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muscle spindle - Top 30 Publications

Post-biopsy MRI changes in the size and enhancement of intramuscular myxomas: A report of two cases.

Intramuscular myxomas are benign soft-tissue tumors, characterized by bland spindle-shaped cells and fibroblasts within an abundant mucoid matrix on histologic examination. Classically, these are slowly enlarging masses which may occasionally cause pain, paresthesia, and muscle weakness secondary to mass effect. We present an interesting phenomenon of two histologically confirmed cases of intramuscular myxomas that exhibited size and enhancement changes on follow-up imaging after image-guided biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe size and enhancement changes of intramuscular myxomas after biopsy.

Oxidized regenerated cellulose induces pleural thickening in patients with pneumothorax: possible involvement of the mesothelial-mesenchymal transition.

The pleural covering technique, i.e., wrapping a part of or the entire surface of the lung with oxidized regenerative cellulose (ORC), reinforces visceral pleura through pleural thickening for patients with pneumothorax and cystic lung diseases. However, it remains undetermined how ORC induces pleural thickening.

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Breast Mimicking Malignancy in an Elderly Male.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, distinctive lesion composed of a proliferation of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by an inflammatory infiltrate. It was first described in the lung, but its occurrence at various extrapulmonary sites has also been reported. The literature mentions only a handful of cases of IMT in the breast and only 1 case in the male breast. We report the second case of IMT in the male breast.

Thalamo-insular pathway conveying orofacial muscle proprioception in the rat.

Little is known about how proprioceptive signals arising from muscles reach to higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. We have recently shown that a particular thalamic region, the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), conveys the proprioceptive signals from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) in rats. In this study, we further addressed how the orofacial thalamic inputs from the JCMSs were transmitted from the thalamus (VPMcvm) to the cerebral cortex in rats. Injections of a retrograde and anterograde neuronal tracer, wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), into the VPMcvm demonstrated that the thalamic pathway terminated mainly in a rostrocaudally narrow area in the dorsal part of granular insular cortex rostroventrally adjacent to the rostralmost part of the secondary somatosensory cortex (dGIrvs2). We also electrophysiologically confirmed that the dGIrvs2 received the proprioceptive inputs from JCMSs. To support the anatomical evidence of the VPMcvm-dGIrvs2 pathway, injections of a retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold into the dGIrvs2 demonstrated that the thalamic neurons projecting to the dGIrvs2 were confined in the VPMcvm and the parvicellular part of ventral posterior nucleus. In contrast, WGA-HRP injections into the lingual nerve area of core VPM demonstrated that axon terminals were mainly labeled in the core regions of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, which were far from the dGIrvs2. These results suggest that the dGIrvs2 is a specialized cortical region receiving the orofacial proprioceptive inputs. Functional contribution of the revealed JCMSs-VPMcvm-dGIrvs2 pathway to Tourette's syndrome is also discussed.

Establishment and proteomic characterization of NCC-LMS1-C1, a novel cell line of primary leiomyosarcoma of the bone.

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is one of most aggressive mesenchymal malignancies that differentiate towards smooth muscle. The clinical outcome of LMS patients is poor; as such, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches. Experimental models such as patient-derived cell lines are invaluable tools for pre-clinical studies. In the present study, we established a stable cell line from the tumor tissue of a patient with a primary LMS of the bone. Despite the urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies in LMS, there are only a few LMS cell lines available in public cell banks, none of which are primary to the bone.

Leiomyosarcoma of maxilla: a case report with review of literature.

One challenging feature of head and neck pathology is that a dizzying array of spindle cell lesions occurs here which ranges all the way from reactive, very aggressive forms to malignant lesions. Leiomyosarcoma is one such malignant tumour of mesenchymal origin exhibiting smooth muscle differentiation; presenting generally nonspecific signs and symptoms. Here we present a case of leiomyosarcoma in a 21 year old female patient associated with single reddish pink swelling present in the posterior right maxillary tuberosity region with moderate facial asymmetry. On histopathological analysis, all the classic features were noted and diagnosis of a spindle cell neoplasm was made without any obscurity. There are many lesions like rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, multiple peripheral nerve sheath tumour, angiosarcomas, melanomas, kaposi sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumors, etc., which mimic leiomyosarcoma clinically and histopathologically and therefore immunohistochemical staining with specific markers plays a vital role in arriving at a conclusive diagnosis.

