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mortality - Top 30 Publications

Simulation study of air quality health index in 5 cities in China: 2013-2015.

Objective: To construct the air quality health index (AQHI) by inclusion of air pollutants PM(2.5) and O(3) in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xi' an, Beijing, Shenyang, and explore scientificity and feasibility of its application in China. Methods: The daily average concentrations of PM(2.5) and O(3) in air, and daily average mortality from 2013 to 2015 in the 5 cities in China, the exposure-response coefficients of PM(2.5) and O(3) and total mortality from Meta studies in China were used to construct local AQHI. The health risk levels of air pollution in the 5 cities were calculated and compared with the characteristics of single pollutant concentrationof PM(2.5) or O(3). Results: In the 5 cities, the average concentration of PM(2.5) was highest in Beijing (82 μg/m(3)) and lowest in Guangzhou (46 μg/m(3)). And the average concentration of O(3) was highest in Shanghai (72 μg/m(3)) and lowest in Xi' an (45 μg/m(3)). In all the cities, the average concentration of PM(2.5) was highest in winter and lowest in summer. In summer, the average concentration of O(3) was lowest. But the health risk level of AQHI showed that the 5 cities had higher frequency of low or medium risk averagely. And Beijing had the highest frequency of high risk in summer (5.69%). Xi' an had the highest frequency of extremely high risk in winter (1.63%). Conclusions: In this study, AQHI could be constructed by using air PM(2.5) and O(3) concentration data which can be obtained in many areas in China. The application of this index is scientific and feasible in China.

Influence of extreme weather on years of life lost due to diabetes death in Chongqing and Harbin, China.

Objective: To understand the associations between extremely low and high air temperature and the years of life lost (YLL) due to diabetes deaths in Chongqing and Harbin with different climatic characteristics in China. Methods: A double threshold B-spline distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to investigate the lag and cumulative effects of extremely low and high air temperature on YLL due to diabetes for lag 0-30 days by using the urban meteorological and diabetes mortality data of Chongqing (2011-2013) and Harbin (2008-2010). The effects were expressed as relative risk (RR). Results: In Chongqing, the cold effects on YLL due to diabetes were delayed by four days and lasted for three days (lag4-6) with the highest RR of 1.304 (95%CI:1.033-1.647) at lag5. The hot effects were delayed by one day (lag1) with RR of 1.321 (95%CI:1.061-1.646). In Harbin, the extreme cold effects on YLL were delayed by four days and lasted for seven days (lag4-10) with the highest RR of 1.309 (95%CI: 1.088-1.575) at lag6. The hot effects were delayed by one day and lasted for four days (lag1-4) with the highest RR of 1.460 (95%CI:1.114-1.915) at lag2. The unit risk for cold and hot effects was 43.7% (P=0.005 5) and 18.0% (P=0.000 2) in Chongqing and 15.0% (P=0.000 8) and 29.5% (P=0.001 2) in Harbin, respectively. Conclusions: Both extremely low air temperature and extremely high air temperature might increase the years of life lost due to diabetes in cities with different climate characteristics. Health education about diabetes prevention should provide information about the effects of extreme weather events.

Acute effect of air pollutants (carbon monoxide and ozone) on myocardial infarction mortality in Ningbo.

Objective: To explore the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O(3)) in the air on the myocardial infarction mortality in Ningbo, Zhejiang province, from 2011 to 2015. Methods: The data of daily air quality surveillance and the causes of deaths in Ningbo from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 were collected and the time series study using a generalized additive model was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of myocardial infarction and the air pollutants after adjustment for the long-term trend of death, weather conditions," days of the week" and other confounding factors. Results: The daily average concentrations of CO and O(3) in Ningbo during 2011-2015 were 0.90 (0.02-3.31) mg/m(3) and 82.78 (4-236) μg/m(3), respectively. A total of 5 388 myocardial infarction deaths occurred, with a daily average of 3 deaths. In single-pollutant model, an increase of 0.1 mg/m(3) in average concentration of CO could increase the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.06% (95% CI: 0.29%-1.93%) in general population, and by 1.26% (95% CI:0.28%-2.24%) in aged people aged ≥65 years in lagged 6 days, but the influence was not significant in people aged <65 years. The influence had no significant difference in males, but it increased the risk of myocardial infarction mortality by 1.77% in females (95% CI: 0.44%-3.13%). In multi-pollutant model, CO did remain robust after adjusting for other co-pollutants. Whereas the effect of O(3) had no significant influence. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the increased risk of daily myocardial infarction mortality was associated with the increase of CO concentration, but no such association was found for O(3) in Ningbo.

