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neoplasms - Top 30 Publications

Merkel cell carcinoma with fingolimod treatment for multiple sclerosis: A case report.

Neoplasms and reactivation of latent viruses have been observed in individuals taking fingolimod. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare neuroendocrine skin cancer, is associated with immunosuppression and can be triggered by the oncogenic Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). We report a case of a 61-year-old man with multiple sclerosis who developed MCPyV-positive MCC 4 years after starting fingolimod. This is the second report of MCC associated with MCPyV in an individual on fingolimod.

Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional shear-wave elastography: Associations of mean elasticity values with prognostic factors and tumor subtypes of breast cancer.

To explore associations between prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive breast cancer (IBC) and elasticity values using three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) shear-wave elastography (SWE).

Long-Term Safety of Growth Hormone - A Combined Registry Analysis.

Preliminary data from the French cohort of the Safety and Appropriateness of Growth hormone treatments in Europe (SAGhE) study raised concerns regarding the safety of recombinant human GH, suggesting that GH may increase mortality and incidence of stroke in patients treated during childhood for GH deficiency or short stature. We evaluated published safety data, focusing on mortality, neoplasms, cerebrovascular events and diabetes across a number of large-scale pharmaceutical company GH registries.

Cutaneous atypical papular CD8+ lymphoproliferative disorder at acral sites in a renal transplant patient.

A 20-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of an acute symmetrical eruption, manifesting as asymptomatic ill-defined erythematous macules and hyperkeratotic papules on the palms. The patient was a renal transplant recipient, and the lesions had developed 2 months post-transplantation. Histologically, the eruption shared features of a reactive inflammatory condition called papular eruption of atypical CD8+ lymphocytes as well as primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma (a provisional indolent entity in the new World Health Organisation classification of lymphoid neoplasms, 2016). The latter disorder has been described to occur at acral sites in immunocompetent patients, whereas the former has previously been described only in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The lesions in our patient healed after topical treatment with corticosteroids and alteration of immunosuppressive therapy, supporting the role of immunosuppression in this case. We classified our patient's condition as lying in the spectrum of the aforementioned two conditions, but the relationship between both diseases remains to be clarified. Awareness of these unusual conditions may prevent the use of unnecessary aggressive therapies in similar patients.

Metachronous solitary plasmacytoma.

Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disorder comprising 5%-10% of all plasma cell neoplasms. Progression to multiple myeloma is the most common pattern of relapse. Appearance of new lesions without any systemic disease is the most unusual pattern of relapse seen in <2% cases. We present a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with features of third and seventh cranial nerve palsy, diagnosed with solitary plasmacytoma, with no evidence of any systemic disease. As per standard recommendations, the patient received radiotherapy to the local site. The patient developed relapse twice, at three sites, during the follow-up period. Investigations revealed no evidence of any systemic disease. In view of repeat relapses, the patient was started on immune modulatory agent. Two and half years after the last radiotherapy, the patient is symptom free with no evidence of any new lesion.

Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Variations Between Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens.

Treatment-related toxicity can vary substantially between chemotherapy regimens. In this study we evaluated the frequency of outpatient office visits among a cohort of early stage breast cancer survivors after completion of 4 different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens to better understand how differences in toxicities between regimens might affect health care use.

The Cost-Effectiveness of Salpingectomies for Family Planning in the Prevention of Ovarian Cancer.

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecologic cancer. Disease prevention may be the only method to reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology advised that salpingectomies may be an appropriate and feasible strategy for ovarian cancer risk reduction. This study conducted an economic evaluation from a societal perspective of bilateral salpingectomies versus conventional sterilization techniques in the prevention of ovarian cancer.

The Epidemiology of Selenium and Human Cancer.

The relation between selenium and cancer has been one of the most hotly debated topics in human health over the last decades. Early observational studies reported an inverse relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk. Subsequently, randomized controlled trials showed that selenium supplementation does not reduce the risk of cancer and may even increase it for some types, including advanced prostate cancer and skin cancer. An increased risk of diabetes has also been reported. These findings have been consistent in the most methodologically sound trials, suggesting that the early observational studies were misleading. Other studies have investigated selenium compounds as adjuvant therapy for cancer. Though there is currently insufficient evidence regarding the utility and safety of selenium compounds for such treatments, this issue is worthy of further investigation. The study of selenium and cancer is complicated by the existence of a diverse array of organic and inorganic selenium compounds, each with distinct biological properties, and this must be taken into consideration in the interpretation of both observational and experimental human studies.