BubR1 insufficiency impairs angiogenesis in aging and in experimental critical limb ischemic mice.

Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-related 1 (BubR1), a cell cycle-related protein, is an essential component of the spindle checkpoint that regulates cell division. Mice in which BubR1 expression is reduced to 10% of the normal level display the phenotypic features of progeria. However, the role of BubR1 in vascular diseases and angiogenesis remains unknown. To investigate the influence of BubR1 on angiogenesis, we generated a low-null-BubR1-expressing (BubR1(L/-)) mouse strain with reduced BubR1 expression as low as 15% of the normal level without any abnormalities in appearance.

Plexiform Angiomyxoid Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Stomach: a Rare Case.

Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor (PAMT) of the stomach is a very rare mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of asymptomatic gastric PAMT that was pathologically confirmed after surgical resection. The tumor had a multinodular plexiform growth pattern, bland-looking spindle cells, and an Alcian blue-positive myxoid stromal matrix rich in small blood vessels. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the tumor cells of the PAMT were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and negative for c-kit, CD34, S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and desmin. PAMT should be differentiated from other submucosal tumors of the stomach by immunohistochemical findings. Considering the benign features of this tumor, observation without resection may be an option for the treatment of PAMT if the tumor is asymptomatic.

Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task.

Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and young adults (18-23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing.

Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions relevant to the detection and sensorimotor response to mechanical perturbations to the body, and to previously-described history-dependence in perception of limb position.

Identification and Distribution of the Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Abomasum of Goats.

The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are regarded as pacemakers and are involved in neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals. However, limited information is available about the existence of ICCs within the GIT of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural characteristics and distribution of ICCs in goat abomasum using transmission electron microscopy and c-kit immunohistochemistry. Two different kinds of c-kit immunoreactive cells were observed in the abomasum. The first was identified as ICCs, which appeared to be multipolar or bipolar in shape, with some processes. These c-kit immunoreactive cells were deposited in the submucosal layer, myenteric plexus between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, and within the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the abomasum. The second type of cell was round in shape and was identified as mast cells, which were located in the submucosal layer as well as in the lamina propria. Ultrastructurally, ICCs were also observed as stellate or spindle-shaped cells, which were consistent in shape with our c-kit immunoreactive cells. In the cytoplasm of ICCs, numerous mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and caveolae were detected. ICCs were located in the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers (ICC-MY), with the longitudinal and circular muscle layer was replaced as "intramuscular layers" (ICC-IM), and in the submucosal layer (ICC-SM). In addition, we found ICCs surrounding nerve fibers and smooth muscle cells, where they formed heterocellular junctions in the form of close membrane associations or gap junctions and homocellular junctions among the processes of the ICCs. In the current study, we provide the first complete characterization of ICCs within the goat abomasum and propose that ICCs might have a key role in producing contractions in the ruminant stomach for proper absorption of nutrients.

Effects of the availability of accurate proprioceptive information on older adults' postural sway and muscle co-contraction.

During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to increase proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment. This commenced on a fixed platform (baseline: 2 min), followed by 3 min on a sway-referenced platform (adaptation) and a final 3 min on a fixed platform again (reintegration). Sensory reweighting was slower in older adults, as shown by a significantly larger and longer postural sway after-effect once a stable platform was restored. Muscle co-contraction showed similar after-effects, whereby older adults showed a larger increase in co-contraction once the stable platform had been restored, compared to young adults. This co-contraction after-effect did not return to baseline until after 1 min. Our evidence for high muscle co-contraction during the reintroduction of veridical proprioceptive input suggests that increased co-contraction in older adults is not dependent on contemporaneous proprioceptive input. Rather, it is more likely that co-contraction is a general postural strategy used to minimise postural sway, which is increased during this sensory transition. Future research should examine whether muscle co-contraction is typically a reactive or anticipatory response.

Modeling the nonlinear cortical response in EEG evoked by wrist joint manipulation.

Joint manipulation elicits a response from the sensors in the periphery which, via the spinal cord, arrives in the cortex. The average evoked cortical response recorded using electroencephalography was shown to be highly nonlinear; a linear model can only explain 10% of the variance of the evoked response, and over 80% of the response is generated by nonlinear behavior. The goal of this study is to obtain a nonparametric nonlinear dynamic model, which can consistently explain the recorded cortical response requiring little a priori assumptions about model structure. Wrist joint manipulation was applied in ten healthy participants during which their cortical activity was recorded and modeled using a truncated Volterra series. The obtained models could explain 46% of the variance of the evoked cortical response, there by demonstrating the relevance of nonlinear modeling. The high similarity of the obtained models across participants indicates that the models reveal common characteristics of the underlying system. The models show predominantly high-pass behavior, which suggests that velocity-related information originating from the muscle spindles governs the cortical response. In conclusion, the nonlinear modeling approach using a truncated Volterra series with regularization, provides a quantitative way of investigating the sensorimotor system, offering insight into the underlying physiology.

Central Nervous System Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Masquerading as Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor in the central nervous system (CNS), mostly being extracranial. Approximately 100 sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. The rarity of the tumor, its various histopathological characteristics, and its variable aggressive course render it difficult to diagnose and treat. IMT is generally a histological diagnosis which is rarely suspected preoperatively. It mimics other intracranial tumors such as giant cell tumor, hemangiopericytoma, anaplastic meningioma, plasmacytoma, and lymphoma. Rarely, it can present with a clinical picture which mimics a benign infective process, Rosai-Dorfman disease, or an idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. High index of suspicion is required as total resection of this lesion is mandatory to prevent recurrence. Here, we describe a case of a 10-year-old child which initially presented with clinical features mimicking chronic suppurative otitis media and radiological presentation of a small intracranial abscess. He was initially treated by an ENT surgeon who started him on intravenous antibiotics, but the patient was lost to follow up. He returned after 2 months with a large lesion at the same location. Histological examination revealed multiple spindle cells with plasma cells and lymphocytes scattered among these spindle cells. The spindle cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, S100, and CD34.

FGF2-mediated attenuation of myofibroblast activation is modulated by distinct MAPK signaling pathways in human dermal fibroblasts.

Previous human and animal studies have demonstrated the ability of exogenously administered basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) to act as an antifibrotic agent in the skin. Though the activity of FGF2 as an anti-scarring agent is well-established for fibrotic skin wounds, the mechanisms by which FGF2 exerts these actions are not entirely understood. Canonical FGF2 signaling proceeds in part via FGFR/MAPK pathways in human dermal fibroblasts, and FGF2 has been described to prevent or reverse the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition, which is driven by TGFβ signaling and understood to be an important step in the formation of a fibrotic scar in vivo. Thus, we set out to investigate the antagonistic effects of FGF2 on TGFβ signaling as well as the broader effects of MAPK inhibition on the TGFβ-mediated induction of myofibroblast gene expression.

Biomimetic microenvironment complexity to redress the balance between biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis during early phase of vascular tissue engineering.

Physiological functionality of a tissue engineered vascular construct depends on the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured into the scaffold and mechanical robust of the construct relies on two simultaneous mechanisms including scaffold biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis by SMCs which both can be influenced by scaffold properties and culture condition. Our focus in this study was to provide an appropriate environmental condition within tissue engineering context to meet foregoing requisites for a successful vascular regeneration. To this end, SMCs seeded onto electrospun Tecophilic/gelatin (TP(70)/gel(30)) scaffolds were subjected to orbital shear stress. Given the improvement in mechanical properties of dynamically stimulated cell-seeded constructs after a span of 10days, effect of fluctuating shear stress on scaffold biodegradation and SMC behavior was investigated. Compared to static condition, SMCs proliferated more rapidly and concomitantly built up greater collagen content in response to dynamic culture, suggesting a reasonable balance between scaffold biodegradation and matrix turnover for maintaining the structural integrity and mechanical support to seeded cells during early phase of vascular tissue engineering. Despite higher proliferation of SMCs under dynamic condition, cells preserved nearly spindle like morphology and contractile protein expression likely thanks to composition of the scaffold.