Lagged effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in 66 cities in China: a time-series study.

Objective: To estimate the effect of daily diurnal temperature range (DTR) on mortality in different areas in China. Methods: A time series study using the data collected from 66 areas in China was conducted, and Meta-analysis was used to analyze the estimates of associations between DTR and daily mortality. Modifying effects of extremely low and high DTR-mortality relationship by season and socioeconomic status (SES) were also evaluated respectively. Cumulative excess risk (CER) was used as an index to evaluate the effects. Results: The information about 1 260 913 registered deaths were collected between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011, we found the relationship between extreme DTR and mortality was non-linear in all regions and the exposure-response curve was J-shaped. In central and south areas of China, the result indicated the obvious acute effect of extremely high DTR, and the mortality effect in central area (CER=5.1%, 95% CI: 2.4%-7.9%) was significant higher than that in south area (CER=4.5%, 95% CI: 1.7%-7.3%). Regarding to the modification of seasons, the cumulative mortality effect of DTR in cold season (CER=5.8%, 95%CI: 2.5%-9.2%) was higher than that in hot season (CER=3.1%, 95%CI: 1.1%-5.1%). Generally, deaths among the elderly (≥75 years) were associated more strongly with extremely high DTR. Conclusions: The mortality effects of extremely DTR in different areas and seasons showed different characteristics, that in central area and in cold season it was significantly stronger. After modified by season and SES, DTRs were the greatest threat to vulnerable population, especially to the elderly (≥75 years). Therefore, more attention should be paid to vulnerable groups and protection measures should be taken according to the local and seasonal conditions.

Acute effect of fine particulate matters on daily cardiovascular disease mortality in seven cities of China.

Objective: To explore the effect of fine particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) on daily cardiovascular disease mortality in seven cities of China. Methods: Daily average concentrations of PM(2.5), cardiovascular disease mortality data and environmental data were collected from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 in seven cities of China, including Shijiazhuang, Haerbin, Shanghai, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Xi' an. We linked generalized additive model with Quasi-Poisson distribution to evaluate the association between daily concentrations of PM(2.5) and cardiovascular disease mortality at single-city level and multi-city level, after adjusting for the long-term and seasonal trend, as well as meteorological factors and the effect of " days of week" . Results: The single-pollutant model indicated that there were marked differences in association strength in these cities, among which the effect in Guangzhou was strongest. At multi-city level, a 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM(2.5) was associated with an increase of 0.315% (95%CI: 0.133%-0.497%) of daily cardiovascular disease mortality. From lag0 to lag2, the effect of PM(2.5) on cardiovascular disease mortality decreased, while it was strongest on lag01. In the two-pollutant model, the estimated effect decreased in all the cities with the adjustments of SO(2) or NO(2). The insignificant combined results suggested that PM(2.5) might have combined effect with other pollutants. Each 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM(2.5) was associated with increases of 0.371% (95%CI: 0.141%-0.600%) and 0.199% (95% CI: 0.077%-0.321%) of cardiovascular disease mortality in males and females, respectively. The effect of PM(2.5) on cardiovascular disease mortality increased with age and decreased with educational level, although the differences between different subgroups were insignificant. The dose-response relationship between PM(2.5) and cardiovascular disease mortality was non-linear and non-threshold, with a steeper curve at lower concentrations. Conclusion: The increases of PM(2.5) concentration can result in the increase of daily cardiovascular mortality.

Maternal, Labor, Delivery, and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with Placental Abruption: A Systematic Review.

Objective Risk factors for placental abruption have changed, but there has not been an updated systematic review investigating outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CINAHL for publications from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2016. We reviewed English-language publications reporting estimated incidence and/or risk factors for maternal, labor, delivery, and perinatal outcomes associated with abruption. We excluded case studies, conference abstracts, and studies that lacked a referent/comparison group or did not clearly characterize placental abruption. Results A total of 123 studies were included. Abruption was associated with elevated risk of cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage and transfusion, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction or low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and cerebral palsy. Additional maternal outcomes included relaparotomy, hysterectomy, sepsis, amniotic fluid embolism, venous thromboembolism, acute kidney injury, and maternal intensive care unit admission. Additional perinatal outcomes included acidosis, encephalopathy, severe respiratory disorders, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute kidney injury, need for resuscitation, chronic lung disease, infant death, and epilepsy. Conclusion Few studies examined outcomes beyond the initial birth period, but there is evidence that both mother and child are at risk of additional adverse outcomes. There was also considerable variation in, or absence of, the reporting of abruption definitions.

Erratum to: Maternal Mortality in Texas.

What Doesn't Kill You Doesn't Make You Stronger: The Long-Term Consequences of Nonfatal Injury for Older Adults.

The majority of research efforts centering on injury among older adults focus on fall-related injuries and short-term consequences of injury. Little is known about the long-term consequences of all-cause nonfatal injuries, including minor injuries. Using a recent, large, and nationally representative sample of the U.S. non-institutionalized civilian population, the current study examines whether older adults who sustained a nonfatal injury (serious and minor) have higher risk of long-term morbidity and mortality outcomes compared with noninjured seniors.

"End-of-Life Care? I'm not Going to Worry About That Yet." Health Literacy Gaps and End-of-Life Planning Among Elderly Dialysis Patients.

Between 2000 and 2012, the incident dialysis population in the United States increased by nearly 60%, most sharply among adults 75 years and older. End-of-life (EOL) conversations among dialysis patients are associated with better patient-centered outcomes and lower use of aggressive interventions in the last month of life. This study examined how health literacy may affect engagement, comprehension, and satisfaction with EOL conversations among elderly dialysis patients.

Elevated MIF-2 levels predict mortality in critically ill patients.

D-dopachrome tautomerase (MIF-2 or DDT) is a member of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) superfamily and a close structural homolog to MIF. Circulating MIF-2 has been described to be elevated in patients suffering from sepsis, severe burn injury and after surgery. We sought to evaluate the prognostic value of MIF-2 in critically ill patients.

Left Ventricular Retraining and Double Switch in Patients With Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries.

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CC-TGA) is a complex form of congenital heart defect with numerous anatomic subgroups. The majority of patients with CC-TGA are excellent candidates for a double-switch procedure. However, in the absence of an unrestrictive ventricular septal defect or subpulmonary stenosis, the left ventricle (LV) may undergo involution and require retraining prior to double switch. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with patients having CC-TGA who required LV retraining prior to a double-switch procedure.

Current Practices in the Timing of Stage 2 Palliation.

Mortality through single-ventricle palliation remains high and the effect of the timing of stage 2 palliation (S2P) is not well understood. We investigated current practice patterns in the timing of S2P across two professional societies and compared them to actual practice patterns from two databases of patients who underwent S2P.

Cardiac Function After Tetralogy of Fallot/Complete Atrioventricular Canal Repair.

Repair of complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC) with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a challenging operation increasingly being performed as a complete, primary repair in infancy. Previous studies have focused on perioperative outcomes; however, midterm valve function, ventricular function, and residual obstruction have received little attention.

Nineteen Years of Adult Congenital Heart Surgery in a Single Center.

Adults with congenital heart disease are a growing population. We describe surgical interventions, short- and long-term mortality and morbidity, and risk factors for adverse events in a population-based cohort.

Type IV Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection.

Mortality associated with correction of type IV total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is generally reported in combination with other anatomic types. The objective of this study is to review surgical outcomes associated with the repair of type IV TAPVC by analyzing a multi-institutional cohort specific for this group. We also analyze patient-specific variables that may contribute to poor operative outcomes.

Effect of Prime Blood Storage Duration on Clinical Outcome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with blood prime, the storage duration of the packed red blood cells (PRBCs) used in prime led to differences in postoperative complications and metabolic profiles of the patients.

Racial disparity in life expectancies and life years lost associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions.

This study investigated racial disparity in life expectancies (LEs) and life years lost (LYL) associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions (OCCs).

TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after six years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioural covariates were considered as potential confounders. After six years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95%CI= 7.4% to 11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (p-value= 0.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (rho= 0.188; p-value= 0.001), overall PA score (rho= -0.128; p-value= 0.001) and TV viewing (rho= 0.086; p-value= 0.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after six years of follow-up (p-value= 0.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR= 1.447 [1.019 to 2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of physical activity and other variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Long-term outcome after a treosulfan-based conditioning regimen for patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse and regimen-related toxicity remain significant barriers to long-term survival. In recent years, new conditioning regimens have been explored to improve transplantation outcomes in patients with AML. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukemic effect with a low toxicity profile.

Long-term symptom improvement and patient satisfaction following catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia: insights from the German ablation registry.

To analyse outcomes of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) ablations performed within a prospective German Ablation Quality Registry.

Radial versus femoral access in patients with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation: A pre-specified analysis from the randomized minimizing adverse haemorrhagic events by transradial access site and systemic implementation of angioX (MATRIX access).

To assess whether radial compared with femoral access is associated with consistent outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Importance of combined left atrial size and estimated pulmonary pressure for clinical outcome in patients presenting with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex syndrome with various phenotypes and outcomes. The prognostic relevance of echocardiography and the E/e' ratio has previously been reported. We sought to study in addition, the value of estimated pulmonary pressure and left atrial size for diagnosing and determining a prognosis for HFpEF-patients in a prospective multi-centric cohort.

Custodiol versus cold Calafiore for elective cardiac arrest in isolated aortic valve replacement: a propensity-matched analysis of 7263 patients†.

This study was designed to assess the impact of crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) and blood cardioplegia (BCP) on short- and long-term outcome after isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).

Systemic Immunomodulating Therapies for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare but severe adverse reactions with high mortality. There is no evidence-based treatment, but various systemic immunomodulating therapies are used.

Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: 2016 update.

Subclinical thyroid dysfunction comprises subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo), defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by normal free thyroxine (FT4), and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) with decreased or undetectable TSH and normal FT4. Up to 10% of the elderly have SHypo, which is usually asymptomatic. Individual participant data (IPD) analyses of prospective cohort studies from the international Thyroid Studies Collaboration show that SHypo is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1,58 for TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L, 95% CI 1.10-2.27), as well as increased risk of stroke, and heart failure (HF) for both higher and lower TSH. Small studies found that SHypo affects carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), diastolic function, peripheral vascular resistance, endothelial function, and lipid profile. SHyper is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.43) and CHD events (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.46). The TSH threshold for initiating treatment is unclear. In the absence of large randomized controlled trials, the best evidence suggests SHypo therapy should be started at TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L, and SHyper therapy at TSH < 0.1 mIU/L. Recommendations on screening are discordant, but most guidelines advocate that thyroid function should be checked in those at risk for hypothyroidism, those over 60, and those with known CHD and HF. This review updates current evidence on the association between thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, as well as on screening and treatment of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

Practical Review of Recognition and Management of Obesity and Lipohypertrophy in HIV Infection.

Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated HIV infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Long-term results (up to 14 years) of the clover technique for the treatment of complex tricuspid valve regurgitation†.

To report the long-term results of the clover technique for the treatment of complex forms of tricuspid regurgitation (TR).

International recommendations for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of mortality in athletes during sport. A variety of mostly hereditary, structural, or electrical cardiac disorders are associated with SCD in young athletes, the majority of which can be identified or suggested by abnormalities on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Whether used for diagnostic or screening purposes, physicians responsible for the cardiovascular care of athletes should be knowledgeable and competent in ECG interpretation in athletes. However, in most countries a shortage of physician expertise limits wider application of the ECG in the care of the athlete. A critical need exists for physician education in modern ECG interpretation that distinguishes normal physiological adaptations in athletes from distinctly abnormal findings suggestive of underlying pathology. Since the original 2010 European Society of Cardiology recommendations for ECG interpretation in athletes, ECG standards have evolved quickly over the last decade; pushed by a growing body of scientific data that both tests proposed criteria sets and establishes new evidence to guide refinements. On 26-27 February 2015, an international group of experts in sports cardiology, inherited cardiac disease, and sports medicine convened in Seattle, Washington, to update contemporary standards for ECG interpretation in athletes. The objective of the meeting was to define and revise ECG interpretation standards based on new and emerging research and to develop a clear guide to the proper evaluation of ECG abnormalities in athletes. This statement represents an international consensus for ECG interpretation in athletes and provides expert opinion-based recommendations linking specific ECG abnormalities and the secondary evaluation for conditions associated with SCD.

Clinical Significance of Human Coronavirus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients and Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

The possible role of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied.

Pre-diagnosis sleep duration, napping and mortality among colorectal cancer survivors in a large US cohort.

Pre-diagnosis lifestyle factors can influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Sleep deficiency is linked to metabolic dysfunction and chronic inflammation, which may contribute to higher mortality from cardiometabolic conditions and promote tumor progression. We hypothesized that pre-diagnosis sleep deficiency would be associated with poor CRC survival. No previous study has examined either nighttime sleep or daytime napping in relation to survival among men and women diagnosed with CRC.