Programmed death-ligand 1 testing of lung cancer cytology specimens obtained with bronchoscopy.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression testing is recommended by guidelines for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the success rate of PD-L1 testing from cytology cell block samples obtained by bronchoscopic needle aspiration. The secondary objective was the assessment of the difference in specimen adequacy acquired via needles of different gauges.

"Suspicious" salivary gland FNA: Risk of malignancy and interinstitutional variability.

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimally invasive, and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Salivary gland neoplasms are often difficult to diagnose because of morphologic heterogeneity and a variety of epithelial metaplastic changes. Hence, a number of salivary gland FNA specimens yield indeterminate results. For indeterminate FNA specimens, the suspicious-for-malignancy (SFM) category is used when a specific neoplasm falls short in quantity or quality for the criteria for malignancy. Therefore, the findings are not sufficient for a conclusive diagnosis of malignancy.

Expression of the DNA repair gene MLH1 correlates with survival in patients who have resected pancreatic cancer and have received adjuvant chemoradiation: NRG Oncology RTOG Study 9704.

The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer who undergo curative resection experience rapid disease recurrence. In previous small studies, high expression of the mismatch-repair protein mutL protein homolog 1 (MLH1) in pancreatic cancers was associated with better outcomes. The objective of this study was to validate the association between MLH1 expression and survival in patients who underwent resection of pancreatic cancer and received adjuvant chemoradiation.

NARRMDA: negative-aware and rating-based recommendation algorithm for miRNA-disease association prediction.

An increasing amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to many important biological processes and play a significant role in various human diseases. More and more researchers have begun to seek effective methods to predict potential miRNA-disease associations. However, reliable computational methods to predict potential disease-related miRNAs are lacking. In this study, we developed a new miRNA-disease association prediction model called Negative-Aware and rating-based Recommendation algorithm for miRNA-Disease Association prediction (NARRMDA) based on the known miRNA-disease associations in the HMDD database, miRNA functional similarity, disease semantic similarity and Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity. NARRMDA combined a rating-based recommendation algorithm and a negative-aware algorithm to score and rank miRNAs without known associations with investigated diseases. Furthermore, we used leave-one-out cross validation to evaluate the accuracy of NARRMDA and compared NARRMDA with four previous classical prediction models (RLSMDA, HDMP, RWRMDA and MCMDA). As it turned out, NARRMDA and the other four prediction models achieved AUCs of 0.8053, 0.6953, 0.7702, 0.7891 and 0.7718, respectively, which proved that NARRMDA has superior performance of prediction accuracy. Furthermore, we verified the prediction results associated with colon neoplasms, esophageal neoplasms, lymphoma and breast neoplasms by two different validation schemas. In these case studies, 92%, 84%, 92%, and 100% of the top 50 potential miRNAs for these four diseases were confirmed by experimental discoveries, respectively. These results further show that NARRMDA has reliable performance of prediction ability.

t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma: a study of seven cases including two with aggressive behavior, and utility of CD68 (PG-M1) in the differential diagnosis with pure epithelioid PEComa/epithelioid angiomyolipoma.

Renal cell carcinomas with t(6;11) chromosome translocation involving the TFEB gene are indolent neoplasms which often occur in young patients. In this study, we report seven cases of renal cell carcinoma with TFEB rearrangement, two of whom had histologically proven metastasis. Patients (4F, 3M) ranged in age from 19 to 55 years (mean 37). One patient developed paratracheal and pleural metastases 24 months after surgery and died of disease after 46 months; another one recurred with neoplastic nodules in the perinephric fat and pelvic soft tissue. Histologically, either cytological or architectural appearance was peculiar in each case whereas one tumor displayed the typical biphasic morphology. By immunohistochemistry, all tumors labelled for cathepsin K, Melan-A and CD68 (KP1 clone). HMB45 and PAX8 staining were detected in six of seven tumors. All tumors were negative for CD68 (PG-M1 clone), CKAE1-AE3, CK7, CAIX, and AMACR. Seven pure epithelioid PEComa/epithelioid angiomyolipomas, used as control, were positive for cathepsin K, melanocytic markers, and CD68 (PG-M1 and KP1) and negative for PAX8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed the presence of TFEB gene translocation in all t(6;11) renal cell carcinomas with a high frequency of split TFEB fluorescent signals (mean 74%). In the primary and metastatic samples of the two aggressive tumors, increased gene copy number was observed (3-5 fluorescent signals per neoplastic nuclei) with a concomitant increased number of CEP6. Review of the literature revealed older age and larger tumor size as correlating with aggressive behavior in these neoplasms. In conclusion, we present the clinical, morphological and molecular features of seven t(6;11) renal cell carcinomas, two with histologically demonstrated metastasis. We report the high frequency of split signals by FISH in tumors with t(6;11) chromosomal rearrangement and the occurrence of TFEB gene copy number gains in the aggressive cases, analyzing either the primary or metastatic tumor. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of CD68 (PG-M1) immunohistochemical staining in distinguishing t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma from pure epithelioid PEComa/epithelioid angiomyolipoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.144.