Rarity among benign gastric tumors: Plexiform fibromyxoma - Report of two cases.

Plexiform fibromyxoma is a very rare mesenchymal tumor of the stomach, found almost exclusively in the antrum/pylorus region. The most common presenting symptoms are anemia, hematemesis, nausea and unintentional weight loss, without sex or age predilection. We describe here two cases of plexiform fibromyxoma, involving a 16-year-old female and a 34-year-old male. Both patients underwent complete resection (R0) by distal gastrectomy and retrocolic gastrojejunostomy (according to Billroth 2); for both, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histology showed multiple intramural and subserosal nodules with characteristic plexiform growth, featuring bland spindle cells situated in an abundant myxoid stroma with low mitotic activity. Immunohistochemistry showed α-smooth muscle actin-positive spindle cells, focal positivity for CD10, and negative staining for KIT, DOG1, CD34, S100, β-catenin, STAT-6 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. One of the cases showed focal positivity for h-caldesmon and desmin. Upon follow-up, no sign of disease was found. In the differential diagnosis of plexiform fibromyxoma, it is important to exclude the more common gastrointestinal stromal tumors as they have greater potential for aggressive behavior. Other lesions, like neuronal and vascular tumors, inflammatory fibroid polyps, abdominal desmoid-type fibromatosis, solitary fibrous tumors and smooth muscle tumors, must also be excluded.

Recurrent BRAF Gene Fusions in a Subset of Pediatric Spindle Cell Sarcomas: Expanding the Genetic Spectrum of Tumors With Overlapping Features With Infantile Fibrosarcoma.

Infantile fibrosarcomas (IFS) represent a distinct group of soft tissue tumors occurring in patients under 2 years of age and most commonly involving the extremities. Most IFS show recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusions, sensitivity to chemotherapy, and an overall favorable clinical outcome. However, outside these well-defined pathologic features, no studies have investigated IFS lacking ETV6-NTRK3 fusions, or tumors with the morphology resembling IFS in older children. This study was triggered by the identification of a novel SEPT7-BRAF fusion in an unclassified retroperitoneal spindle cell sarcoma in a 16-year-old female by targeted RNA sequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization screening of 9 additional tumors with similar phenotype and lacking ETV6-NTRK3 identified 4 additional cases with BRAF gene rearrangements in the pelvic cavity (n=2), paraspinal region (n=1), and thigh (n=1) of young children (0 to 3 y old). Histologically, 4 cases including the index case shared a fascicular growth of packed monomorphic spindle cells, with uniform nuclei and fine chromatin, and a dilated branching vasculature; while the remaining case was composed of compact cellular sheets of short spindle to ovoid cells. In addition, a minor small blue round cell component was present in 1 case. Mitotic activity ranged from 1 to 9/10 high power fields. Immunohistochemical stains were nonspecific, with only focal smooth muscle actin staining demonstrated in 3 cases tested. Of the remaining 5 BRAF negative cases, further RNA sequencing identified 1 case with EML4-NTRK3 in an 1-year-old boy with a foot IFS, and a second case with TPM3-NTRK1 fusion in a 7-week-old infant with a retroperitoneal lesion. Our findings of recurrent BRAF gene rearrangements in tumors showing morphologic overlap with IFS expand the genetic spectrum of fusion-positive spindle cell sarcomas, to include unusual presentations, such as older children and adolescents and predilection for axial location, thereby opening new opportunities for kinase-targeted therapeutic intervention.

Benign esophageal schwannoma: a brief overview and our experience with this rare tumor.

Benign esophageal tumors are uncommon, comprising approximately 2% of esophageal tumors. Esophageal schwannomas constitute an even rarer entity, with few cases reported in the literature.

