A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

patients on ART - Top 30 Publications

Is There Sufficient Evidence for a Causal Association between Antiretroviral Therapy and Diabetes in HIV-infected Patients? A Meta-analysis.

The association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diabetes is inconsistent and varies widely across primary epidemiological studies. A comprehensive and more precise estimate of this association is fundamental to establishing a plausible causal link between ART and diabetes.

Central and peripheral vision for scene recognition: A neurocomputational modeling exploration.

What are the roles of central and peripheral vision in human scene recognition? Larson and Loschky (2009) showed that peripheral vision contributes more than central vision in obtaining maximum scene recognition accuracy. However, central vision is more efficient for scene recognition than peripheral, based on the amount of visual area needed for accurate recognition. In this study, we model and explain the results of Larson and Loschky (2009) using a neurocomputational modeling approach. We show that the advantage of peripheral vision in scene recognition, as well as the efficiency advantage for central vision, can be replicated using state-of-the-art deep neural network models. In addition, we propose and provide support for the hypothesis that the peripheral advantage comes from the inherent usefulness of peripheral features. This result is consistent with data presented by Thibaut, Tran, Szaffarczyk, and Boucart (2014), who showed that patients with central vision loss can still categorize natural scenes efficiently. Furthermore, by using a deep mixture-of-experts model ("The Deep Model," or TDM) that receives central and peripheral visual information on separate channels simultaneously, we show that the peripheral advantage emerges naturally in the learning process: When trained to categorize scenes, the model weights the peripheral pathway more than the central pathway. As we have seen in our previous modeling work, learning creates a transform that spreads different scene categories into different regions in representational space. Finally, we visualize the features for the two pathways, and find that different preferences for scene categories emerge for the two pathways during the training process.

Outcomes after antiretroviral therapy during the expansion of HIV services in Haiti.

We report patient outcomes after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a network of HIV facilities in Haiti, including temporal trends and differences across clinics, during the expansion of HIV services in the country.

Breast Augmentation and Reconstruction from a Regenerative Medicine Point of View - State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

Breast reconstruction and augmentation are very common procedures, yet the prevailing current methods utilize silicone implants that may have significant local complications requiring reoperation. Lipofillling is increasingly used to contour and is considered safe, however its utility is limited by significant volume loss. A new approach could offer an alternative and increase the scope of patient choice. A small number of teams around the world are investigating a breast tissue-engineering paradigm. Conventional breast tissue engineering concepts are based on seeding a scaffold with the patients' own stem cells. However, the clinical viability of many of these approaches is limited by their costs in relevant volumes. In this paper the state of the art of tissue engineered breast reconstruction is reviewed and future perspectives are presented and discussed.

Empowering patients of a mental rehabilitation center in a low-resource context: a Moroccan experience as a case study.

Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders represent a major source of disability and premature mortality worldwide. However, in developing countries patients with MNS disorders are often poorly managed and treated, particularly in marginalized, impoverished areas where the mental health gap and the treatment gap can reach 90%. Efforts should be made in promoting help by making mental health care more accessible. In this article, we address the challenges that psychological and psychiatric services have to face in a low-resource context, taking our experience at a Moroccan rehabilitation center as a case study. A sample of 60 patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire during the period of 2014-2015. The questionnaire investigated the reactions and feelings of the patients to the rehabilitation program, and their perceived psychological status and mental improvement, if any. Interviews were then transcribed and processed using ATLAS.ti V.7.0 qualitative analysis software. Frequencies and co-occurrence analyses were carried out. Despite approximately 30 million inhabitants within the working age group, Morocco suffers from a shortage of specialized health workers. Our ethnographic observations show that psychiatric treatment can be ensured, notwithstanding these hurdles, if a public health perspective is assumed. In resource-limited settings, working in the field of mental health means putting oneself on the line, exposing oneself to new experiences, and reorganizing one's own skills and expertise. In the present article, we have used our clinical experience at a rehabilitation center in Fes as a case study and we have shown how to use peer therapy to overcome the drawbacks that we are encountered daily in a setting of limited resources.

Self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.

This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.