Prognostic Value of Osteoprotegerin and sRANKL in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL). OPG promotes endothelial cell survival and neoangiogenesis. Dysregulation of the OPG/RANKL system has been detected in several tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of OPG and sRANKL assessment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We measured the concentration of OPG and sRANKL in BALF of 44 NSCLC patients and 15 healthy volunteers taken as control subjects. The OPG content was higher in the NSCLC group than that in controls [0.48 (0.12-1.45) vs. 0.23 (0.14-0.75) pmol/l; p = 0.0001]. There were no significant differences in sRANKL content between the NSCLC and control groups [1.22 (0.74-23.00) vs. 1.12 (0.79-4.39) pmol/l; p = 0.67]. However, we found that the greater the level of sRANKL in NSCLC patients, the shorter the overall survival. We found a correlation between the content of sRANKL and the percentage of lymphocytes in BALF of NSCLC patients (r = 0.52; p = 0.041). We conclude that NSCLC patients have a higher content of OPG in BALF than healthy people. A high level of sRANKL in BALF of NSCLC patients may predict worse survival.

The feasibility of laparoscopic rectal resection in patients undergoing reoperation after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM).

The success of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for early rectal cancer depends on proper indications and strict patient selection. When unfavorable pathologic features are identified after TEM operation, total mesorectal excision is recommended to minimize the risk of recurrence. In this study, data were collected in a retrospective series of patients to determine the results of laparoscopic reoperation after TEM.

Radiation-induced liver injury mimicking liver metastases on FDG-PET-CT after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer : A retrospective study and literature review.

For esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), restaging using F‑18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) following nCRT can detect interval metastases, including liver metastases, in almost 10% of patients. However, in clinical practice, focal FDG liver uptake, unrelated to liver metastases, is observed after chemoradiotherapy. This radiation-induced liver injury (RILI) can potentially lead to overstaging.

FDG avid breast cancer bone metastases silent on CT and scintigraphy: a case report with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

Bone is the one of the most common distant metastatic sites in breast cancer. Routine initial breast cancer staging evaluation typically includes computed tomography (CT) and skeletal scintigraphy while 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is reserved for clinically high-risk cases. Since FDG PET-CT is not routinely performed during staging or surveillance evaluations, it is important for radiologists and clinicians to appreciate the limitations of bone metastasis detection on CT and scintigraphy. We present a case of bony metastases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast which were not detected on diagnostic CT or skeletal scintigraphy but were metabolically active on FDG PET-CT and evident on magnetic resonance. We provide a review of the literature and radiologic-pathologic correlation to explain the discordant imaging findings.

Midostaurin: a novel therapeutic agent for patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis.

The development of FLT3-targeted inhibitors represents an important paradigm shift in the management of patients with highly aggressive fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-mutated (FLT3-mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Midostaurin is an orally administered type III tyrosine kinase inhibitor which in addition to FLT3 inhibits c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, src, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Midostaurin is the first FLT3 inhibitor that has been shown to significantly improve survival in younger patients with FLT3-mut AML when given in combination with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy based on the recently completed RATIFY study. Its role for maintenance therapy after allogeneic transplantation and use in combination with hypomethylating agents for older patients with FLT3-mut has not yet been defined. Midostaurin also has recently been shown to have significant activity in systemic mastocytosis and related disorders due to its inhibitory effect on c-kit bearing a D816V mutation. Activation of downstream pathways in both of these myeloid malignancies likely plays an important role in the development of resistance, and strategies to inhibit these downstream targets may be synergistic. Incorporating patient factors and tumor characteristics, such as FLT3 mutant to wild-type allele ratios and resistance mutations, likely will be important in the optimization of midostaurin and other FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of myeloid neoplasms.

The comparison of characters between invasive micropapillary carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified of the breast.

Objective: To analyze the differences of clinicopathological characters and prognostic factors between invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast (IMPC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) not otherwise specified of the breast. Methods: Patients who were treated from June 2008 to April 2016 in Breast Center of Beijing Hospital were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the differences between IMPC (n=59) and IDC (n=1 080). Follow-up was done every 3 to 6 months postoperatively with a deadline of July 31, 2016. The curves of disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were drawn by Kaplan-Meier method, and survival rates were compared by means of the Log-rank test. Potential prognostic variables which were identified on univariate analysis were analyzed with Cox's proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis. Results: More lymph nodes were involved in IMPC group (χ(2)=12.168, P=0.007) which led to more later stage in this group (χ(2)=8.950, P=0.011). IMPC group displayed a significantly increased rate of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) compared to IDC group (χ(2)=13.511, P = 0.001). The expression rate of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) was higher in IMPC group than that in IDC group (89.8% vs. 76.3% and 88.1% vs. 70.7%, respectively, χ(2)=5.786, 8.332, all P<0.05). In multivariate analysis performed with the variables found significant in univariate analysis, the only variable found significantly affecting DFS of IMPC group was the T stage (T1-2 and T3-4, OR=5.217, 95%CI: 1.401 to 19.430, P=0.014), while in IDC group, pathological stage (stage Ⅰ to Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ to Ⅳ, OR=1.870, 95% CI: 1.262 to 2.771, P=0.002), lymph node positive ratio (LNR) (OR=2.222, 95%CI: 1.561 to 3.162, P=0.000), PR (OR=1.856, 95%CI: 1.118 to 3.082, P=0.017), and age (<50 years old and ≥50 years old, OR=0.695, 95%CI: 0.488 to 0.989, P=0.043) were prognostic factors. There were two variables found significantly affecting OS of IMPC group, which were T stage (OR=3.713, 95%CI: 1.539 to 8.959, P=0.004) and LNR (OR=2.850, 95%CI: 1.033 to 7.862, P=0.043). While in IDC group, LNR was the only variable found significantly affecting OS (OR=2.129, 95%CI: 1.324 to 3.425, P=0.002). Compared with IDC, the patients with IMPC were more likely to have local or regional recurrence (P=0.006). Although the median DFS interval was longer in IDC group (χ(2)=9.739, P=0.002), the median OS interval was comparable between the two groups (χ(2)=0.787, P=0.375). Conclusion: Although IMPC has lymphotropic feature, tendency of LVI and local or regional recurrence, it has an OS which is comparable with IDC.

Detection and clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma.

Objective: To detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with colorectal carcinoma and to evaluate the relationship among CTC, clinic-pathological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 109 patients with colorectal carcinoma in Department of General Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from April 2014 to October 2016. There were 60 male and 49 female patients, aging from 33 to 86 years with a mean age of (65±10) years.CTC were detected using density-gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence staining. χ(2) test, Fisher exact test and rank-sum test were used to analyze the relation between positive rate of CTC and clinical characteristic, respectively. The correlation analysis of CTC and common tumor markers was detected by χ(2) test and Spearman test. The overall survival of patients was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional hazard model. Results: CTC were found in 71 of the 109 patients with colorectal carcinoma. The presence of CTC was significantly correlated with N stage (Z=4.422, P=0.035) and M stage (χ(2)=4.424, P=0.049). However, CTC was not significantly correlated with age, sex, tumor location, tumor size, differentiation, T stage, Ki-67 and TNM stage (P>0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant correlation between CTC and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) (χ(2)=4.897, P=0.027; r=0.212, P=0.027) indicated by χ(2) test and Spearman correlations analysis. The positive rate of CTC was higher than that of CEA (χ(2)=15.45, P=0.000). Survival analysis suggested that positive CTC was poor for overall survival in colorectal cancer with adjusted HR as 3.023(95%CI: 1.330 to 6.872, P=0.008). Conclusions: CTC is helpful to early diagnosis tumor recurrence and metastasis. Hence, combined multiple tumor markers, including the CTC as common indicators of tumor diagnosis, relapse and metastasis could effectively improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

Application of three-dimensional visualization in pancreatic tumor: a pilot study.

Objective: To study the value of three-dimensional(3D) visualization in the diagnosis and surgical treatment for pancreatic tumor. Methods: From June to September 2016, 26 patients with pancreatic tumors in Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were involved. The study included 26 patients(8 females and 18 males) with mean age of (57±12)years (ranging from 23 to 77 years). And there were 20 malignant tumors and 6 benign tumors. All of them were examined with abdominal thin slice CT scanning and the CT images were imported into 3D visualization system for 3D visualization. The main elements examined by 3D visualization included tumor shape, size, and location; distribution and morphology of the peripancreatic lymph node; the relationships among neoplasms, organs and blood vessels. Results: Among the 26 patients, there were 21 cases with pancreatic cancer, of which 15 cases successfully underwent standard pancreatectomy. All patients were operated underwent accurate assessment. The 3D model demonstrated the origination and bifurcations of blood vessels, and the relationships among neoplasms, organs and blood vessels efficiently. The 3D technique could facilitate to evaluate response of neiadjuvant chemotherapy in the pancreatic cancer patients (n=5).3D reconstruction could detect the lymph-node metastases accurately (n=12) in patients with pancreatic cancer. 3D reconstruction were applied to evaluate the the size and range of tumor on 5 cases. Conclusions: 3D reconstruction allows stereoscopic identification of the spatial relationships between physiologic and pathologic structures.The 3D technique could facilitate to evaluate distribution and morphology of the peripancreatic lymph node, and to evaluate the relationships among neoplasms, organs and blood vessels.

Analysis of diagnosis, therapy and prognosis factors of 103 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Objective: To discuss the clinical pathology characteristics, strategies of diagnosis and therapy, and related prognosis factors of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors(pNET). Methods: Clinical data of 103 pNET cases in Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Changhai Hospital of Second Military Medical University were collected from January 2006 to December 2015. There were 44 males and 59 females, aged from 21 to 77 years with mean age of 48 years.Of the 103 patients, there were functional type in 21 cases and no functional type in 82 cases. Related factors on diagnosis and treatment were summarized. Moreover, univariate survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method, and COX proportional hazards model was used for multivariate survival analysis. Results: The detection rates of the B-ultrasound, CT, MRI were 60.2%, 84.6% and 91.3%, respectively, and there were 44 cases located in pancreatic head, 18 cases in pancreatic neck and 41 cases in pancreatic body and tail.G1 was the most common pathological grade, and the positive rates of Chromogranin A, Syn, neuron-specific enolase and CAM5.2 were 97.1%, 97.1%, 91.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that tumor grade(χ(2)=26.077, P<0.05), Ki-67 index(χ(2)=25.427, P<0.05), ENETS stage(χ(2)=5.915, P<0.05), AJCC stage(χ(2)=8.411, P<0.05), lymph node metastasis(χ(2)=4.770, P<0.05) and distant metastasis(χ(2)=8.411, P<0.05) were associated with the prognosis of pNET, and the tumor grade was an independent risk factor of the pNET' overall prognositic factors (HR=3.085, P<0.01). Conclusions: The pNET can be located in any part of pancreas, and the combination of laboratory and various imaging examinations can help make early diagnosis. In addition, tumor grade, Ki-67 index, ENETS stage, AJCC stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were closely related to the prognosis of pNET, and the higher the tumor grade, the worse the prognosis.

Use of prostate health index in diagnosing prostate cancer in Chinese men.

Objective: To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) <20 μg/L. Methods: Totally 1 135 patients with tPSA<20 μg/L and prostate biopsy indications at Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from March 2013 to April 2016 were enrolled in this study. They were tested for serum tPSA, free prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen isoform 2, from which PHI was calculated. Diagnostic efficacy of PHI and tPSA were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The detection rates of prostate cancer were calculated in different ranges of PHI. Subgroup analysis of 716 patients, who were aged 50 or above with tPSA in the range of 4 to 10 μg/L and digital rectal examination negative, was performed. Results: In the biopsied objects with tPSA<20 μg/L, PHI was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than that in non-cancer patients (48.4(37.4) vs. 26.5(16.9), U=52 674.00, P=0.000), PHI was also significantly higher in high-grade prostate cancer patients than that of low-grade prostate cancer patients (44.5(30.8) vs. 56.4(42.5), U=23 314.00, P=0.000). The area under the curve (AUC) of PHI for diagnosing prostate cancer was significantly higher than that of tPSA (0.771 vs. 0.627, P=0.000). When PHI was in the range of <27, 27 to <36, 36 to <55 and ≥55, the probability of prostate cancer was 9.4% (95%CI: 7.0% to 12.2%), 16.3% (95%CI: 12.2% to 20.8%), 31.0% (95%CI: 25.9% to 37.3%) and 66.4% (95%CI: 58.9% to 74.2%), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the AUC of PHI in diagnosing prostate cancer was significantly higher than that of tPSA (0.764 vs. 0.569, P=0.000). When PHI was in the range of <27, 27 to <36, 36 to <55 and ≥55, the probability of prostate cancer was 8.1% (95%CI: 5.4% to 11.3%), 14.0% (95%CI: 9.1% to 19.9%), 30.8% (95%CI: 23.6% to 38.7%) and 78.8% (95%CI: 66.7% to 88.9%), respectively. Conclusion: PHI is superior to tPSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in Chinese men with tPSA<20 μg/L.

Consensus of Chinese experts on prostate neoplasms surgical treatment.

Prostate neoplasms is the second most common male cancer worldwide. In China, the incidence of prostate neoplasms has been rising rapidly over the past several years. Minimally Invasive Surgery Group of Chinese Anti Cancer Association Genitourinary Oncology Committee presents the Chinese experts consensus on prostate neoplasms surgical treatment based on the present situation of prostate cancer in China and the latest developments in the world.

Effect of transcription factor E2F1 expression on the invasion of prostate cancer.

Objective: To investigate the effect of transcription factor E2F1 on the invasion of prostate cancer and its clinical significance. Methods: A stable inhibition of E2F1 prostate cancer cell line PC3 was established. The E2F1 and relative invasion biomarker protein expression level of the transfected cells was detected by Western blot. The PC3 cells were divided into two groups: the control group and sh-E2F1 group, cell invasion assay and cell scratch test were used to detect the number of cell migration in the experiment time. The relationship between E2F1 mRNA expression level and clinical prognostic parameters was analyzed through microarray data of prostate cancer. Results: E2F1 inhibited PC3 cell line was constructed successfully. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of Vimentin, CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein in E2F1 suppression group was lower than those in control group, while the protein expression of E-cadherin increased. Compared to the control group, inhibiting the expression of E2F1 in prostate cancer cells significantly decreased the invasion and migration, with significant difference (P<0.05). High mRNA expression of E2F1 decreased biochemical recurrence rate and overall survival rate after surgery (P=0.047, 0.035), and the E2F1 expression level was related to pathological stage of prostate cancer. Gleason score and tumor metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: E2F1 enhances the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer through a variety of mechanisms, and its expression level has an important relationship with the adverse prognosis of patients with prostate cancer.

Clinical significance of lymphatic metastasis between sternocleidomastoid and sternohyoid muscle in papillary thyroid cancer.

Objective: To explore the clinical significance of metastasis of lymph nodes between sternocleidomastoid and sternohyoid muscle (LNSS) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Methods: A total of 175 patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with LNSS dissection were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent risk factors for LNSS metastasis in PTC. Results: The rate of detectable LNSS was 70.9% (124/175) and metastasis rate was 7.4% (13/175). Of 13 cases with LNSS metastasis, 10 with the coexistence of cervical lymph node metastasis. Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that multiple focal cancer, tumor located in the lower pole of thyroid, belt-shaped muscle invasion, lateral cervical lymph node metastasis, cN+ , the number of cervical lymph nodes with metastasis and the number of lymph nodes with metastasis in level Ⅳwere the risk factors for LNSS metastasis (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis suggested that tumor located in the lower pole of thyroid and the number of cervical lymph nodes with metastasis >6 were the independent risk factors for LNSS metastasis (P<0.05). Given the number of cervical lymph nodes with metastasis as a predictor for the LNSS metastasis, the sensitivity was 92.3%, the specificity was 66.7% and the accuracy rate was 68.6%. Conclusions: LNSS metastasis is commom in PTC, with a metastasis rate of 7.4%. PTC in the lower pole of thyroid and the number of cervical lymph nodes with metastasis > 6 are independent risks for LNSS metastasis.

