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outcome assessment (health care) - Top 30 Publications

Pediatrician-experienced barriers in the medical care for refugee children in the Netherlands.

Pediatricians in the Netherlands have been confronted with high numbers of refugee children in their daily practice. Refugee children have been recognized as an at-risk population because they may have an increased burden of physical and mental health conditions, and their caretakers may experience barriers in gaining access to the Dutch health care system. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the barriers in the health care for refugee children perceived by pediatricians by analyzing logistical problems reported through the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit, an online system where pediatricians can report predefined conditions. Pediatricians reported 68 cases of barriers in health care ranging from mild to severe impact on the health outcome of refugee children, reported from November 2015 till January 2017. Frequent relocation of children between asylum seeker centers was mentioned in 28 of the reports on lack of continuity of care. Unknown medical history (21/68) and poor handoffs of medical records resulting in poor communication between health professionals (17/68) contributed to barriers to provide good medical care for refugee children, as did poor health literacy (17/68) and cultural differences (5/68).

Study protocol: quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 2, UK Prospective Cohort Study.

The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors.

Effects of lifestyle modification on cancer recurrence, overall survival and quality of life in gynaecological cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The benefits of lifestyle interventions for women who have survived gynaecological cancer (GC) remain unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of lifestyle interventions on cancer recurrence, overall survival and quality of life (QoL) in women with GC. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews from June to July 2016 to identify relevant literature. We included randomized controlled trials in which a lifestyle intervention (diet, weight loss, physical activity and/or behavioural interventions) were compared with a control condition (usual care, placebo or other lifestyle interventions) in women who had survived endometrial or ovarian cancer. Primary outcomes included cancer recurrence and overall survival and the secondary outcome was QoL. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to calculate mean differences (md) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The literature search yielded 928 citations and three trials met the inclusion criteria. No randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of lifestyle interventions on cancer recurrence or survival. Meta-analysis of two randomized controlled trials on the effect of lifestyle interventions on total QoL at 3 or 6 months post-intervention showed no significant difference between intervention and control groups [(md; 1.60; 95% CI, -1.65 to 4.85) and (md; 2.07; 95% CI, -1.80 to 5.94), respectively]. That is, lifestyle intervention had no effect on overall QoL or individual QoL domains (physical, emotional, social wellbeing and fatigue) in GC survivors. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016043719.

Transition Intervention for Adolescents With Congenital Heart Disease.

There is little evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions to prepare adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) to enter adult care.

Derivation and internal validation of a mortality risk index for aged people living with HIV: The Dat'AIDS score.

The objective was to develop a multivariable prognostic index for overall mortality over a five-year span integrating classical HIV biomarkers and comorbidities in people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 60 or older.

The Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality: An Outcome Evaluation From the US South, 2011 to 2014.

To evaluate the impact of the Southern Public Health Regions' (Regions IV and IV) Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality, supported by the US Health Resources and Services Administration.

Which Patients in the Emergency Department Should Receive Preexposure Prophylaxis? Implementation of a Predictive Analytics Approach.

Emergency Departments (EDs) have the potential to play a crucial role in HIV prevention by identifying and linking high-risk HIV-negative clients to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care, but it is difficult to perform HIV risk assessment for all ED patients. We aimed to develop and implement an electronic risk score to identify ED patients who are potential candidates for PrEP. Using electronic medical record (EMR) data, we used logistic regression to model the outcome of PrEP eligibility. We converted the model into an electronic risk score and incorporated it into the EMR. The risk score is automatically calculated at triage. For patients whose risk score is above a given threshold, an automated electronic alert is sent to an HIV prevention counselor who performs real time HIV prevention counseling, risk assessment, and PrEP linkage as appropriate. The electronic risk score includes the following EMR variables: age, gender, gender of sexual partner, chief complaint, and positive test for sexually transmitted infection in the prior 6 months. A risk score ≥21 has specificity of 80.6% and sensitivity of 50%. In the first 5.5 months of implementation, the alert fired for 180 patients, 34.4% (62/180) of whom were women. Of the 51 patients who completed risk assessment, 68.6% (35/51) were interested in PrEP, 17.6% (9/51) scheduled a PrEP appointment, and 7.8% (4/51) successfully initiated PrEP. The measured number of successful PrEP initiations is likely an underestimate, as it does include patients who initiated PrEP with outside providers or referred acquaintances for PrEP care.

Patient Reported Outcomes for the Detection, Quantification and Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

An exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, accompanied by a variable degree of physiological deterioration. The traditional assessment of an exacerbation consists of the reporting of symptoms directly by the patient to a clinician and subsequent clinical assessment. It would be valuable to also gather symptom reports directly from patients and thus patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools should be ideally suited to the evaluation of COPD exacerbations. However, most pharmaceutical and large academic-sponsored studies have used a healthcare resource utilization definition alone based on sustained worsening of a patient's condition from the stable state that requires a change in regular medication. This review explores the use of PROs for the detection, quantification, and evaluation of COPD exacerbations. It examines symptom diary cards as exacerbation detection tools and their evolution into electronic diaries used in pharmaceutical trials. This paper also describes the development of specifically designed PROs that have been used in exacerbation settings, focusing on the Exacerbations and Symptoms in COPD (ESCO) e-Diary, EXAcerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT®), COPD Assessment Test™ (CAT) and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ), highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. We describe the effectiveness of these tools to enhance exacerbation reporting, quantify exacerbation characteristics, including the frequency, duration, and severity of events, and evaluate the outcome. We also explore the potential use of PROs in future studies to discriminate the effect of therapies on different exacerbation phenotypes and thus enhance personalized therapeutic approaches.

