRI head coil for follow-up DTI and anatomical MRI sequences. RESULTS All patients had excellent postoperative tremor control and successful pre- and postprocedural DTI fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, and DRT. Immediate postprocedure DTI failed to track the DRT ipsilateral to the lesion site with a preserved contralateral DRT, coincident with substantial resolution of contralateral tremor. CONCLUSIONS DTI can reliably identify the optimal ablation target and demonstrates tract disruption on immediate postprocedural imaging. A clinical improvement of ET was observed immediately following the procedure, correlating with DRT disruption and suggesting that interruption of the DRT is a consequence of clinically successful MRgFUS thalamotomy. These findings may have utility for both MRgFUS procedure planning in surgically naive patients and retreatment of patients who have previously undergone unsuccessful thalamic Vim lesioning.

Prevention of postoperative visual field defect after the occipital transtentorial approach: anatomical study.

OBJECTIVE A postoperative visual field defect resulting from damage to the occipital lobe during surgery is a unique complication of the occipital transtentorial approach. Though the association between patient position and this complication is well investigated, preventing the complication remains a challenge. To define the area of the occipital lobe in which retraction is least harmful, the surface anatomy of the brain, course of the optic radiations, and microsurgical anatomy of the occipital transtentorial approach were examined. METHODS Twelve formalin-fixed cadaveric adult heads were examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and 0° and 45° endoscopes. The optic radiations were examined by fiber dissection and MR tractography techniques. RESULTS The arterial and venous relationships of the lateral, medial, and inferior surfaces of the occipital lobe were defined anatomically. The full course of the optic radiations was displayed via both fiber dissection and MR tractography. Although the stems of the optic radiations as exposed by both techniques are similar, the terminations of the fibers are slightly different. The occipital transtentorial approach provides access for the removal of lesions involving the splenium, pineal gland, collicular plate, cerebellomesencephalic fissure, and anterosuperior part of the cerebellum. An angled endoscope can aid in exposing the superior medullary velum and superior cerebellar peduncles. CONCLUSIONS Anatomical findings suggest that retracting the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may avoid direct damage and perfusion deficiency around the calcarine cortex and optic radiations near their termination. An accurate understanding of the course of the optic radiations and vascular relationships around the occipital lobe and careful retraction of the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may reduce the incidence of postoperative visual field defect.

Exploration for reliable radiographic assessment method for hinge-like hypermobility at atlanto-occipital joint.

Hinge-like hyper-mobility is occasionally observed at the atlanto-occipital (O-C1) joint. However, it has not been clear if this kind of hinge-like hyper-mobility at the O-C1 joint should be regarded as "pathologic", or referred to as "instability". To solve this issue, we aimed to establish a reliable radiographic assessment method for this specific type of O-C1 instability and figure out the "standard value" for the range of motion (ROM) of the O-C1 joint.

Intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenopathy in children: a guide to chest radiography.

Making the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children can be difficult because microbiological confirmation is not often achieved. Diagnosis is therefore often based on clinical features in combination with chest radiograph findings. Chest radiographs can demonstrate lymphadenopathy of the hilar and para-tracheal regions on the anteroposterior view, and subcarinal lymphadenopathy on the lateral view. However poor interobserver agreement has been reported for radiologist and clinician assessment of lymphadenopathy. This might reflect the lack of standardised imaging criteria for diagnosis as well as radiologists' objectives for achieving sensitivity rather than specificity. In this paper the authors provide a pictorial aid of chest radiographs in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis to help clinicians identify lymph node enlargement in primary pulmonary tuberculosis. This collection of images comprises chest radiographs accompanied by schematics and either CT or MRI scan confirmation of pathological lymph node enlargement at the positions commonly affected in tuberculosis.

Analysis of the Expression of Angioarchitecture-related Factors in Patients with Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) is a type of vascular malformation associated with vascular remodeling, hemodynamic imbalance, and inflammation. We detected four angioarchitecture-related cytokines to make a better understanding of the potential aberrant signaling in the pathogenesis of cAVM and found useful proteins in predicting the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-indeterminate/negative cardiac sarcoidosis revealed by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography: two case reports and a review of the literature.

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by non-caseating granulomas that can affect any organ. Cardiac sarcoidosis is an under-recognized entity that has a heterogeneous presentation and may occur independently or with any severity of systemic disease. Diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis remains problematic with endomyocardial biopsies associated with a high risk of complications. Several diagnostic algorithms are currently available that rely on histopathology or clinical and radiological measures. The dominant mode of diagnostic imaging to date for cardiac sarcoidosis has been cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement.

T1 mapping with the variable flip angle technique: A simple correction for insufficient spoiling of transverse magnetization.

The variable flip angle method derives T1 maps from radiofrequency-spoiled gradient-echo data sets, acquired with different flip angles α. Because the method assumes validity of the Ernst equation, insufficient spoiling of transverse magnetization yields errors in T1 estimation, depending on the chosen radiofrequency-spoiling phase increment (Δϕ). This paper presents a versatile correction method that uses modified flip angles α' to restore the validity of the Ernst equation.

Comparative anatomical study of sound production and reception systems in the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) heads.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to analyse, respectively, the soft tissues and the bones of the heads of four common dolphins and three harbour porpoises. This imaging study was completed by an examination of anatomical sections performed on two odontocete heads (a subadult common dolphin and a subadult harbour porpoise). The three complementary approaches allowed to illustrate anatomical differences in the echolocation systems of the common dolphin and the harbour porpoise. We captured images confirming strong differences of symmetry of the melon and of its connexions to the MLDB (Monkeys Lips/Dorsal Bursae) between the common dolphin and the harbour porpoise. The melon of the common dolphin is asymmetrically directly connected to the right bursae cantantes at its right side, whereas the melon of the harbour porpoise is symmetrical, and separated from the two bursae cantantes by a set of connective tissues. Another striking difference comes from the bursae cantantes themselves, less deeply located in the head of the common dolphin than in the harbour porpoise.

Changes in cerebellar functional connectivity and autonomic regulation in cancer patients treated with the Neuro Emotional Technique for traumatic stress symptoms.

A growing number of research studies have implicated the cerebellum in emotional processing and regulation, especially with regard to negative emotional memories. However, there currently are no studies showing functional changes in the cerebellum as a result of treatment for traumatic stress symptoms. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is an intervention designed to help improve symptoms related to traumatic stress using an integrative approach that combines emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, with a particular focus on autonomic nervous system regulation. In this study, we evaluated whether the NET intervention alters functional connectivity in the brain of patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that the NET intervention would reduce emotional and autonomic reactivity and that this would correlate with connectivity changes between the cerebellum and limbic structures as well as the brain stem.

Multimodality imaging in secondary postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage: retained products of conception and related conditions.

Secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and postabortion hemorrhage are rare complications. Retained products of conception (RPOC) is among the most common causes of both secondary PPH and postabortion hemorrhage. Other less common causes of secondary PPH are uterine vascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and pseudoaneurysms. These are usually related to a history of a procedure such as dilation and curettage or cesarean delivery. Subinvolution of the placental site is an idiopathic cause of secondary PPH; this condition may be underrecognized and therefore could have a higher incidence than currently reported. Gestational trophoblastic disease is rare but commonly presents as secondary PPH and resembles RPOC in radiologic appearance. The first-line imaging modality for secondary PPH is ultrasound, but computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be used if the ultrasound findings are indeterminate. Angiography is an important tool for the definitive diagnosis of uterine vascular abnormalities. Appropriate management requires radiologists to be familiar with the multimodality imaging features of secondary PPH or postabortion hemorrhage.

Diffusion-Weighted MRI Stroke Volume Following Recanalization Treatment is Threshold-Dependent.

Infarct lesion segmentation has been problematic as there are a wide range of relative and absolute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds that have been used for this purpose. We examined differences of stroke lesion volume and evolution evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the immediate post-treatment phase (<5 h) and at 24 h.

Late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial fibrosis and coronary endothelial dysfunction are important determinants of outcome in patients with heart failure. However, the relationship of these factors in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotor abnormality and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with DCM. We examined 38 consecutive patients with DCM. All patients underwent CMR and the acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test using cardiac catheterization. During the ACh provocation test, we sampled blood simultaneously from the coronary sinus and aortic root to compare lactate concentrations, and quantified coronary blood flow volume using an intracoronary Doppler-tipped guidewire. LGE was detected in 17 (44.7%) patients. The lactate extraction ratio (LER) in the ACh provocation test was significantly decreased in the LGE-positive group (before vs after ACh, 18.6 ± 13.6 vs - 13.3 ± 24.8%; p < 0.001) and in the LGE-negative group (before vs after ACh, 14.2 ± 19.5 vs 3.3 ± 16.2%; p = 0.02). The rate of patients with an LER < 0% (indicating myocardial lactate production due to myocardial ischemia) was significantly higher in the LGE-positive group than in the LGE-negative group [12 (70.6%) vs 7 (33.3%); p = 0.02]. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a post-ACh LER < 0% was a significant predictor of LGE positivity (odds ratio 7.75; 95% confidence interval 1.37-43.68; p = 0.02). In conclusion, ACh-provoked coronary vasomotor abnormality is associated with myocardial fibrosis in patients with DCM. These results suggest that coronary endothelial dysfunction is involved in myocardial fibrosis and worsening heart failure concomitant with DCM.

Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports.

Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population.

Peptide-based fibrin-targeting probes for thrombus imaging.

The development of new methods to image the onset and progression of thrombosis is an unmet need. Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques targeting specific key structures involved in the formation of thrombosis have demonstrated the ability to detect thrombus in different disease state models and in patients. Due to its high concentration in the thrombus and its essential role in thrombus formation, the detection of fibrin is an attractive strategy for identification of thrombosis. Herein we provide an overview of recent and selected fibrin-targeted probes for molecular imaging of thrombosis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and optical techniques. Emphasis is placed on work that our lab has explored over the last 15 years that has resulted in the progression of the fibrin-binding PET probe [(64)Cu]FBP8 from preclinical studies into human trials.

Accuracy of the Lever Sign Test in the Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

The lever sign test is a new physical examination tool to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Preliminary results suggest almost 100% sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute and chronic complete ACL tears and clinically significant partial tears as compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

An Exceptional Case of Suture Granuloma 30 Years Following an Open Repair of Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Case Report.

Rupture of the Achilles' tendon is a common injury occurring particularly in middle-aged men due to sports trauma. Operative treatment is preferred generally due to lower risk of re-rupture. Possible complications of the operation include suture granulomas. Suture granulomas might represent a foreign body reaction, which itself is the end-stage response of the inflammatory wound-healing process to biomaterials. It may occur with both absorbable and non-absorbable suture materials such as silk in our case. The aim of this study is to present a case of a delayed foreign body reaction 30 years after open repair of the Achilles tendon with silk sutures.

Patellofemoral Articulating Osteochondral (Kissing) Lesion Treated with Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: A Case Report.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective treatment for chondral defects of the knee; however, its use in kissing lesions is less well documented.

Synovial Hemangioma of the Knee Management and Excellent Outcome 2 Years after Arthroscopic Synovectomy in a 25-year-old Male with a 20-year History.

Synovial hemangioma is a rare condition with <200 published case reports in world literature and is frequently misdiagnosed, leading to diagnostic delay of many years. This delay is even more significant if the patient comes from a rural background with a dearth of medical facilities in the area. This case had a lag of nearly 20 years from the time of onset of symptoms and the required management which is the maximum reported for any synovial hemangioma since most of them have been found and treated in adolescents.

Case of Acute Concomitant Rupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon of Knee: Surgical Decision Making and Outcome.

Acute concomitant rupture of both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon is a rare injury. The diagnosis of either of the injuries may be missed on clinical examination in the emergency room. A high index of suspicion is necessary when active extension is absent, and necessary investigations like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be done to confirm the diagnosis. There are no fixed treatment protocols in these injuries. The options include immediate repair of patellar tendon with either simultaneous or delayed reconstruction of ACL.