Risk factors and survival analysis for synchronous esophageal carcinoma in patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Objective: To investigate the risk factors and survival status of hypopharyngeal carcinoma with synchronous second primary carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients with newly diagnosed hypopharyngeal carcinoma from January 2009 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical data, tumor-related information and follow-up results were collected and analyzed. Results: Forty-three synchronous esophageal carcinomas (27%) were detected in 160 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma, and most patients (72%) were at an early stage. On univariate analysis, the median age of less than 55 years old (χ(2)=4.525, P=0.033), excessive alcohol consumption (χ(2)=6.942, P=0.008) and invasion site more than 3 anatomical regions (χ(2)=21.503, P=0.000) had a significant correlation with the occurrence of synchronous esophageal carcinomas. Multivariate analysis showed that excessive alcohol consumption (OR=4.787, P=0.029) and invasion site more than 3 anatomical regions (OR=14.391, P=0.000) were independent risk factors. The median survival time was 26 months in 43 patients with synchronous esophageal carcinomas, which was significantly lower than that (58 months) in patients without secondary primary esophageal carcinomas (χ(2)=11.981, P=0.001). Conclusions: There is a high incidence of synchronous esophageal carcinoma in hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients, affecting the prognosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Surveillance for esophageal carcinomas in patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma, especially in excessive alcohol drinkers, is warranted.

Loss of BRCA associated protein 1 expression in malignant mesothelioma and its diagnostic application.

Objective: To investigate the expression of BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) in malignant mesothelioma, non-small cell lung cancer and carcinosarcoma, and its application in the differential diagnosis. Methods: Twenty-two cases of malignant mesothelioma including 17 epithelioid type, 2 sarcomatoid type and 3 biphasic type were collected.As the study control, 80 non-small cell lung cancers infringement pleural membrane(including 40 lung adenocarcinomas and 40 lung squamous cell carcinomas) and 15 carcinosarcomas were included. BAP1 expression was detected using immunohistochemical method. A differential diagnosis antibody panel, including calretinin, WT1, CK5/6, D2-40, CAM5.2, CEA, TTF1, Napsin A, p63 and p40 was tested in all cases. Results: All 80 cases of non-small cell lung cancer and 15 cases of carcinosarcoma were BAP1 positive. In contrast, 64% (14/22) of malignant mesotheliomas lost BAP1 expression (P<0.01). Addition of BAP1 to the mesothelioma marker panel, the diagnostic accuracy of malignant mesothelioma was enhanced to 93%. Focal expression of BAP1 in tumors suggested multiclonal evolution of mesothelioma. Conclusions: Loss of BAP1 expression helps to confirm the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma whereas all non-small cell lung cancer expresses BAP1. It is therefore recommended that BAP1 can be used in conjunction with other immunohistochemical markers to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant mesothelioma.

Poorly-differentiated chordoma with INI1 loss: a clinicopathologic study.

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of poorly-differentiated chordoma with INI1 loss in children and to discuss the differential diagnosis. Methods: The clinical, radiological, histopathological profiles and molecular pathologic characteristics of two pediatric poorly differentiated chordoma cases with INI1 loss were reviewed. Results: The patients were a girl and a boy. Both lesions involved the slope. Both patients were presented with progressive muscle weakness or neck pain. Radiological examination showed clivus bone destruction and compression of the brain stem and cervical spinal cord. Histologically, the tumor cells lacked typical organization and were associated with inflammatory cells infiltration. On high power field, the tumor cells were ovoid or fusiform with prominent atypia, vacuolated nuclei and prominent nucleoli. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, brachyury and were negative for INI1. In both cases, INI1 gene deletion was detected by FISH. Conclusions: Poorly-differentiated chordoma with INI1 loss mainly occurs in children. The morphology is different from classical chordoma.INI1 gene deletion is detectable by FISH. It can be distinguished from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and other neoplasms by the identification of nuclear brachyury expression. The loss of INI1 expression in poorly-differentiated chordoma might be associated with a poorly-differentiated morphology and an adverse prognosis.

Adolescents and young adults with brain tumors in the context of molecular advances in neuro-oncology.

Adolescents and young adults (AYA) comprise a specific group of oncology patients with a distinct biological and epidemiological spectrum of central nervous system neoplasms. It has been well documented that they differ clinically, especially in relation to prognosis and chemotherapy tolerance; however, the underlying reasons for this are unclear. Recent advances in the genomics of both childhood and adult brain tumors have provided new explanations and insights into the previously described age-dependent heterogeneity. Herein, we summarize the current state of the AYA population in neuro-oncology, specifically how biological advances can help personalize therapy for this unique group of patients.