Sitting versus standing makes a difference in musculoskeletal discomfort and postural load for surgeons performing vaginal surgery.

We compared musculoskeletal discomfort and postural load among surgeons in sitting and standing positions during vaginal surgery.

CONFIRM: a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial investigating the effect of nivolumab in patients with relapsed mesothelioma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Mesothelioma is an incurable, apoptosis-resistant cancer caused in most cases by previous exposure to asbestos and is increasing in incidence. It represents a growing health burden but remains under-researched, with limited treatment options. Early promising signals of activity relating to both PD-L1- and PD-1-targeted treatment in mesothelioma implicate a dependency of mesothelioma on this immune checkpoint. There is a need to evaluate checkpoint inhibitors in patients with relapsed mesothelioma where treatment options are limited.

The Impact of Social Isolation on Pain Interference: A Longitudinal Study.

Evidence suggests social interactions play an important role in pain perception.

Prognostic factors of functional outcome after hip fracture surgery: a systematic review.

this systematic review aimed to identify immutable and modifiable prognostic factors of functional outcomes and their proposed mechanism after hip fracture surgery.

Towards harmonization of external quality assessment/proficiency testing in hemostasis.

Quality in diagnostic testing represents a key target of laboratory medicine, for which an assurance around the quality of testing is expected from all involved in the process. Laboratories attempt to assure the quality of their testing by various processes, but especially by performance of internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). This is especially true for tests of hemostasis and coagulation. EQA in general provides information on test accuracy and on evaluation of long-term laboratory performance. EQA providers support laboratory performance by various means, including distribution of material for testing of analytes ("proficiency testing"), educational support through expert advice, distribution of publications or case series. Participation in EQA is often a laboratory accreditation requirement. This review aims to identify some of the strengths and weaknesses of EQA, and targets attempts towards harmonization of EQA practice, in order to achieve the best outcome for participant laboratories and, thus, for patients and their clinical care providers.

Return to work after severe traumatic brain injury: a national study with a one-year follow-up of neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes.

The objectives were to investigate the frequency of return-to-work (RTW) one year after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI: Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS 3-8) and to identify which demographic and injury-related characteristics and neurocognitive factors are associated with RTW. This study is part of a prospective national study on sTBI conducted in all four Norwegian Trauma Referral Centres, including patients aged >15 years over a period of three years (n = 378). For the purpose of this study, only pre-employed individuals of working age (16 to 67 years) were investigated for RTW (n = 143), and of these, 104 participants underwent neuropsychological testing. Measures of acute injury severity, neuropsychological composite scores (Memory, Processing Speed, Executive Functions) at the one-year follow-up, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (patient- and relative reports) were explored as predictors of RTW. The frequency of RTW was 54.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified younger age, shorter length of stay in intensive care, better Processing Speed scores, and lower levels of metacognitive difficulties as rated by relatives as significant predictors of RTW. Findings support the importance of neuropsychological measures in predicting long-term RTW and highlight the need to address neurocognitive and behavioural difficulties to improve RTW after sTBI.

Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation Compared to Systemic Chemotherapy and to Partial Hepatectomy in the Treatment of Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

To assess safety and outcome of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) as compared to systemic chemotherapy and partial hepatectomy (PH) in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).

Patient safety climate in general public hospitals in China: differences associated with department and job type based on a cross-sectional survey.

This study analysed differences in the perceived patient safety climate among different working departments and job types in public general hospitals in China.

Endotracheal suction in intensive care: A point prevalence study of current practice in New Zealand and Australia.

Despite the evidence and available guidelines about endotracheal suction (ETS), a discrepancy between published guidelines and clinical practice persists. To date, ETS practice in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) population across New Zealand and Australia has not been described.

Traumatic Brain Injury and Infectious Encephalopathy in Children From Four Resource-Limited Settings in Africa.

To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings.

Improving quality of care for patients with iron deficiency anemia presenting to the emergency department.

Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are underrecognized, undertreated with iron, and overtransfused. A 3-month audit of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions at the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre ED in 2013 showed that only 53% of transfusions for IDA were appropriate. The aim of this quality improvement project was to increase the rate of appropriate transfusion to greater than 80%.

Examination of the relationship between disease activity and patient reported outcome measures in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease cohort.

The extent to which disease activity impacts on patient reported outcomes (PROs) is unclear.

Development and validation of a simplified BRASS index to screen hospital patients needing personalized discharge planning.

Discharge planning is an important component of hospital care. The Blaylock Risk Assessment Screening Score (BRASS) index is an instrument used to identify patients requiring complex discharge planning.

An Abstinence and Safer Sex Intervention for Adolescents Attending the Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Singapore.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in increasing secondary abstinence and safer sex among heterosexually active adolescents aged 16-19 years.

Assessment of community-level effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in schoolchildren in Jinja, Uganda (START-IPT trial): a cluster-randomised trial.

Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a well established malaria control intervention. Evidence that delivering IPT to schoolchildren could provide community-level benefits is limited. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of IPT of primary schoolchildren with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) on indicators of malaria transmission in the community, in Jinja, Uganda.

A systematic review and consensus definitions for standardised end-points in perioperative medicine: pulmonary complications.

There is a need for robust, clearly defined, patient-relevant outcome measures for use in randomised trials in perioperative medicine. Our objective was to establish standard outcome measures for postoperative pulmonary complications research.

The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog): Modifications and Responsiveness in Pre-Dementia Populations. A Narrative Review.

The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) was developed in the 1980s to assess the level of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Advancements in the research field have shifted focus toward pre-dementia populations, and use of the ADAS-Cog has extended into these pre-dementia studies despite concerns about its ability to detect important changes at these milder stages of disease progression. If the ADAS-Cog cannot detect important changes, our understanding of pre-dementia disease progression may be compromised and trials may incorrectly conclude that a novel treatment approach is not beneficial. The purpose of this review was to assess the performance of the ADAS-Cog in pre-dementia populations, and to review all modifications that have been made to the ADAS-Cog to improve its measurement performance in dementia or pre-dementia populations. The contents of this review are based on bibliographic searches of electronic databases to locate all studies using the ADAS-Cog in pre-dementia samples or subsamples, and to locate all modified versions. Citations from relevant articles were also consulted. Overall, our results suggest the original ADAS-Cog is not an optimal outcome measure for pre-dementia studies; however, given the prominence of the ADAS-Cog, care must be taken when considering the use of alternative outcome measures. Thirty-one modified versions of the ADAS-Cog were found. Modification approaches that appear most beneficial include altering scoring methodology or adding tests of memory, executive function, and/or daily functioning. Although modifications improve the performance of the ADAS-Cog, this is at the cost of introducing heterogeneity that may limit between-study comparison.

Automatic population of eMeasurements from EHR systems for inpatient falls.

Representing nursing data sets in a standard way will help to facilitate sharing relevant information across settings. We aimed to populate nursing process and outcome metrics with electronic health record (EHR) data and then compare the results with event reporting systems.

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT OUTCOME.

The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and examine their impact on the results of pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PEA).

Quality indicators in colonoscopy. The colonoscopy procedure.

The aim of the project this paper is part of was to propose quality and safety procedures and indicators to facilitate quality improvement in digestive endoscopy units. In this second issue, procedures and indicators are suggested regarding colonoscopy. First, a diagram charting the previous and subsequent steps of colonoscopy was designed. A group of experts in health care quality and/or endoscopy, under the auspices of the Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (SEPD), performed a qualitative review of the literature regarding colonoscopy-related quality indicators. Subsequently, using a paired-analysis method, the aforementioned literature was selected and analyzed. A total of 13 specific indicators were found aside of the common markers elsewhere described, ten of which are process-related (one pre-procedure, seven procedure, and two post-procedure markers) while the remaining three are outcome-related. Quality of evidence was assessed for each one of them using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) classification.

Scoring systems and outcome of chronic kidney disease patients admitted in intensive care units.

The outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is difficult to predict. This study assessed the outcome of CKD patients admitted to the ICU and evaluated prediction of 30-day mortality using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. One hundred consecutive CKD patients admitted to the ICU at a tertiary care hospital, Ahmedabad between 2011 and 2013 were included prospectively. Data on demographics, indication for admission, cause of CKD, use of vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation (MV), mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 30-day mortality were recorded. The APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA scores were calculated based on the admission characteristics. The mean APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA scores were 28.22 ± 7.53, 43.04 ± 16.40, and 10.39 ± 5.20, respectively, and area under receiver operating characteristics curve in predicting 30-day mortality were 0.961, 0.994, and 0.950, respectively. The scores were significantly higher in 30-day nonsurvivors as compared to survivors (P = 0.001). During the ICU stay, MV and vasoactive drugs were required in 57% and 67% of the patients, respectively, and the requirement was significantly greater in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors (P = 0.001). About 85% of patients were on intermittent hemodialysis and 15% of patients were on continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Sepsis was the main reason for hospital admission, and the mean length of stay in the ICU was 7.74 ± 5.34 days. The study indicates that all three scores (APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA) perform equally well and have equal diagnostic utility in predicting 30-day mortality.

Nudging in screening: Literature review and ethical guidance.

Nudging is the purposeful alteration of choices presented to people that aims to make them choose in predicted ways. While nudging has been used to assure high uptake and good outcome of screening programs, it has been criticized for being paternalistic, undermining free choice, and shared decision making. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to explore a) nudging strategies identified in screening, b) arguments for and against nudging; and on basis of this, to c) suggest a tentative conclusion on how to handle nudging in screening.