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patients on ART - Top 30 Publications

Injuries in Japanese Junior Soccer Players During Games and Practices.

  Soccer is the most popular junior sport in the world. In junior sports, injury analysis and injury-prevention measures for players, especially those under 12 years of age, are urgently needed.

Morbidity and Mortality of a Cohort of Peruvian HIV-Infected Children 2003-2012.

Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004.

Population Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir in Severely Malnourished HIV Infected Children and the Effect on Treatment Outcomes.

In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs.

Blaise Pascal and the evidence on the use of multiple arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass surgery after the interim analysis of the Arterial Revascularization Trial.

After the publication of the interim analysis of the ART, we review the contradiction between the large numbers of observational studies published on the course of over 25 years and the randomized trials comparing the use of single versus multiple arterial grafts for coronary bypass surgery.

Long-term Outcome of Antiretroviral Treatment in Patients With and Without Concomitant Tuberculosis Receiving Health Center-Based Care-Results From a Prospective Cohort Study.

In order to increase treatment coverage, antiretroviral treatment (ART) is provided through primary health care in low-income high-burden countries, where tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is common. We investigated the long-term outcome of health center-based ART, with regard to concomitant TB.

Incidence of diabetes mellitus and factors associated with its development in HIV-positive patients over the age of 50.

We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in older HIV-infected individuals.

Serum glycosylation characterization of osteonecrosis of the femoral head by mass spectrometry.

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a recalcitrant and paralyzing disease often discovered in the end stage at the time of diagnosis, which is often performed by physical examination and diagnostic imaging. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is typically caused by trauma or long-term steroid use. There are over 30 million patients in the US taking steroids, and roughly 40% will develop osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the exact pathophysiological process is not well understood. This study aims to examine the alteration in serum glycosylation of osteonecrosis of the femoral head using the state-of-the-art analytical tools to provide more chemical data for pathophysiology research and possibly biomarker discovery. A training set containing 27 serum samples from steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head patients and 25 from gender- and age-matched controls was collected and analyzed. Glycosylation of whole serum and site-specific glycosylation of immunoglobulins are characterized using electrospray ionization-Q-time of flight and electrospray ionization-Triple-Quadruple via multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. The whole serum glycosylation analysis yielded 14 N-glycan compositions and multiple reaction monitoring yielded eight glycopeptides that were altered between cases and controls with statistical significance. The increase of nonsialylated, nonfucosylated N-glycans and decrease of fucosylated N-glycans are associated with the development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Glycosylation is a posttranslational protein modification and is apparently affected by osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Future studies with a larger cohort and patients from earlier stage will be performed to assess these potential markers' value in disease onset.

What are the current treatment approaches for patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia?

Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms that are characterized by thrombohemorrhagic complications, symptom burden, and impaired survival mainly due to thrombosis, progression to myelofibrosis, and transformation to acute leukemia. In this manuscript, we will review the most recent changes in diagnostic criteria, the improvements in risk stratification, and the "state of the art" in the daily management of these disorders. The role of conventional therapies and novel agents, interferon α and the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, is critically discussed based on the results of a few basic randomized clinical studies. Several unmet needs remain, above all, the lack of a curative approach that might overcome the still burdensome morbidity and mortality of these hematologic neoplasms, as well as the toxicities associated with therapeutic agents.

Respiratory resistance and reactance in adults with sickle cell anemia: Correlation with functional exercise capacity and diagnostic use.

The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA) care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities.

Identification of a 62 kDa major allergen from Artemisia pollen as a putative galactose oxidase.

Around 20 years ago, a 60-70 kDa protein was reported as a major allergen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen. This study was to identify and characterize its molecular properties.

Ending the epidemic: Critical role of primary HIV infection.

