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palliative care - Top 30 Publications

Living and dying with advanced dementia: A prospective cohort study of symptoms, service use and care at the end of life.

Increasing number of people are dying with advanced dementia. Comfort and quality of life are key goals of care.

Spiritual needs of patients with cancer in palliative care: an integrative review.

The experience of a life crisis, such as the experience of end-of-life terminality whenever facing cancer can make the spiritual needs of patients clear. The goal of this revision was to synthesize the existing evidence regarding the spiritual needs of patients with cancer in palliative care.

Health professionals' quality of life in relation to end of life care.

Palliative care professionals are frequently exposed to stressful and demanding situations in the assistance of patients and their families, therefore research related to their quality of life is a relevant topic to provide evidence on interventions oriented to professional self-care.

Population-based models of planning for palliative care in older people.

Health service planning requires demographic, clinical, and health systems data and is unique to each health system. Planning for palliative care in older people must include patients and their carers. This review explores literature from the last 24 months.

Symptomatic treatment of dyspnea in advanced cancer patients : A narrative review of the current literature.

Dyspnea is a common, very distressing symptom in advanced cancer patients that challenges them, their relatives, and healthcare professionals. This narrative review summarizes important literature dealing with the evidence for opioids, benzodiazepines, oxygen, and steroids for treating dyspnea in advanced cancer patients.

Distress Due to Prognostic Uncertainty in Palliative Care: Frequency, Distribution, and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Cancer.

Prognostic uncertainty is common in advanced cancer and frequently addressed during palliative care consultation, yet we know little about its impact on quality of life (QOL).

Bleeding Control in Palliative Care Patients With the Help of Tranexamic Acid.

Persistent bleeding is a common reason for admitting patients with advanced cancer to a palliative care unit. Several reports show a successful therapeutic use of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid in palliative care patients having hemorrhages. However, it is not administered routinely in severe bleeding situations in palliative care, and general dosing recommendations are unclear.

Efficacy and safety of (153)Sm-EDTMP as treatment of painful bone metastasis: a large single-center study.

The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of (153)Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet®) in a clinical setting.

Analysing the impact of a case management model on the specialised palliative care multi-professional team.

Palliative care (PC) involves many health care providers leading to a high complexity of structures that requires efficient coordination as provided by case management (CM). Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of CM newly implemented in a specialised palliative care unit by evaluating team members' tasks and time resources before (T0) and after implementation (T1). It was hypothesised that team members would be able to spend less time on organisational and administrative tasks and more time on patient care.

A comparison between the administration of oral prolonged-release oxycodone-naloxone and transdermal fentanyl in patients with moderate-to-severe cancer pain: a propensity score analysis.

Opioids are the most important pharmacological treatment for moderate-to-severe cancer pain, but side effects limit their use. Transdermal fentanyl (TDF) and oral prolonged-release oxycodone-naloxone (OXN-PR) are effective in controlling chronic pain, with less constipation compared to other opioids. However, TDF and OXN-PR have never been directly compared.

Adequacy of cancer-related pain management and predictors of undertreatment at referral to a pain clinic.

Several guidelines have advocated the need for adequate cancer-related pain (CRP) management. The pain management index (PMI) has been proposed as an auditable measure of the appropriateness for analgesic therapy.

Recent developments in the clinical pharmacology of rolapitant: subanalyses in specific populations.

Knowledge of the involvement of the neurokinin substance P in emesis has led to the development of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1 RAs) for control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), in combination with serotonin type 3 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. The NK-1 RA rolapitant, recently approved in oral formulation, has nanomolar affinity for the NK-1 receptor, as do the other commercially available NK-1 RAs, aprepitant and netupitant. Rolapitant is rapidly absorbed and has a long half-life in comparison to aprepitant and netupitant. All three NK-1 RAs undergo metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, necessitating caution with the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors, but in contrast to aprepitant and netupitant, rolapitant does not inhibit or induce CYP3A4. However, rolapitant is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6, and concomitant use with CYP2D6 substrates with narrow therapeutic indices should be avoided. Aprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant have all demonstrated efficacy in the control of delayed CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy in randomized controlled trials, including over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. We reviewed recent post hoc analyses of clinical trial data demonstrating that rolapitant is efficacious in the control of CINV in patient populations with specific tumor types, namely, breast cancers, gastrointestinal/colorectal cancers, and lung cancers. In addition, we show that rolapitant has efficacy in the control of CINV in specific age groups of patients receiving chemotherapy (<65 and ≥65 years of age). Overall, the safety profile of rolapitant in these specific patient populations was consistent with that observed in primary analyses of phase 3 trials.

Changes in nurses' knowledge, difficulties, and self-reported practices toward palliative care for cancer patients in Japan: an analysis of two nationwide representative surveys in 2008 and 2015.

The Cancer Control Act was passed in Japan in 2007, and various additional programs on palliative care have been implemented to improve quality of life and relieve pain and suffering in patients with cancer. However, how clinical settings have changed remains unclear.

Progesterone analogues reduce plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA load and improve pain control in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under supportive care.

Progesterone analogues, such as megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA), have been used for the palliative care of cancer cachexia for decades and have proven to increase body weight and improve quality of life and performance status. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone analogue use on quality of life in terms of pain control, performance status, body weight gain, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.

The Need for Palliative Care in Chronic Respiratory Patients With Non-Malignant Disease.

Indwelling Pleural Catheters for Nonmalignant Effusions: Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Concerns.

Pleural effusions occur in 1.5 million patients yearly and are a common cause of dyspnea. For nonmalignant effusions, initial treatment is directed at the underlying cause, but when effusions become refractory to medical therapy, palliative options are limited. Tunneled pleural catheters (TPCs) are commonly used for palliation of malignant effusions, but many clinicians are reluctant to recommend these devices for palliation of nonmalignant effusions, citing concerns of infection, renal failure, electrolyte disturbances and protein-loss malnutrition. Based on the published experience to date, TPCs relieve dyspnea and can result in spontaneous pleurodesis in patients with nonmalignant effusions. The infection rate compares favorably to that for malignant effusions with possible increased risk in patients with hepatic hydrothorax and posttransplant patients. Renal failure, electrolyte disturbance and protein-loss malnutrition have not been observed. TPCs are a reasonable option in select patients to palliate nonmalignant effusions refractory to maximal medical therapy.

Modification of cardiovascular pharmacotherapy in palliative care patients with cancer- narrative review.

Palliative care cancer patients are treated with many drugs especially at the end of life. Limiting of polypharmacy a decreases the risk of associated adverse effects, medical errors and harmful drug interactions The time lag to benefit of many medications used for cardiovascular diseases or risk factors like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia is frequently longer than palliative care cancer patient's life expectancy. It is ethically appropriate to modify, even to discontinue cardiovascular pharmacotherapy when there is no prospect of benefit. The rather straightforward decision is to discontinue lipid lowering drugs and antihypertensives, Anithrombotic therapy may be stopped in low risk primary prevention but not in high risk group. Heart failure drugs discontinuation may provoke exacerbation of symptoms and should be considered only in the last weeks of life.

Challenges of conducting a prospective clinical trial for older patients: Lessons learned from NCCTG N0949 (alliance).

While the risk of developing colorectal cancer increases with age, there are limited prospective data regarding best treatment in the older adult population. We launched a phase III trial to evaluate difference in treatment outcome for older adults (aged ≥70years) with advanced colorectal cancer. Here we review the challenges faced and reasons for poor accrual to N0949.

End-of-life practice patterns at U.S. adult cystic fibrosis care centers: A national retrospective chart review.

There are many challenges to providing end-of-life care (EOLC) to people with cystic fibrosis (CF).

Postoperative stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases.

Spine is a common site of metastases in cancer patients. Spine surgery is indicated for select patients, typically those with mechanical instability and/or malignant epidural spinal cord (or cauda equina) compression. Although post-operative conventional palliative external beam radiation therapy has been the standard of care, technical improvements in radiation planning and image-guided radiotherapy have allowed for the application of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to the spine. Spine SBRT is intended to ablate residual tumor and optimize local control by delivering several fold greater biologically effective doses. Early clinical experience of postoperative spinal SBRT report encouraging results in terms of safety and efficacy. In this review, we summarize the clinical and technical aspects pertinent to a safe and effective practice of postoperative SBRT for spinal metastases.

CART: Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy against malignancy-related ascites.

A standard strategy against ascites, a common symptom observed in cirrhotic and cancer patients, includes restriction of sodium intake and use of a diuretic. Paracentesis is a widely applied method against refractory ascites that do not react to such treatment. However, emerging fatigue and hemodynamic instability are possibly attributable to a loss of protein included in ascites. Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy (CART) is also applied against refractory ascites. CART comprises three processes. After ascites is first filtered to remove cell components, it is concentrated to reduce its volume. Fluid obtained through these processes, including useful proteins such as albumin and globulin, is finally reinfused intravenously. CART was reported first in the 1970s. Since then, it has been applied mainly against cirrhotic ascites with a thinner cell component. Now, its indication is expanding to include malignancy-related ascites. Additionally, CART can be applied safely against malignancy-related ascites. Its favorable effects on control of patients' symptoms are anticipated, especially on fatigue. Although related evidence has not been established, CART can be anticipated for use as a strategy against refractory ascites.

Lenalidomide maintenance after first-line therapy for high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLLM1): final results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.

The combined use of genetic markers and detectable minimal residual disease identifies patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with poor outcome after first-line chemoimmunotherapy. We aimed to assess lenalidomide maintenance therapy in these high-risk patients.

Characteristics of Older Adults in Primary Care Who May Benefit from Primary Palliative Care in the United States.

Older adults with advanced illness and associated symptoms may benefit from primary palliative care, but limited data exist to identify older adults in U.S. primary care to benefit from this care.

Is There Ever a Role for the Unilateral Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Order in Pediatric Care?

Care for children as they near the end of life is difficult and very complex. More difficult still are the decisions regarding what interventions are and are not indicated during these trying times. Occasionally, families of children who are nearing the end of life disagree with the assessment of the medical team regarding these interventions. In rare cases, the medical team can be moved to enact a do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) order against the wishes of the patient's parents. This manuscript presents one such illustrative case and discusses the ethical issues relevant to such challenging clinical scenarios. The authors posit that such a unilateral do not attempt resuscitation order is only appropriate in very limited circumstances in pediatric care. Instead, focus should be placed on open discussion between parents and members of the clinical team, shared decision-making, and maintenance of the clinician-parent relationship while simultaneously supporting members of the clinical team who express discomfort with parental decisions. The authors propose an alternative framework for approaching such a conflict based on clinician-parent collaboration and open communication.

Ethics and palliative care in the perinatal world.

The perinatal world is unique in its dutiful consideration of two patients along the lines of decision-making and clinical management - the fetus and the pregnant woman. The potentiality of the fetus-newborn is intertwined with the absolute considerations for the woman as autonomous patient. From prenatal diagnostics, which may be quite extensive, to potential interventions prenatally, postnatal resuscitation, and neonatal management, the fetus and newborn may be anticipated to survive with or without special needs and technology, to have a questionable or guarded prognosis, or to live only minutes to hours. This review will address the ethical ramifications for prenatal diagnostics, parental values and goals clarification, birth plans, the fluidity of decision-making over time, and the potential role of prenatal and postnatal palliative care support.

Treatment, outcome and quality of life of 1239 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer - final results from the prospective German TLK cohort study.

Real-life data on advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are centrally important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on the choice of systemic first- and second-line treatment, number of treatment lines, survival and longitudinal data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany.

Integrated Behavioral Health Care in Pediatric Subspecialty Clinics.

Comorbid behavioral and physical health conditions are accompanied by troubling symptom burden, functional impairment, and treatment complexity. Pediatric subspecialty care clinics offer an opportunity for the implementation of integrated behavioral health (BH) care models that promote resiliency. This article reviews integrated BH care in oncology, palliative care, pain, neuropsychiatry, cystic fibrosis, and transplantation. Examples include integrated care mandates, standards of care, research, and quality improvement by child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAPs) and allied BH clinicians. The role of CAPs in integrated BH care in subspecialty care is explored, focusing on cost, resource use, financial support, and patient and provider satisfaction.

ECM-Related Myopathies and Muscular Dystrophies: Pros and Cons of Protein Therapies.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) myopathies and muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that provide critical links between muscle cells and the extracellular matrix. These include structural proteins of the ECM, muscle cell receptors, enzymes, and intracellular proteins. Loss of adhesion within the myomatrix results in progressive muscle weakness. For many ECM muscular dystrophies, symptoms can occur any time after birth and often result in reduced life expectancy. There are no cures for the ECM-related muscular dystrophies and treatment options are limited to palliative care. Several therapeutic approaches have been explored to treat muscular dystrophies including gene therapy, gene editing, exon skipping, embryonic, and adult stem cell therapy, targeting genetic modifiers, modulating inflammatory responses, or preventing muscle degeneration. Recently, protein therapies that replace components of the defective myomatrix or enhance muscle and/or extracellular matrix integrity and function have been explored. Preclinical studies for many of these biologics have been promising in animal models of these muscle diseases. This review aims to summarize the ECM muscular dystrophies for which protein therapies are being developed and discuss the exciting potential and possible limitations of this approach for treating this family of devastating genetic muscle diseases. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1519-1536, 2017.

Pediatric-Specific End-of-Life Care Quality Measures: An Unmet Need of a Vulnerable Population.

We must ensure that the 20,000 US children (age 0 to 19 years) who die as a result of serious illness annually receive high-quality end-of-life care. Ensuring high-quality end-of-life care requires recognition that pediatric end-of-life care is conceptually and operationally different than that for adults. For example, in-hospital adult death is considered an outcome to be avoided, whereas many pediatric families may prefer hospital death. Because pediatric deaths are comparatively rare, not all centers offer pediatric-focused palliative care and hospice services. The unique psychosocial issues facing families who are losing a child include challenges for parent decision makers and young siblings. Furthermore, the focus on advance directive documentation in adult care may be less relevant in pediatrics because parental decision makers are available. Health care quality measures provide a framework for tracking the care provided and aid in agency and provider accountability, reimbursement, and educated patient choice for location of care. The National Quality Forum, Joint Commission, and other groups have developed several end-of-life measures. However, none of the current quality measures focus on the unique needs of dying pediatric patients and their caregivers. To evolve the existing infrastructure to better measure and report quality pediatric end-of-life care, we propose two changes. First, we outline how existing adult quality measures may be modified to better address pediatric end-of-life care. Second, we suggest the formation of a pediatric quality measure end-of-life task force. These are the next steps to evolving end-of-life quality measures to better fit the needs of seriously ill children.

Responding to Patient Requests for Hastened Death: Physician Aid in Dying and the Clinical Oncologist.

Physician aid in dying (PAD) or assisted suicide is becoming legal in more US jurisdictions. Meanwhile, the needs of terminally ill patients with cancer are receiving greater attention, including the integration of palliative care into oncology practice. This article highlights a case vignette of a patient with advanced cancer who requests PAD from her oncologist, as a backdrop to help the practicing oncologist examine his or her moral stance regarding participation in aid in dying. The article concludes by offering a framework within which the practicing oncologist can receive and process a patient's request for PAD.