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mechanical thrombectomy - Top 30 Publications

A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique (ADAPT) for acute stroke therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

ADAPT (A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique), involving the first-line use of large-bore distal aspiration catheter, is a new strategy in the mechanical thrombectomy of acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. However, its impact on reperfusion rates, clinical outcomes, and complication rates is not fully examined.

Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke Associated with Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Cervical ICA: A Nosologic Entity Apart.

Mechanical thrombectomy for patients with acute ischemic stroke with tandem occlusions has been shown to present varying reperfusion successes and clinical outcomes. However, the heterogeneity of tandem occlusion etiology has been strongly neglected in previous studies. We retrospectively investigated patients with acute ischemic stroke atherothrombotic tandem occlusion.

A stent-retrieving into an aspiration catheter with proximal balloon (ASAP) technique: A technique of mechanical thrombectomy.

The best technique for the first attempt at mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is a still matter of debate. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a stent-retrieving into an aspiration catheter with proximal balloon (ASAP) technique that employs a series of thrombus extraction by withdrawing the stent retriever into the aspiration catheter, and continuous aspiration from the aspiration catheter in the first attempt.

The next challenges for optimal reperfusion in the era of mechanical thrombectomy.

The therapeutic management of acute ischemic stroke has changed tremendously over the past few years. Mechanical thrombectomy in addition to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is currently the standard of care for patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke as a consequence of large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation. Yet, despite strong evidence supporting such a therapeutic approach, several issues remain a source of debate, such as the need for intravenous t-PA, the optimal target for blood pressure levels and the opportunity for additional antithrombotic therapies to improve reperfusion. Given this perspective, periprocedural patient management is probably the next step to come with considerable changes.

Late recanalization of basilar artery occlusion in a previously healthy 17-month-old child.

Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke in children is increasingly being reported, although the time window for intervention is unclear. We describe a previously healthy 17-month-old child who presented with vertebral artery thrombosis and cerebellar stroke requiring posterior fossa decompression. She later progressed to basilar artery thrombosis treated with mechanical thrombectomy 50 hours after clinical decline. At 3 month follow-up, the patient had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0.

Catheter-Directed Therapy for Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Summary of Current Evidence and Protocols.

Treatment of acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) with thrombolytic therapy remains an area of controversy. For patients who fail or who have contraindications to systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapy (CDT) may be offered depending on the patient's condition and the available institutional resources to perform CDT. Although various CDT techniques and protocols exist, the most studied method is low-dose catheter-directed thrombolytic infusion without mechanical thrombectomy. This article reviews current protocols and data on the use of CDT for acute submassive pulmonary embolism.

Necessary Catheter Diameters for Mechanical Thrombectomy with ADAPT.

Large-bore catheters allow mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke by engaging and retrieving clots without additional devices (direct aspiration first-pass technique [ADAPT]). The purpose of this study was to establish a model for minimal catheter diameters needed for ADAPT.

Rapid Recanalization Using TrevoProVue through a 4.2 Fr Catheter without a Guiding Catheter via Transbrachial Approach: A Case Report.

Mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever has been reported to achieve high rates of successful recanalization, and reduce disability and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to proximal vessel occlusion. However, in a few cases, the treatment is difficult due to artery tortuosity or other factors. The authors present a case of a 94-year-old man presenting with acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion. We attempted to treat using a stent retriever via transfemoral approach, but failed to advance the guiding catheter into the right internal carotid artery due to femoral artery tortuosity and a type III arch. By changing approaches from transfemoral to transbrachial and by using TrevoProVue through a 4.2 Fr Simmons-type catheter without a guiding catheter, we were able to achieve rapid recanalization in only 26 minutes from brachial artery puncture to reperfusion. In conclusion, rapid reperfusion in an AIS patient was successfully achieved by combining a stent retriever with a 4.2 Fr catheter (without a guiding catheter) and a transbrachial approach (as opposed to a transfemoral approach). When the transfemoral approach is not feasible, we recommend consideration of this strategy as an alternative.

Incidence and Outcomes of Myocardial Infarction in Patients Admitted With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Data on the incidence and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are limited. We aim to evaluate the incidence, treatment patterns, and outcomes of AMI in patients with AIS using a nationwide database.

One-Stop Management of Acute Stroke Patients: Minimizing Door-to-Reperfusion Times.

Intrahospital time delays significantly affect the neurological outcome of stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion. This study was conducted to determine whether a one-stop management can reduce intrahospital times of patients with acute large-vessel occlusion.

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Perioperative Strokes: A Case-Control Study.

Perioperative strokes (POS) are rare but serious complications for which mechanical thrombectomy could be beneficial. We aimed to compare the technical results and patients outcomes in a population of POS versus non-POS (nPOS) treated by mechanical thrombectomy.

Mortality and Disability According to Baseline Blood Pressure in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated by Thrombectomy: A Collaborative Pooled Analysis.

High blood pressure (BP) is associated with worse clinical outcomes in the setting of acute ischemic stroke, but the optimal blood pressure target is still a matter of debate. We aimed to study the association between baseline BP and mortality in acute ischemic stroke patients treated by mechanical thrombectomy.

The efficacy and safety of endovascular recanalization of occluded large cerebral arteries during the subacute phase of cerebral infarction: a case series report.

Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator with or without mechanical thrombectomy during the acute phase are approved therapies for ischaemic stroke. Due to the short treatment time window (<6 hours) and often treatment failure, these patients would still have an intracranial arterial occlusion (IAO). It is unclear whether these patients can benefit from subsequent interventional recanalizationof their occluded artery in the subacute phase. In this retrospective study, we have examined the efficacy and safety in patients who have received either percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) for IAO in the subacute phase of their stroke.

Mechanical thrombectomy revisited is there any value?

The use of mechanical thrombectomy in STEMI with large amount of jeopardized myocardium may preserve regional wall motion When appropriate and done with proper removal technique, there does not appear to be any increased incidence of neurologic complications The guideline recommendation that mechanical thrombectomy should not be done routinely is supported by these authors.

Factors Associated with 90-Day Outcomes of Patients with Acute Posterior Circulation Stroke Treated By Mechnical Thrombectomy.

Early recanalization of acute posterior circulation stroke due to large intracranial vessel occlusion by mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers may improve the outcome of patients. However, evidence of patient selection is still lacking. The study investigated the prognostic factors of acute posterior circulation stroke due to large intracranial arterial occlusion when treated withstent retriever thrombectomy.

Treatment of ischemic stroke with mechanical trombectomy systems.

The implementation of ischemic stroke therapy has created new opportunities for clinical improvement and the reversal of adverse prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke. Mechanical thrombectomy has become the recommended treatment for acute stroke in a select group of patients and in highly specialized centres with experience in endovascular therapy.

Techniques for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Early recanalization of occluded vessels in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by either intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or endovascular revascularization has been shown to be associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced mortality. Since the initial report regarding endovascular treatment (EVT) of AIS in 1983, endovascular techniques have been tremendously improved, advancing from intra-arterial administration of thrombolytic drugs to stent retrievers. IVT has been evaluated in several large randomized trials and has been shown to improve clinical outcomes at 90 days if treatment was initiated within 3h of stroke onset, while its benefit at 3-4.5h was subsequently demonstrated in the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) III. Thus, EVT had to be evaluated against IVT. The first randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were published in 2013, and demonstrated no major differences between IVT and EVT for AIS, although these trials had important limitations. The positive results of the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (MR CLEAN) in the Netherlands, followed by five other positive RCTs, finally established the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with stent retrievers (also called 'stentrievers') in AIS due to large vessel occlusion within 6h of stroke onset. Currently, the European and US guidelines recommend MT with stent retrievers as a first-line treatment in the management of AIS. The recent publication of the DWI or CTP Assessment with Clinical Mismatch in the Triage of Wake-Up and Late-Presenting Strokes Undergoing Neurointervention (DAWN) trial is expected to lead to extension of the time window for patients carefully selected by imaging. Thus, optimizing the selection of patients as well as the EVT procedures and techniques used is still an important goal to be evaluated in further trials.

Cerebral Ischemic Reperfusion Injury Following Recanalization of Large Vessel Occlusions.

Although stroke has recently dropped to become the nation's fifth leading cause of mortality, it remains the top leading cause of morbidity and disability in the US. Recent advances in stroke treatment, including intravenous fibrinolysis and mechanical thromboembolectomy, allow treatment of a greater proportion of stroke patients than ever before. While intra-arterial fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen is an effective for treatment of a broad range of acute ischemic strokes, endovascular mechanical thromboembolectomy procedures treat severe strokes due to large artery occlusions, often resistant to intravenous drug. Together, these procedures result in a greater proportion of revascularized stroke patients than ever before, up to 88% in 1 recent trial (EXTEND-IA). Subsequently, there is a growing need for neurointensivists to develop more effective strategies to manage stroke patients following successful reperfusion. Cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury (CIRI) is defined as deterioration of brain tissue suffered from ischemia that concomitantly reverses the benefits of re-establishing cerebral blood flow following mechanical or chemical therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Herein, we examine the pathophysiology of CIRI, imaging modalities, and potential neuroprotective strategies. Additionally, we sought to lay down a potential treatment approach for patients with CIRI following emergent endovascular recanalization for acute ischemic stroke.

Clinical Imaging Factors Associated With Infarct Progression in Patients With Ischemic Stroke During Transfer for Mechanical Thrombectomy.

When transferred from a referring hospital (RH) to a thrombectomy-capable stroke center (TCSC), patients with initially favorable imaging profiles (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score [ASPECTS] ≥6) often demonstrate infarct progression significant enough to make them ineligible for mechanical thrombectomy at arrival. In rapidly evolving stroke care networks, the question of the need for vascular imaging at the RHs remains unsolved, resulting in an important amount of futile transfers for thrombectomy.

Young Paradoxical Stroke Treated Successfully with Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire and Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Oval.

Paradoxical embolization is the mechanism for patent foramen ovale (PFO) -associated cryptogenic stroke and transcatheter closure of PFO may prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. Mechanical thrombectomy is promising to treat acute ischemic stroke due to high rates of reperfusion and reduced intracranial hemorrhage complications. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with a massive cerebral infarction but no evidence for any atherosclerosis, who received an urgent mechanical thrombectomy with a Solitaire device. In order to ascertain the etiology of stroke, transcranialDoppler (TCD) and transesophageal echocardiograph (TEE) were conducted. TCD showed severe right-to-left shunting (shower effect) after Valsalva maneuver and bubble test and TEE identified a PFO. Therefore, the patient had suffered a paradoxical stroke associated with PFO. After two weeks of the stroke onset, transcatheter PFO closure with Cardio-O-Fix occluder was also performed successfully. During 1-year of follow-up, no recurrence of stroke occurred. Our case demonstrates that mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire device and transcatheter PFO closure can be safely and successfully performed to treat acute paradoxical stroke and prevent its recurrence.

TREVO stent-retriever mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion registry.

Recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retrievers in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusions; however, it remains unclear if these results translate to a real-world setting. The TREVO Stent-Retriever Acute Stroke (TRACK) multicenter Registry aimed to evaluate the use of the Trevo device in everyday clinical practice.

Mechanical thrombectomy in patients with M1 occlusion and NIHSS score ≤5: a single-centre experience.

The recent success of several mechanical thrombectomy trials has resulted in a significant change in management for patients presenting with stroke. However, it is still unclear how to manage patients that present with stroke and low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤5. We sought to review our experience of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with low NIHSS and confirmed M1 occlusion.

Endovascular treatment for acute basilar thrombosis via a transradial approach: Initial experience and future considerations.

Acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) secondary to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has an extremely poor natural history, with a reported mortality rate up to 95%. Mechanical thrombectomy in the setting of ELVO is generally performed via a transfemoral approach. However, radial access is increasingly being utilized as an alternative. We report our initial multi-institutional experience using primary radial access in the treatment of acute BAO in nine consecutive cases. Technical success defined as a TICI score of 2B or 3 was achieved in 89% of cases. Average puncture to revascularization time was 35.8 minutes. There were no complications related to radial artery catheterization. We contend radial access should potentially be considered as the first-line approach given inherent advantages over femoral access for mechanical thrombectomy for BAO.

Response by Mistry et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes With and Without Intravenous Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis".

Letter by Tsivgoulis et al Regarding Article, "Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes With and Without Intravenous Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis".

Hyper-attenuating brain lesions on CT after ischemic stroke and thrombectomy are associated with final brain infarction.

Purpose Hyper-attenuating lesions, or contrast staining, on a non-contrast brain computed tomography (NCCT) scan have been investigated as a predictor for hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the association of hyper-attenuating lesions and final ischemic areas are poorly investigated in this setting. The aim of the present study was to assess correlations between hyper-attenuating lesions and final brain infarcted areas after thrombectomy for AIS. Methods Data from patients with AIS of the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular treatment were retrospectively assessed. Images of the brain NCCT scans were analyzed in the first hours and late after treatment. The hyper-attenuating areas were compared to the final ischemic areas using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Results Seventy-one of the 123 patients (65.13%) treated were included. The association between the hyper-attenuating region in the post-thrombectomy CT scan and final brain ischemic area were sensitivity (58.3% to 96.9%), specificity (42.9% to 95.6%), positive predictive values (71.4% to 97.7%), negative predictive values (53.8% to 79.5%), and accuracy values (68% to 91%). The highest sensitivity values were found for the lentiform (96.9%) and caudate nuclei (80.4%) and for the internal capsule (87.5%), and the lowest values were found for the M1 (58.3%) and M6 (66.7%) cortices. Conclusions Hyper-attenuating lesions on head NCCT scans performed after endovascular treatment of AIS may predict final brain infarcted areas. The prediction appears to be higher in the deep brain regions compared with the cortical regions.

Interventional magnetic resonance imaging guided carotid embolectomy using a novel resonant marker catheter: demonstration of preclinical feasibility.

To assess the visualization and efficacy of a wireless resonant circuit (wRC) catheter system for carotid artery occlusion and embolectomy under real-time MRI guidance in vivo, and to compare MR imaging modality with x-ray for analysis of qualitative physiological measures of blood flow at baseline and after embolectomy. The wRC catheter system was constructed using a MR compatible PEEK fiber braided catheter (Penumbra, Inc, Alameda, CA) with a single insulated longitudinal copper loop soldered to a printed circuit board embedded within the catheter wall. In concordance with IACUC protocol (AN103047), in vivo carotid artery navigation and embolectomy were performed in four farm pigs (40-45 kg) under real-time MRI at 1.5T. Industry standard clots were introduced in incremental amounts until adequate arterial occlusion was noted in a total of n=13 arteries. Baseline vasculature and restoration of blood flow were confirmed via MR and x-ray imaging, and graded by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze differences in recanalization status between DSA and MRA imaging. Successful recanalizations (TICI 2b/3) were compared to clinical rates reported in literature via binomial tests. The wRC catheter system was visible both on 5° sagittal bSSFP and coronal GRE sequence. Successful recanalization was demonstrated in 11 of 13 occluded arteries by DSA analysis and 8 of 13 by MRA. Recanalization rates based on DSA (0.85) and MRA (0.62) were not significantly different from the clinical rate of mechanical aspiration thrombectomy reported in literature. Lastly, a Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated no significant difference between TICI scores analyzed by DSA and MRA. With demonstrated compatibility and visualization under MRI, the wRC catheter system is effective for in vivo endovascular embolectomy, suggesting progress towards clinical endovascular interventional MRI.

A multicenter randomized controlled trial of endovascular therapy following imaging evaluation for ischemic stroke (DEFUSE 3).

Rationale Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is effective in patients with large vessel occlusion. No randomized data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy beyond 6 h from symptom onset. Aim The aim of the study is to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion who have a favorable imaging profile on computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance imaging, endovascular therapy with a Food and Drug Administration 510 K-cleared mechanical thrombectomy device reduces the degree of disability three months post stroke. Design The study is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, phase III, adaptive, blinded endpoint, controlled trial. A maximum of 476 patients will be randomized and treated between 6 and 16 h of symptom onset. Procedures Patients undergo imaging with computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance diffusion/perfusion, and automated software (RAPID) determines if the Target Mismatch Profile is present. Patients who meet both clinical and imaging selection criteria are randomized 1:1 to endovascular therapy plus medical management or medical management alone. The individual endovascular therapist chooses the specific device (or devices) employed. Study outcomes The primary endpoint is the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale at day 90. The secondary endpoint is the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at day 90 (indicating functional independence). Analysis Statistical analysis for the primary endpoint will be conducted using a normal approximation of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (the generalized likelihood ratio test).

Combined use of stent-retriever and aspiration thrombectomy for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis involving the straight sinus: A case report.

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is generally treated with anticoagulation therapy, however, endovascular therapy is considered for refractory cases. A 42-year-old woman presented with a progressive disturbance in consciousness, and diagnosed CVST in the straight sinus (SS). Recanalization of SS was achieved by emergent thrombectomy using aspiration catheter and stent-retriever system, and her level of consciousness improved immediately. The combined use of them aided the removal of the thrombus located in the SS.

Influence of carotid tortuosity on internal carotid artery access time in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Purpose Carotid artery anatomy is thought to influence internal carotid artery access time (ICA-AT) in patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. This study investigates the association between ICA-AT and carotid anatomy. Material and methods Computed tomography angiography (CTA) data of 76 consecutive patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke requiring mechanical thrombectomy for middle cerebral artery or carotid T occlusion were evaluated. The supraaortic extracranial vasculature was analyzed regarding take-off angles and curvature of the affected side. Digital subtraction angiography data were primarily analyzed regarding ICA-AT and secondarily regarding recanalization time and radiographic result. Results ICA-AT was significantly influenced by vessel tortuosity. Take-off angle of the left common carotid artery ( p = 0.001) and the brachiocephalic trunk ( p = 0.002) as well as the tortuosity of the common carotid artery ( p = 0.002) had highest impact on ICA-AT. For recanalization time, however, we found only the take-off angle of the left common carotid artery to be of significance ( p = 0.020). There was a tendency for ICA-AT to correlate with successful (mTICI ≥ 2 b) revascularization (average time of successful results was 24.3 minutes, of unsuccessful was 35.6 minutes; p = 0.065). Every evaluated segment with less carotid tortuosity showed a carotid AT below 25 minutes. Conclusion Supraaortic vessel tortuosity significantly influences ICA-AT in mechanical thrombectomy for an acute large vessel. There furthermore was a trend for lower successful recanalization rates with increasing ICA-AT.