Early growth response 2 and Egr3 are unique regulators in immune system.

The immune system is evolved to defend the body against pathogens and is composed of thousands of complicated and intertwined pathways, which are highly controlled by processes such as transcription and repression of cellular genes. Sometimes the immune system malfunctions and a break down in self-tolerance occurs. This lead to the inability to distinguish between self and non-self and cause attacks on host tissues, a condition also known as autoimmunity, which can result in chronic debilitating diseases. Early growth response genes are family of transcription factors comprising of four members, Egr1, Egr2, Egr3 and Egr4. All of which contain three cyc2-His2 zinc fingers. Initially, Egr2 function was identified in the regulation of peripheral nerve myelination, hindbrain segmentation. Egr3, on the other hand, is highly expressed in muscle spindle development. Egr2 and Egr3 are induced due to the antigen stimulation and this signaling is implemented through the B and T cell receptors in the adaptive immunity. T cell receptor signaling plays a key role in Egr 2 and 3 expressions via their interaction with NFAT molecules. Egr 2 and 3 play a crucial role in regulation of the immune system and their involvement in B and T cell activation, anergy induction and preventing the autoimmune disease has been investigated. The deficiency of these transcription factors has been associated to deficient Cbl-b expression, a resistant to anergy phenotype, and expression of effector and activated T cells.

Morphological and molecular characteristics of six Sarcocystis spp. from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain, including Sarcocystis cervicanis and three new species.

Samples of muscle tissue from the diaphragm, oesophagus and/or heart of eight adult red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) from the Quintos de Mora Park in Toledo, Central Spain, were screened for sarcocysts by means of the compression method. From positive samples, individual sarcocysts were excised and examined in wet mounts under a light microscope (LM) in order to study their basic morphology before being preserved for molecular studies. In all red deer examined, only microscopic sarcocysts were found. Those in the diaphragm and oesophagus were spindle-shaped and about 1 × 0.1 mm in size, while those in cardiac muscle were sac-like and 500-800 × 80-180 μm. By LM, the sarcocysts either had densely packed, about 8-μm-long, hair-like protrusions (type 1), sparsely distributed indistinct projections (fuzzy outline; type 2) or no visible protrusions (smooth surface; type 3). In cardiac muscle, only sarcocysts without visible protrusions were found. One of the latter sarcocysts was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to possess thin ribbon-like protrusions. Forty-eight sarcocysts isolated from the diaphragm, oesophagus and heart of one red deer, as well as 55 sarcocysts from the heart of three other red deer, 103 sarcocysts in total, were characterized molecularly through PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) of the mitochondrial genome, revealing the presence of six major cox1 sequence types. Each type comprised either a single sequence (three types) or a collection of several identical or nearly identical sequences. From selected isolates possessing each of these cox1 sequence types, the complete 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified and sequenced directly and/or after cloning of the 5' end half. Supported by the sequence data from the latter gene, as well as the morphology of the sarcocysts from which the sequences originated, the six cox1 sequence types were considered to represent six separate Sarcocystis spp. Two cox1 sequence types were identified as belonging to the previously characterized species Sarcocystis hjorti (one sequence/sarcocyst) and Sarcocystis linearis (38 sequences/sarcocysts), respectively, whereas four sequence types were new. One of the latter types was assigned to the previously named species Sarcocystis cervicanis from red deer, since this sequence type was obtained from 52 sarcocysts from cardiac muscle, which matched the original morphological description (smooth surface) and habitat of this species. The remaining three sequence types were assigned to the three new species Sarcocystis iberica (one sequence/sarcocyst) Sarcocystis venatoria (10 sequences/sarcocysts) and Sarcocystis morae (one sequence/sarcocyst), respectively. The two species S. iberica and S. venatoria shared the same sarcocyst morphology (type 1) and habitat (diaphragm) and had virtually identical 18S rRNA gene sequences, but differed by 4% at cox1, which was considered sufficient to regard them as separate species. The single sarcocyst of S. morae (from the oesophagus) examined by LM had a smooth wall and this species was therefore believed to have the same type of ribbon-like protrusions (ultrastructurally) as sarcocysts of S. cervicanis and S. linearis, which were also the species most closely related to S. morae at cox1. Thus, there seems to be three species with similar ribbon-like cyst wall protrusions in red deer (S. cervicanis, S. linearis, S. morae), as well as three species with similar hair-like protrusions (S. hjorti, S. iberica, S. venatoria). Sarcocysts of S. cervicanis were only identified in cardiac muscle, whereas sarcocysts of S. linearis were found mainly in the diaphragm and oesophagus and rarely in the heart. The relative number of cox1 haplotypes was greater among sequences/isolates of S. linearis (17/38) than among isolates of S. cervicanis (7/52). Four of the species examined (S. cervicanis, S. linearis, S. iberica, S. venatoria) possessed considerable intra-isolate (intra-genomic) sequence variation (insertions/deletions, substitutions) in the 18S rRNA gene.

TGF-β1 Induces EMT in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells Through the TGFβ1/Smad Signaling Pathway.

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in chronic inflammation in various tissues, and is related to inflammation-caused organ fibrogenesis associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the effect of TGF-β1 on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) with mastitis, and its mechanism, remain unknown.

The Proprioceptive System Regulates Morphologic Restoration of Fractured Bones.

Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed "natural reduction." Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly. Blocking Runx3 expression in the peripheral nervous system, but not in limb mesenchyme, recapitulated the null phenotype, as did inactivation of muscles flanking the fracture site. Egr3 knockout mice, which lack muscle spindles but not Golgi tendon organs, displayed a less severe phenotype, suggesting that both receptor types, as well as muscle contraction, are required for this regulatory mechanism. These findings uncover a physiological role for proprioception in non-autonomous regulation of skeletal integrity.

Aggressive angiomyxoma of the liver: a case report and literature review.

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the soft tissue of the pelvis and perineum. AAM has both locally infiltrative and recurrent characteristics. Very few cases of AAM occurring outside of the pelvis and perineum have been reported. Here, we report a case of AAM originating in the liver of a 33-year-old female patient.

The Proprioceptive System Masterminds Spinal Alignment: Insight into the Mechanism of Scoliosis.

Maintaining posture requires tight regulation of the position and orientation of numerous spinal components. Yet, surprisingly little is known about this regulatory mechanism, whose failure may result in spinal deformity as in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Here, we use genetic mouse models to demonstrate the involvement of proprioception in regulating spine alignment. Null mutants for Runx3 transcription factor, which lack TrkC neurons connecting between proprioceptive mechanoreceptors and spinal cord, developed peripubertal scoliosis not preceded by vertebral dysplasia or muscle asymmetry. Deletion of Runx3 in the peripheral nervous system or specifically in peripheral sensory neurons, or of enhancer elements driving Runx3 expression in proprioceptive neurons, induced a similar phenotype. Egr3 knockout mice, lacking muscle spindles, but not Golgi tendon organs, displayed a less severe phenotype, suggesting that both receptor types may be required for this regulatory mechanism. These findings uncover a central role for the proprioceptive system in maintaining spinal alignment.

Sensory contributions to stabilization of trunk posture in the sagittal plane.

Trunk stabilization is required to control posture and movement during daily activities. Various sensory modalities, such as muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs and the vestibular system, might contribute to trunk stabilization and our aim was to assess the contribution of these modalities to trunk stabilization. In 35 healthy subjects, upper-body sway was evoked by continuous unpredictable, force-controlled perturbations to the trunk in the anterior direction. Subjects were instructed to either 'maximally resist the perturbation' or to 'relax but remain upright' with eyes closed. Frequency response functions (FRFs) of admittance, the amount of movement per unit of force applied, and reflexes, the modulation of trunk extensor activity per unit of trunk displacement, were obtained. To these FRFs, we fitted physiological models, to estimate intrinsic trunk stiffness and damping, as well as feedback gains and delays. The different model versions were compared to assess which feedback loops contribute to trunk stabilization. Intrinsic stiffness and damping and muscle spindle (short-delay) feedback alone were sufficient to accurately describe trunk stabilization, but only with unrealistically low reflex delays. Addition of muscle spindle acceleration feedback or inhibitory Golgi tendon organ feedback yielded realistic delays and improved the model fit, with a significantly better model fit with acceleration feedback. Addition of vestibular feedback did not improve the model fit. In conclusion, muscle spindle feedback and intrinsic mechanical properties are sufficient to describe trunk stabilization in the sagittal plane under small mechanical perturbations, provided that muscle spindles encode acceleration in addition to velocity and position information.