Early identification and immediate treatment of individuals newly infected with HIV is important for two reasons: it benefits the long-term health of the infected patient, and it reduces onward HIV transmission. Primary HIV infection (PHI) reflects the period following HIV acquisition during which viraemia bursts until the establishment of a stable plasma HIV-RNA level approximately six months post infection. During this period, patients are particularly contagious and are often unaware of the infection. As a consequence, PHI disproportionally affects onward transmission. During PHI the immune system is irreparably damaged and persistent viral reservoirs are formed. Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) during PHI could potentially lead to a functional cure through early and prolonged viral suppression. Unfortunately, symptoms of PHI are nonspecific and the diagnosis is frequently missed. This impedes timely diagnosis and prompt initiation of ART. To increase awareness and underscore the importance of immediate ART initiation, we describe here the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and impact of treating PHI.

Sodium oxybate therapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or sodium oxybate) is both an exogenous and endogenous molecule with neuromodulator properties. In the United States, GHB is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. In some European Union countries, sodium oxybate is applied for the treatment of opioid and alcohol withdrawal.

Automated disease cohort selection using word embeddings from Electronic Health Records.

Accurate and robust cohort definition is critical to biomedical discovery using Electronic Health Records (EHR). Similar to prospective study designs, high quality EHR-based research requires rigorous selection criteria to designate case/control status particular to each disease. Electronic phenotyping algorithms, which are manually built and validated per disease, have been successful in filling this need. However, these approaches are time-consuming, leading to only a relatively small amount of algorithms for diseases developed. Methodologies that automatically learn features from EHRs have been used for cohort selection as well. To date, however, there has been no systematic analysis of how these methods perform against current gold standards. Accordingly, this paper compares the performance of a state-of-the-art automated feature learning method to extracting research-grade cohorts for five diseases against their established electronic phenotyping algorithms. In particular, we use word2vec to create unsupervised embeddings of the phenotype space within an EHR system. Using medical concepts as a query, we then rank patients by their proximity in the embedding space and automatically extract putative disease cohorts via a distance threshold. Experimental evaluation shows promising results with average F-score of 0.57 and AUC-ROC of 0.98. However, we noticed that results varied considerably between diseases, thus necessitating further investigation and/or phenotype-specific refinement of the approach before being readily deployed across all diseases.

The Effect of Psychosocial Factors and Patients' Perception of Tuberculosis Treatment Non-Adherence in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia.

Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy at a low dose (600/100 mg/day) in HIV-1-infected individuals with suppressed HIV viraemia.

Darunavir/ritonavir is a potent PI with a high genetic barrier and pharmacological robustness favourably investigated as monotherapy. Whether darunavir could be dose reduced in the context of monotherapy deserves investigation.

Antiretroviral therapy as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease: Results from traditional regression modeling and causal approach in a large observational study.

We investigated whether patients receiving selected antiretroviral combinations had a higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using traditional regression modeling and a causal approach in a large prospective cohort.

The first trimester aneuploidy biochemical markers in IVF/ICSI patients have no additional benefit compared to spontaneous conceptions in the prediction of pregnancy complications.

The aim of this study was to determine if the levels of biochemical aneuploidy markers in in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies differ from those in spontaneous pregnancies and to verify if biochemical markers could predict pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI gestations.

Mortality and Its Predictors among HIV Infected Patients Taking Antiretroviral Treatment in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review.

Even though the benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well established, there is a regional variation in the extent of its benefit. The aim of this review is to highlight mortality and its predictors in Ethiopian adult HIV patients who were on ART.

Cervical cancer patients presentation and survival in the only oncology referral hospital, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

Women infected with Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) are assumed to be at higher risk of developing Cervical Cancer (CC). This is due to a rapid progression of pre-invasive to invasive lesions. However, evidences suggest, due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and care services; an improved survival and treatment outcome of CC patients (CCPs) with HIV infection is expected.

A randomized controlled safety/efficacy trial of therapeutic vaccination in HIV-infected individuals who initiated antiretroviral therapy early in infection.

Despite substantial clinical benefits, complete eradication of HIV has not been possible using antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. Strategies that can either eliminate persistent viral reservoirs or boost host immunity to prevent rebound of virus from these reservoirs after discontinuation of ART are needed; one possibility is therapeutic vaccination. We report the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic vaccine regimen in patients in whom ART was initiated during the early stage of HIV infection and whose immune system was anticipated to be relatively intact. The objectives of our study were to determine whether the vaccine was safe and could induce an immune response that would maintain suppression of plasma viremia after discontinuation of ART. Vaccinations were well tolerated with no serious adverse events but produced only modest augmentation of existing HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses, with little augmentation of CD8+ T cell responses. Compared with placebo, the vaccination regimen had no significant effect on the kinetics or magnitude of viral rebound after interruption of ART and no impact on the size of the HIV reservoir in the CD4+ T cell compartment. Notably, 26% of subjects in the placebo arm exhibited sustained suppression of viremia (<400 copies/ml) after treatment interruption, a rate of spontaneous suppression higher than previously reported. Our findings regarding the degree and kinetics of plasma viral rebound after ART interruption have potentially important implications for the design of future trials testing interventions aimed at achieving ART-free control of HIV infection.

Long-term therapeutic impact of the timing of ART in patients diagnosed with primary HIV-1 infection.

We aimed to determine the consequences of delayed HIV-1 infection diagnosis by comparing long-term outcomes depending on the time of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in patients diagnosed during primary HIV infection (PHI).

Assessing infection control practices to protect health care workers and patients in Malawi from nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in health settings threatens health care workers and people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nosocomial transmission is reduced with implementation of infection control (IC) guidelines. The objective of this study is to describe implementation of TB IC measures in Malawi. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing anonymous health worker questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with facility managers, and direct observations at 17 facilities in central Malawi. Of 592 health care workers surveyed, 34% reported that all patients entering the facility were screened for cough and only 8% correctly named the four most common signs and symptoms of TB in adults. Of 33 managers interviewed, 7 (21%) and 1 (3%) provided the correct TB screening questions for use in adults and children, respectively. Of 592 health workers, only 2.4% had been screened for TB in the previous year. Most (90%) reported knowing their HIV status, 53% were tested at their facility of employment, and half reported they would feel comfortable receiving ART or TB treatment at their facility of employment. We conclude that screening is infrequently conducted and knowledge gaps may undercut its effectiveness. Further, health care workers do not routinely access TB and HIV diagnostic and treatment services at their facility of employment.

Durability of Second Antiretroviral Regimens in the Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals Foundation Study and Factors Associated with Discontinuation.

The study was designed to investigate the median duration of second antiretroviral regimens and factors associated with early discontinuation in HIV patients who switched with an undetectable viral load. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals Foundation Study (ICONA), which collects data throughout the country. Patients who started first antiretroviral therapy (ART) after January 1, 2008 in any center involved in this cohort and then switched to a second regimen were included in the study. Second ART failure was described as two HIV-RNA >200 copies/mL or the discontinuation of any drug. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model. The study population included 835 patients and the median duration of first ART regimens was 16 months with HIV-RNA undetectable for 13 months. The main causes of switch to second ART regimens were toxicity (42.5%) and simplification (37.5%). The switch mostly involved the third drug (63.5%) and almost one third of the population received a single-tablet regimen (STR) as second treatment (30.6%). The median duration of second ART regimens was 9.2 months and the probabilities of treatment discontinuation at 12, 24, and 36 months were 21%, 35%, and 48.2%, respectively. STR formulations had a protective effect against second ART discontinuation. Almost half of our population needed a third regimen within 3 years, but STR could improve second ART durability.

Long-term viral suppression and immune recovery during first-line antiretroviral therapy: a study of an HIV-infected adult cohort in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Achieving viral suppression is key in the global strategy to end the HIV epidemic. However, the levels of viral suppression have yet to be described in many resource-limited settings.

Identifying the Factors Affecting Comfort and the Comfort Levels of Patients Hospitalized in the Coronary Care Unit.

Comfort, a concept associated with the art of nursing, is important for reducing the negative impact of hospitalization in a coronary care unit (CCU). Providing nursing interventions that ensure patient comfort is important for patients to respond positively to treatment. To determine the factors affecting comfort and the comfort levels of patients hospitalized in the CCU. A descriptive study. The study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016 in the CCU of a state hospital located in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of 119 patients who complied with the criteria of inclusion for the study. Data were collected using the "Patient Information Form" and a "General Comfort Questionnaire." The mean patient comfort score was 3.22 ± 0.33, and we found significant relationships between comfort scores and age (r = -0.19; P = .03) and communication by nurses and physicians (P < .05). Regression analysis revealed that sufficient communication by physicians, education level, age, and having a companion were related to the comfort level (P < .05). Communication by nurses and physicians and having a companion could change the comfort levels of patients hospitalized in the CCU.

Influence of Injection Drug Use-Related HIV Acquisition on CD4 Response to First Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen among Virally Suppressed Individuals.

The inflammatory effects of injection drug use may result in an impaired immune response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined CD4 response to first ART regimen among individuals in routine HIV care, stratified by injection drug use-related HIV acquisition.

Tenofovir-Associated Nephrotoxicity Among a US National Historical Cohort of HIV-Infected Veterans: Risk Modification by Concomitant Antiretrovirals.

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been associated with renal complications. The third agent in TDF-containing antiretroviral regimens may modify that risk. We compared renal adverse outcomes among treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients initiating TDF-containing regimens including efavirenz (EFV) or other agents.

Impact of different antiretroviral strategies on total HIV-DNA level in virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients.

Background Total HIV-DNA load in peripheral blood cell (PBMCs) reflects the global viral reservoir that seems to be not affect by antiretroviral treatment. However, some studies reported a different permeability of different drugs in cellular compartments. Objective To investigate the relation between the amount of total HIV-1 DNA and different treatment strategies. Method Total HIV-1 DNA was quantified by real time PCR in PBMCs collected from 161 patients with long-term undetectable HIV-RNA receiving different therapy schedules (3-drug regimens or 2-drug regimen containing Raltegravir as integrase inhibitor). Results Overall, HIV patients who started therapy with a median pre-ART CD4+ cell count >400 cells/mm3 and HIV viral load of 3 log10 copies/ml, achieved a lower amount of HIV total DNA. No significant correlation was found in DNA size when patients were stratified on the basis of different therapeutic protocols. However, HIV DNA load analysis, when only performed in HIV patients with a median pre-ART CD4+ cell count >200 cells/mm3 and HIV viral load < 3 log10 copies/ml, showed a significative DNA decrease in Raltegravir treated group respect to the NNRTIs-treated group. Conclusion The data emphasize that HIV-DNA level represents a predictive factor in long-term suppressive therapy patients. In addition, the diminished reservoir, only observed in patients treated with the NRTI-sparing regimen RAL plus PI/r before immunological and virological derangement, suggest that latest generation drugs, such as integrase inhibitors, might represent an optimal chance in the management of HIV infection.

Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Co-Infection in Northwest Ethiopia: Antiretroviral Treatment and Burden of Disease among Patients Enrolled in HIV Care.

The approach to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV co-infection in East Africa has not been systematically examined. Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) should be initiated for all co-infected persons, the extent of ART prescription is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all VL-HIV co-infected adults at selected referral and district hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from 2010 to 2015. Purposes of the study were to compare the proportion of VL diagnoses made in previously diagnosed HIV-patients versus diagnosis concurrent with HIV diagnosis and to quantify utilization of ART. We included 112 patients and 58 patients at the referral and district hospital, respectively (median age: 30 years, 98% males). Of all VL cases, 56% (63/112) and 19% (11/58) occurred in known HIV patients at the referral and district hospital, respectively, with a median CD4 count at VL diagnosis of 45 cells/µL and 248 cells/µL at the referral and district hospital, respectively. Seventy-six percent (56/44) were on ART at VL diagnosis and nine (12%) started ART after VL diagnosis. The remaining 96 (56%) patients had both infections diagnosed concurrently, with a median CD4 count of 56 and 143 cells/µL at the referral and district hospital, respectively. Among cured patients, ART initiation was 67% and 36% at the referral and district hospital, respectively. A substantial proportion of VL-HIV cases occur while in HIV care, requiring further evaluation of preventive strategies. Among newly diagnosed VL-HIV co-infected patients, ART initiation was low. The reasons, including poor documentation and information exchange, should be assessed.

Pharmacologic prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding.

Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension.