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outcome assessment (health care) - Top 30 Publications

Living and dying with advanced dementia: A prospective cohort study of symptoms, service use and care at the end of life.

Increasing number of people are dying with advanced dementia. Comfort and quality of life are key goals of care.

Women's experiences of more than one termination of pregnancy within two years: a mixed-methods study.

To examine the experiences of women seeking more than one termination of pregnancy (TOP) within two years.

Growth hormone therapy for people with thalassaemia.

Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia. Growth hormone replacement therapy has been used in children with thalassaemia who have short stature and growth hormone deficiency.

Rupture of a non-traumatic anterior communicating artery aneurysm: Does location of aneurysm associate with functional independence following post-acute in-patient neurorehabilitation?

Patients with non-traumatic rupture of an aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) often experience cognitive disabilities. It is unknown whether location of aneurysm also affects the possibility for improvement in functional independence compared to patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (a-SAH) located elsewhere. The aim was to explore the association between location of aneurysm (ACoA versus other) and level of functional independence, measured by Functional Independence Measure (FIM), at discharge from rehabilitation. Additionally, age and FIM at admission were explored.

Features and Effects of Information Technology-Based Interventions to Improve Self-Management in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

Slowing down the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its adverse health outcomes requires the patient's self-management and attention to treatment recommendations. Information technology (IT)-based interventions are increasingly being used to support self-management in patients with chronic diseases such as CKD. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the features and effects of IT-based interventions on self-management outcomes of CKD patients. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant papers that were published until May 2016. RCT Studies that assessed at least one automated IT tool in patients with CKD stages 1 to 5, and reported at least one self-management outcome were included. Studies were appraised for quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment tool. Out of 12,215 papers retrieved, eight study met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were delivered via smartphones/personal digital assistants (PDAs) (three studies), wearable devices (three studies), computerized systems (one study), and multiple component (one study). The studies assessed 15 outcomes, including eight clinical outcomes and seven process of care outcomes. In 12 (80%) of the 15 outcomes, the studies had revealed the effects of the interventions as statistically significant positive. These positive effects were observed in 75% of the clinical outcomes and 86% of the process of care outcomes. The evidence indicates the potential of IT-based interventions (i.e. smartphones/PDAs, wearable devices, and computerized systems) in self-management outcomes (clinical and process of care outcomes) of CKD patients.

How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers.

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested.

Use of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II and Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) for Assessment of Mortality of Patients with Sepsis in ICU.

Critically ill patients of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) need highest level of monitoring, intense nursing care and integrated management which are very expensive and consume significant part of hospital resources. Prediction of outcome from disease has become an essential component of health science. So, various scoring systems have been developed to predict outcome of critically ill patients in ICU. There is no perfect model of severity score to predict ICU mortality. Search for new system is still remaining as continuous efforts to find the best model to get accurate information about the prognosis and outcome of critically ill patients. This observational prospective cohort study was carried out in ICU of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2015 to September 2015 to evaluate the ability of mortality prediction of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II after adding RDW. Total 62 patients, clinically diagnosed as sepsis with positive culture were included in this study after analyzing selection criteria. APACHE II score model was compared with APACHE II plus RDW score model in relation to mortality outcome assessment. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV), Negative predictive value (NPV) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve were used as parameter to compare the predictive ability of the two models. The derived model APACHE II- RDW was found with higher predictive power (Pearson's correlation coefficient - 0.915) than APACHE II (Pearson's correlation coefficient - 0.885) in relation to mortality (p<0.01). Accuracy was compared by using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve between the two models and AUROC was found higher (AUC-0.87) in case of new model compared with conventional model (AUC-0.85). So combination of RDW with APACHE-II increases the predictive ability of the scoring model in relation to mortality.

Post-traumatic growth and its relationship to quality of life up to 9 years after liver transplantation: a cross-sectional study in Spain.

Little is known concerning post-traumatic growth (PTG) after liver transplantation. Against this backdrop the current study analysed the relationship between PTG and time since transplantation on quality of life. Furthermore, it compared PTG between liver transplant recipients and their caregivers.

Effectiveness, cost-utility and implementation of a decision aid for patients with localised prostate cancer and their partners: study protocol of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

Patient decision aids (PDAs) have been developed to help patients make an informed choice for a treatment option. Despite proven benefits, structural implementation falls short of expectations. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-utility of the PDA among newly diagnosed patients with localised prostate cancer and their partners, alongside implementation of the PDA in routine care.

TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial.

Lifestyle intervention to improve quality of life and prevent weight gain after renal transplantation: Design of the Active Care after Transplantation (ACT) randomized controlled trial.

Low physical activity and reduced physical functioning are common after renal transplantation, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Another common post-transplantation complication is poor cardio-metabolic health, which plays a main role in long-term outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is increasingly recognized that weight gain in the first year after transplantation, especially an increase in fat mass, is a highly common contributor to cardio-metabolic risk. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of usual care to the effects of exercise alone, and exercise combined with dietary counseling, on physical functioning, quality of life and post-transplantation weight gain in RTR.

Cultural adaptation of a pediatric functional assessment for rehabilitation outcomes research.

Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent translation processes; current processes assess for some, but not all, elements of cultural equivalence; and limited evidence to guide decision making about whether to undertake cultural adaptation with and without language translation. The aims of this observational study are (a) to examine similarities and differences of culturally adapting a pediatric functional assessment with and without language translation, and (b) to examine the feasibility of cultural adaptation processes.

Fall prevention: is the STRATIFY tool the right instrument in Italian Hospital inpatient? A retrospective observational study.

Although several risk assessment tools are in use, uncertainties on their accuracy in detecting fall risk already exist. Choosing the most accurate tool for hospital inpatient is still a challenge for the organizations. We aimed to retrospectively assess the appropriateness of a fall risk prevention program with the STRATIFY assessment tool in detecting acute-care inpatient fall risk.

Reliability of a Skin Diagnostic Device in Assessing Hydration and Erythema.

To examine the reliability of a skin diagnostic device, the SD202 (Courage+Khazaka GmBH, Cologne, Germany), in assessing hydration and erythema of periwound skin and pressure injury-prone areas.

Therapeutic Implications of the Molecular and Immune Landscape of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Treatment and management of breast cancer imposes a heavy burden on public health care, and incidence rates continue to increase. Breast cancer is the most common female neoplasia and primary cause of death among women worldwide. The recognition of breast cancer as a complex and heterogeneous disease, comprising different molecular entities, was a landmark in our understanding of this malignancy. Valuing the impact of the molecular characteristics on tumor behavior enabled a better assessment of a patient's prognosis and increased the predictive power to therapeutic response and clinical outcome. Molecular heterogeneity is also prominent in the triple-negative breast cancer subtype, and is reflected by the distinct prognostic and patient's sensitivity to treatment, being chemotherapy the only systemic treatment currently available. From a therapeutic perspective, gene expression profiling of triple-negative tumors has notably contributed to the exploration of new druggable targets and brought to light the need to align these patients to the various therapies according to their triple-negative subtype. Additionally, the higher amount of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and the prevalence of an increased expression of PD-1 receptor and its ligand, PD-L1, in triple-negative tumors, created a new treatment opportunity with immune checkpoint inhibitors. This manuscript addresses the current knowledge on the molecular and immune profiles of breast cancer, and its impact on the development of targeted therapies, with a particular emphasis on the triple-negative subtype.

Assessment of VAV2 Expression Refines Prognostic Prediction in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with overall poor prognosis. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) has a major prognostic role in localized ACC after complete resection, but its estimates may suffer from considerable intra- and interobserver variability. VAV2 overexpression induced by increased Steroidogenic Factor-1 dosage is an essential factor driving ACC tumor cell invasion.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014). This review replaces the original protocol for neuropathic pain that was withdrawn.

Gastroenteritis Aggressive Versus Slow Treatment For Rehydration (GASTRO). A pilot rehydration study for severe dehydration: WHO plan C versus slower rehydration.

The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy. Those findings warrant a detailed physiological study of children's responses to rehydration therapy incorporating quantification of myocardial performance and haemodynamic changes.  Methods: GASTRO is a multi-centre, unblinded Phase II randomised controlled trial of 120 children aged 2 months to 12 years admitted to hospital with severe dehydration secondary to AGE. Children with severe malnutrition, chronic diarrhoea and congenital/rheumatic heart disease are excluded. Children will be enrolled over 18 months in 3 centres in Kenya and Uganda and followed until 7 days post-discharge. The trial will randomise children 1:1 to standard rapid rehydration using Ringers Lactate  (WHO plan 'C' - 100mls/kg over 3-6 hours according to age, plus additional 0.9% saline boluses for children presenting in shock) or to a slower rehydration regimen (100mls/kg given over 8 hours and without the addition of fluid boluses). Enrolment started in November 2016 and is on-going. Primary outcome is frequency of adverse events, particularly related to cardiovascular compromise and neurological sequelae.  Secondary outcomes focus on clinical, biochemical, and physiological measures related to assessment of severity of dehydration, and response to treatment by intravenous rehydration.

Patient satisfaction with the perioperative surgical services and associated factors at a University Referral and Teaching Hospital, 2014: a cross-sectional study.

Globally, increasing consideration has been given to the assessment of patient satisfaction as a method of monitor of the quality of health care provision in the health institutions. Perioperative patient satisfaction has been contemplated to be related with the level of postoperative pain intensity, patients' expectation of the outcome, patient health provider relationship, inpatient services, hospital facilities, access to care, waiting time, cost and helpfulness of treatments received. The study aimed to assess the level of patient satisfaction with perioperative surgical services and associated factors.

Facilitated access to an integrated model of care for arthritis in an urban Aboriginal population.

To evaluate a model of care to improve arthritis detection and treatment in an urban Aboriginal population.

Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act.

Baseline anatomical assessment of the uterus and ovaries in infertile women: a systematic review of the evidence on which assessment methods are the safest and most effective in terms of improving fertility outcomes.

This review focuses on the initial presentation of women who suspect that they are infertile, and how best to assess the anatomy of their uterus and ovaries in order to investigate the cause of their infertility, and potentially improve desired fertility outcomes. This review was undertaken as part of a World Health Organization initiative to assess the evidence available to address guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility within a global context. Providing access to care for infertile women will help to ease the psycho-social burdens, such as ostracization, intimate partner violence and other negative consequences of being involuntarily childless or unable to become pregnant despite desiring a biological child or children.

Economic and Clinical Outcomes Resulting From the Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease Case Management Quality Improvement Initiative.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a costly and burdensome public health concern. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact on outcomes and utilization of a pilot program to identify and engage beneficiaries with CKD at risk for progression from Stage 4 to Stage 5.

Construct and Criterion Validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Instrument (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) in Colombia.

This study aimed at determining the validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) for the measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Colombian children.

Postpartum home care and its effects on mothers' health: A clinical trial.

Postpartum home care plays an important role in prevention of postpartum complications. Regular visits of mothers during this period are imperative. This study aimed to provide postpartum home care for mothers to assess its effects on mothers' health in Iran.

Better medicines for neonates: Improving medicine development, testing, and prescribing.

Pharmacotherapy is a powerful tool to improve the outcome of neonates. Unfortunately, the potential health impact of pharmacotherapy in neonates remains underexplored. This necessitates a structured approach to go beyond the current practice of trial and error, reflected in off-label prescription. The existing regulatory framework hereby provides a structure to reflect about aspects like pharmacokinetic models for dose selection and outcome assessment, including long-term safety. Future medicine development should also be driven by neonatal needs, diseases and pathophysiology, since surfactant is the latest product developed for preterm neonates. The potential impact is illustrated by ongoing repurposing (propranolol, allopurinol, erythropoietin, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1) projects. Clinical researchers will be crucial to close the knowledge gap by developing dose selection tools and outcome assessment tools and by exploring pathophysiological mechanisms. The final step of such a structured approach cycle is the subsequent translation of accumulated knowledge into improved prescribing.

A two-state comparative implementation of peer-support intervention to link veterans to health-related services after incarceration: a study protocol.

Approximately 600,000 persons are released from prison annually in the United States. Relatively few receive sufficient re-entry services and are at risk for unemployment, homelessness, poverty, substance abuse relapse and recidivism. Persons leaving prison who have a mental illness and/or a substance use disorder are particularly challenged. This project aims to create a peer mentor program to extend the reach and effectiveness of reentry services provided by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA). We will implement a peer support for reentry veterans sequentially in two states. Our outcome measures are 1) fidelity of the intervention, 2) linkage to VA health care and, 3) continued engagement in health care. The aims for this project are as follows: (1) Conduct contextual analysis to identify VA and community reentry resources, and describe how reentry veterans use them. (2) Implement peer-support, in one state, to link reentry veterans to Veterans' Health Administration (VHA) primary care, mental health, and SUD services. (3) Port the peer-support intervention to another, geographically, and contextually different state.

The value of inpatient rehabilitation after uncomplicated knee arthroplasty: a propensity score analysis.

To compare the effectiveness of rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in models with or without an inpatient rehabilitation component.

Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Healthy Activity Programme, a brief psychological treatment for depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

The Healthy Activity Programme (HAP), a brief behavioural intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission over 3 months among primary care attendees with depression in peri-urban and rural settings in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of HAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator of activation on clinical outcomes.

Preliminary validation of the WHODAS 2.0 for mild traumatic brain injury.

The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability, factor structure, and validity of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 12-item version) in a sample of patients who were slow to recover from a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 79 adults with MTBI recruited from one of four specialty outpatient clinics in Vancouver, Canada. The WHODAS 2.0 12-item version is a disease-non-specific measure of disability representing six International Classification of Disability, Functioning, and Health activity and participation domains including cognition, mobility, self-care, interpersonal functioning, life activities, and participation. Results of analyses showed the WHODAS 2.0 had high internal consistency and adequate construct and concurrent validity. A three-factor structure emerged in this sample. The scale differentiated between patients with good and poor outcomes based on post-concussion syndrome, psychiatric, and pain status. Participants with multiple comorbidities reported the most disability on the WHODAS. Concurrent validity was also supported by lower WHODAS scores in participants who had returned to work versus those who had not. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the WHODAS 2.0 in a sample of people with MTBI. In summary, the WHODAS was sensitive to the post-concussion syndrome after MTBI, as well as to health conditions that commonly co-occur with MTBI (e.g., mental health problems and chronic pain).