Muscular responses appear to be associated with existence of kinesthetic perception during combination of tendon co-vibration and motor imagery.

The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation. Two vibrators were applied to the tendons of the left flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis. When the vibration frequency was the same between flexors and extensors, no participant perceived movement and no muscle activity was induced. When participants imagined flexing their wrists during tendon vibration, the velocity of perceptual flexion movement increased. Furthermore, muscle activity of the flexor increased only during motor imagery. These results demonstrate that kinesthetic perception can be induced during the combination of motor imagery and co-vibration, even with no experience of kinesthetic perception from an afferent input with co-vibration at the same frequency. Although motor responses were observed during combined co-vibration and motor imagery, no such motor responses were recorded during either co-vibration alone or motor imagery alone, suggesting that muscular responses during the combined condition are associated with kinesthetic perception. Thus, the present findings indicate that kinesthetic perception is influenced by the interaction between afferent input from muscle spindles and the efferent signals that underlie intentional movement. We propose that the physiological behavior resulting from kinesthetic perception affects the process of modifying agonist muscle activity, which will be investigated in a future study.

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of the trunk mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report.

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a rare lesion that generally occurs in the soft tissues of proximal limbs, head or neck and presents as a slowly growing mass. Abdominal or trunk locations are extremely rare.

Emotions alter muscle proprioceptive coding of movements in humans.

Emotions can evoke strong reactions that have profound influences, from gross changes in our internal environment to small fluctuations in facial muscles, and reveal our feelings overtly. Muscles contain proprioceptive afferents, informing us about our movements and regulating motor activities. Their firing reflects changes in muscle length, yet their sensitivity can be modified by the fusimotor system, as found in animals. In humans, the sensitivity of muscle afferents is modulated by cognitive processes, such as attention; however, it is unknown if emotional processes can modulate muscle feedback. Presently, we explored whether muscle afferent sensitivity adapts to the emotional situation. We recorded from single muscle afferents in the leg, using microneurography, and moved the ankle joint of participants, while they listened to evocative classical music to induce sad, neutral, or happy emotions, or sat passively (no music). We further monitored their physiological responses using skin conductance, heart rate, and electromyography measures. We found that muscle afferent firing was modified by the emotional context, especially for sad emotions, where the muscle spindle dynamic response increased. We suggest that this allows us to prime movements, where the emotional state prepares the body for consequent behaviour-appropriate reactions.

Muscle Proprioceptors in Adult Rat: Mechanosensory Signaling and Synapse Distribution in Spinal Cord.

The characteristic signaling and intra-spinal projections of muscle proprioceptors best described in the cat are often generalized across mammalian species. However, species-dependent adaptations within this system seem necessary to accommodate asymmetric scaling of length, velocity, and force information required by the physics of movement. In the present study we report mechanosensory responses and intraspinal destinations of three classes of muscle proprioceptors. Proprioceptors from triceps surae muscles in adult female Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane were physiologically classified as muscle spindle group Ia or II or as tendon organ group Ib afferents, studied for their firing responses to passive-muscle stretch, and in some cases, labeled and imaged for axon projections and varicosities in spinal segments. Afferent projections and the laminar distributions of provisional synapses in rats closely resembled those found in cat. Afferent signaling of muscle kinematics was also similar to reports on cat, but rat Ib afferents fired robustly during passive muscle stretch and Ia afferents displayed an exaggerated dynamic response, even after accounting for locomotor scaling. These differences in mechanosensory signaling by muscle proprioceptors may represent adaptations for movement control in different animal species.