Inflammation, Immune Activation, and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV.

This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection.

Acquisition of electrocardiogram signals during magnetic resonance imaging.

The recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acquisition is of great interest and importance. Firstly, MRI acquisition is a relatively slow process, which therefore complicates the imaging of moving organs. Cardiac MRI requires the development of strategies for acquiring high quality images, which is mainly achieved by synchronising the image acquisition with a specific time during the cardiac cycle. The ECG is used to monitor the heart's activity, and the detection of the largest and steepest peak in the cardiac cycle (the QRS complex) triggers the acquisition of slices of the k-space. Secondly, patients undergoing an MRI examination need to be monitored for safety during the procedure, and therefore ECG signals are used to track their cardiovascular state in real time. However, there are significant barriers to the accurate observation and processing of the ECG during MRI acquisition. In particular, the flow of charged blood particles through the large applied magnetic field leads to an extra current source, known as the magnetohdrodymanic (MHD) effect. This review article discusses these barriers and state-of-the-art solutions. An overview of the relevant technology including hardware and applications are described. The development of new software tools for the processing of the ECG signals acquired during MRI is also detailed. These developments include the design of specific QRS detection algorithms, which are able to distinguish QRS complexes from the MHD effect but also the gradient artefacts. Different techniques for the suppression of the gradient artefacts are also presented as well as the most challenging problem to-date - the problem of separating the MHD effect from the ECG. The article concludes by summarising the advantages of using ECG signals during MRI, but also presents the current limitations of modern analysis techniques in this domain. The most promising avenues of research are also discussed and suggestions for new methodological analyses for the development of this field are given.

Effects of dielectrophoresis on thrombogenesis in human whole blood.

Thrombogenesis (blood clot formation) is a major barrier to the development of biomedical devices that interface with blood. Although state-of-the-art chemically and pharmacologically mediated clot mitigation strategies are effective, some limitations of such approaches include depletion of active agents, or adverse reactions in patients. Increased clotting protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, which occurs when artificial surfaces are exposed to blood, results in enhanced clot formation on artificial surfaces. It is hypothesized that repelling proteins and platelets using dielectrophoresis (DEP), a contact free particle manipulation technique, will reduce clot formation in biomedical devices. In this paper, the effect of DEP on thrombogenesis in a human blood is investigated. Undiluted whole blood from human donors is pumped through microchannels at a physiological shear rate (400 s(-1) ). Experiments are performed by applying 0 V, 0.5 Vrms , 2 Vrms , and 3 Vrms to electrodes in the channel. Clot formation is observed to decrease in experiments in which DEP electrodes are active (average of 6% coverage @ 0V reduced to 0.08% coverage @ 3 Vrms ). Repulsion is more effective at higher voltages. DEP causes a quantifiable reduction in microscopic and macroscopic clot formation in PDMS microchannels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Triage and the Lost Art of Decoding Vital Signs: Restoring Physiologically Based Triage Skills in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies.

Triage management remains a major challenge, especially in resource-poor settings such as war, complex humanitarian emergencies, and public health emergencies in developing countries. In triage it is often the disruption of physiology, not anatomy, that is critical, supporting triage methodology based on clinician-assessed physiological parameters as well as anatomy and mechanism of injury. In recent times, too many clinicians from developed countries have deployed to humanitarian emergencies without the physical exam skills needed to assess patients without the benefit of remotely fed electronic monitoring, laboratory, and imaging studies. In triage, inclusion of the once-widely accepted and collectively taught "art of decoding vital signs" with attention to their character and meaning may provide clues to a patient's physiological state, improving triage sensitivity. Attention to decoding vital signs is not a triage methodology of its own or a scoring system, but rather a skill set that supports existing triage methodologies. With unique triage management challenges being raised by an ever-changing variety of humanitarian crises, these once useful skill sets need to be revisited, understood, taught, and utilized by triage planners, triage officers, and teams as a necessary adjunct to physiologically based triage decision-making. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 10).

Effect of acupuncture in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common and distressing side effects in patients with cancer. The introduction and development of antiemetic drugs have significantly improved the ability of clinicians to control CINV, but it is not easy to translate to practical application, owing to financial issues, provider-related barriers, and patient factors. Nondrug therapies are needed to alleviate the symptoms of CINV. Acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for CINV, but additional evidence is needed.

Virological success after 12 and 24 months of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: Comparing results of trials, cohorts and cross-sectional studies using a systematic review and meta-analysis.

UNAIDS recently defined the 90-90-90 target as a way to end the HIV epidemic. However, the proportion of virological success following antiretroviral therapy (ART) may not be as high as the anticipated 90%, and may in fact be highly heterogeneous. We aimed to describe the proportion of virological success in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify factors associated with the proportion of virological success.

Correction: Community ART Support Groups in Mozambique: The Potential of Patients as Partners in Care.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166444.].

Comparative effectiveness in urology: a state of the art review utilizing a systematic approach.

Comparative effectiveness research plays a vital role in healthcare delivery by guiding evidence-based practices. We performed a state-of-the-art review of comparative effectiveness research in the urology literature for 2016, utilizing a systematic approach. Seven high-impact papers are reviewed in detail.

Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk assessment in HIV-positive patients.

Dyslipidemia is a major complication of antiretroviral treatment. Aim of the present study was to screen baseline lipid levels and cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive patients and analyze change in those parameters after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART).

Comparison of T2*-weighted and QSM contrasts in Parkinson's disease to visualize the STN with MRI.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies investigating optimal protocols for STN visualization using state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown that susceptibility weighted images, which display the magnetic susceptibility distribution, yield better results than T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T2*-weighted contrasts. However, these findings are based on young healthy individuals, and require validation in elderly individuals and persons suffering from PD. Using 7T MRI, the present study set out to investigate which MRI contrasts yielded the best results for STN visualization in 12 PD patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC). We found that STNs were more difficult to delineate in PD as reflected by a lower inter-rater agreement when compared to HCs. No STN size differences were observed between the groups. Analyses of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) images showed a higher inter-rater agreement reflected by increased Dice-coefficients. The location of the center of mass of the STN was not affected by contrast. Overall, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were higher in QSM than in T2*-weighted images. This can at least partially, explain the higher inter-rater agreement in QSM. The current results indicate that the calculation of QSM contrasts contributes to an improved visualization of the entire STN. We conclude that QSM contrast is the preferred choice for the visualization of the STN in persons with PD as well as in aging HC.

Low complication rate of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) of pediatric forearm fractures: A retrospective study of 202 cases.

Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has been established as state of the art treatment for forearm fractures in children, if operative stabilization is required. Their use has been expanded to single bone shaft fractures, and also more complex injuries such as Monteggia fractures or Monteggia-like lesions. A wide range of complications has been reported in the literature, up to 70% in certain investigations. The purpose of this study was to assess the complication rate after ESIN treatment of forearm fractures in children and adolescents in a representative cohort of patients from a level 1 trauma center in Germany.Between 2000 and 2015, we retrospectively analyzed all patients, up to the age of 16 years, with forearm fractures, who were operatively treated using ESIN in our department of general and trauma surgery. The main outcome measurements were the rates of postoperative complications after ESIN such as re-fracture, malunion, nonunion, tendon lesion, wound infection, and limited range of motion.In all, 201 consecutive patients with 202 forearm fractures were included in this study. Age averaged 9.7 years (range 3-16 years). Fifteen (7.4%) fractures were open. Fractures were 82.2% diaphyseal both-bone forearm fractures. Follow-up averaged 10.2 months (range 0.7-176.3 months). Complications were 10 re-fractures, 2 malunions, 3 extensor pollicis longus tendon ruptures, 1 superficial wound infection, and 2 limited range of motions. Fourteen (6.9%) children required a secondary operative intervention for their complication. Time to implant removal averaged 3.8 months (range 0.4-16.3 months).Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is a minimally invasive and reliable technique with a low complication rate. Both-bone forearm fractures and single bone fractures, and also Monteggia and Monteggia-equivalent fractures can be successfully treated with this method. As a major complication, re-fractures are frequently seen, even with ESIN in situ.

Decipher test impacts decision making among patients considering adjuvant and salvage treatment after radical prostatectomy: Interim results from the Multicenter Prospective PRO-IMPACT study.

Patients with prostate cancer and their providers face uncertainty as they consider adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) or salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after undergoing radical prostatectomy. The authors prospectively evaluated the impact of the Decipher test, which predicts metastasis risk after radical prostatectomy, on decision making for ART and SRT.

Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: state-of-the-art of the diagnosis, classification and treatment.

Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies in which blasts show markers of multiple developmental lineages and cannot be clearly classified as acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukemias. Historically, various names and classifications were used for this rare entity accounting for 2-5% of all acute leukemias depending on the diagnostic criterias used. The currently valid classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 refers to this group of diseases as MPAL. Because adverse cytogenetic abnormalities are frequently present, MPAL is generally considered a disease with a poor prognosis. Knowledge of its treatment is limited to retrospective analyses of small patient cohorts. So far, no treatment recommendations verified by prospective studies have been published. The reported data suggest that induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is more effective than induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia or consolidation chemotherapy. The establishment of cooperative groups and international registries based on the recent WHO criterias are required to ensure further progress in understanding and treatment of MPAL. This review summarizes current knowledge on the diagnosis, classification, prognosis and treatment of MPAL patients.

Chapter 7 Human Epididymal and Testicular Sperm Cryopreservation.

Since the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in the early 1990s, surgical techniques to recover samples from the epididymis and testis directly have been used to benefit patients suffering from obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. Various studies have demonstrated comparable fertilization, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation rates when fresh and frozen-thawed epididymal sperms were used for ICSI [1]. Injection of fresh and frozen testicular sperms into mature oocytes resulted in similar fertilization rates in cases of obstructive azoospermia. However, in cases of nonobstructive azoospermia, the outcome depends upon the degree of impairment of spermatogenesis, criteria for sperm freezing, and patient selection [2].

Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilization among HIV/AIDS Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy at a University Hospital in Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

The objective of this study was to assess traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) utilization pattern among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Materials and Methods. Data on sociodemographic profile and clinical and TCAM utilization were collected using a structured, pretested questionnaire from April 01 to May 28, 2014, through interviews with patients. Data on CD4 count, HIV stage, and ART regimen were collected from patient records. Analysis was conducted descriptively using SPSS version 20. Results. Of the 300 participants, 43.7% reported using TCAM, with the largest proportion of them from religious institutions (churches/mosques) (41.22%), followed by home prepared (32.82%) and traditional healers (16.03%). The leading forms of TCAM used were spiritual and herbal therapies constituting 56.49% and 36.64% of the patients, respectively. The most frequently used herbal products included Nigella sativa (22.92%) and Moringa oleifera (20.83%). Most of the patients (73.30%) using TCAM reported improvement in their conditions. Conclusions. TCAM utilization among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was common and different sources and types were used alongside ART, with improvement reported by most. Further research is needed to identify CAM therapies which may be used as adjunct treatments among these patients.

Interactive Outlining of Pancreatic Cancer Liver Metastases in Ultrasound Images.

Ultrasound (US) is the most commonly used liver imaging modality worldwide. Due to its low cost, it is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients with metastases localized in the liver. In this contribution, we present the results of an interactive segmentation approach for liver metastases in US acquisitions. A (semi-) automatic segmentation is still very challenging because of the low image quality and the low contrast between the metastasis and the surrounding liver tissue. Thus, the state of the art in clinical practice is still manual measurement and outlining of the metastases in the US images. We tackle the problem by providing an interactive segmentation approach providing real-time feedback of the segmentation results. The approach has been evaluated with typical US acquisitions from the clinical routine, and the datasets consisted of pancreatic cancer metastases. Even for difficult cases, satisfying segmentations results could be achieved because of the interactive real-time behavior of the approach. In total, 40 clinical images have been evaluated with our method by comparing the results against manual ground truth segmentations. This evaluation yielded to an average Dice Score of 85% and an average Hausdorff Distance of 13 pixels.

Trends in baseline CD4 cell counts and risk factors for late antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive patients in Shanghai, a retrospective cross-sectional study.

There are few studies focus on the factors underlying the late initiation of ART in China. We analyzed the trends in the median CD4 cell counts among different patient groups over time and the risk factors for the late initiation of ART in Shanghai, China.

Mobile health treatment support intervention for HIV and tuberculosis in Mozambique: Perspectives of patients and healthcare workers.

Studies have been conducted in developing countries using SMS to communicate with patients to reduce the number of missed appointments and improve retention in treatment, however; very few have been scaled up. One possible reason for this could be that patients or staff are dissatisfied with the method in some way. This paper reports a study of patients' and healthcare workers' (HCW) views on an mHealth intervention aiming to support retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Mozambique.

Quality improvement intervention to increase adherence to ART prescription policy at HIV treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia: A cluster randomized trial.

In urban areas, crowded HIV treatment facilities with long patient wait times can deter patients from attending their clinical appointments and picking up their medications, ultimately disrupting patient care and compromising patient retention and adherence.

Impact of antiretroviral treatment containing tenofovir difumarate on the telomere length of aviremic HIV-infected patients.

To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the inhibitory effect of tenofovir upon telomerase activity observed in vitro.

Comprehensive evaluation of ten deformable image registration algorithms for contour propagation between CT and cone-beam CT images in adaptive head & neck radiotherapy.

Deformable image registration (DIR) is a critical technic in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for propagating contours between planning computerized tomography (CT) images and treatment CT/cone-beam CT (CBCT) images to account for organ deformation for treatment re-planning. To validate the ability and accuracy of DIR algorithms in organ at risk (OAR) contour mapping, ten intensity-based DIR strategies, which were classified into four categories-optical flow-based, demons-based, level-set-based and spline-based-were tested on planning CT and fractional CBCT images acquired from twenty-one head & neck (H&N) cancer patients who underwent 6~7-week intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three similarity metrics, i.e., the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), the percentage error (PE) and the Hausdorff distance (HD), were employed to measure the agreement between the propagated contours and the physician-delineated ground truths of four OARs, including the vertebra (VTB), the vertebral foramen (VF), the parotid gland (PG) and the submandibular gland (SMG). It was found that the evaluated DIRs in this work did not necessarily outperform rigid registration. DIR performed better for bony structures than soft-tissue organs, and the DIR performance tended to vary for different ROIs with different degrees of deformation as the treatment proceeded. Generally, the optical flow-based DIR performed best, while the demons-based DIR usually ranked last except for a modified demons-based DISC used for CT-CBCT DIR. These experimental results suggest that the choice of a specific DIR algorithm depends on the image modality, anatomic site, magnitude of deformation and application. Therefore, careful examinations and modifications are required before accepting the auto-propagated contours, especially for automatic re-planning ART systems.

Sensitive quantification of the HIV-1 reservoir in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

The implementation of successful strategies to achieve an HIV cure has become a priority in HIV research. However, the current location and size of HIV reservoirs is still unknown since there are limited tools to evaluate HIV latency in viral sanctuaries such as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). As reported in the so called "Boston Patients", despite undetectable levels of proviral HIV-1 DNA in blood and GALT, viral rebound happens in just few months after ART interruption. This fact might imply that current methods are not sensitive enough to detect residual reservoirs. Showing that, it is imperative to improve the detection and quantification of HIV-1 reservoir in tissue samples. Herein, we propose a novel non-enzymatic protocol for purification of Lamina Propria Leukocytes (LPL) from gut biopsies combined to viral HIV DNA (vDNA) quantification by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of viral reservoir measurements (LPL-vDNA assay).

Genetic defects in the nef gene are associated with Korean Red Ginseng intake: monitoring of nef sequence polymorphisms over 20 years.

The presence of gross deletions in the human immunodeficiency virus nef gene (gΔnef) is associated with long-term nonprogression of infected patients. Here, we investigated how quickly genetic defects in the nef gene are associated with Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) intake in 10 long-term slow progressors.

Neurological aspects of medical use of cannabidiol.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases.