PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

patients on ART - Top 30 Publications

Fetal Treatment 2017: The Evolution of Fetal Therapy Centers - A Joint Opinion from the International Fetal Medicine and Surgical Society (IFMSS) and the North American Fetal Therapy Network (NAFTNet).

More than 3 decades ago, a small group of physicians and other practitioners active in what they called "fetal treatment" authored an opinion piece outlining the current status and future challenges anticipated in the field. Many advances in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal care and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have been made in the intervening years, yet a thoughtful reassessment of the basic tenets put forth in 1982 has not been published. The present effort will aim to provide a framework for contemporary redefinition of the field of fetal treatment, with a brief discussion of the necessary minimum expertise and systems base for the provision of different types of interventions for both the mother and fetus. Our goal will be to present an opinion that encourages the advancement of thoughtful practice, ensuring that current and future patients have realistic access to centers with a range of fetal therapies with appropriate expertise, experience, and subspecialty and institutional support while remaining focused on excellence in care, collaborative scientific discovery, and maternal autonomy and safety.

Lipid-based nutrient supplements containing vitamins and minerals attenuate renal electrolyte loss in HIV/AIDS patients starting antiretroviral therapy: A randomized controlled trial in Zambia.

Advanced HIV infection combined with undernutrition and antiretroviral therapy (ART) places HIV/AIDS patients at high risk of electrolyte abnormalities and increased morbidity and mortality. Here, in a sub-study of a large published randomized trial, we evaluated if nutritional supplements will help curtail renal electrolyte loss in HIV/AIDS patients starting ART.

HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings.

Should high BMI be a reason for IVF treatment denial?

Our aim was to examine the influence of BMI on the live-birth rate following IVF/ICSI and evaluate its specific contribution among other factors thus enabling accurate reproductive policy development. All patients that underwent IVF/ICSI at our center during January 2012-July 2015 were included in this retrospective study. A total of 1654 ICSI cycles were divided into four groups according to the patient's BMI (kg/m(2)): group I (normal weight): <25 (943 cycles); group II (overweight): 25-30 (403 cycles); group III (obese): 30-35 (212 cycles); group IV (morbid obesity): >35 (96 cycles). Comparing the four groups of BMI, mean age and number of previous ART cycles was significantly lower in group I compared to groups II, III and IV. Length of treatment was significantly shorter in group I compared to groups II, III and IV. Ovarian response to COH was comparable in terms of mean estradiol and progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration mean number of oocytes retrieved, fertilized and number of embryos transferred. Endometrial thickness was significantly lower in group IV. Outcome measures, such as implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per cycle and per ET, as well as live-birth rates did not differ significantly between the groups, although in group IV LBR per cycle and per ET was lower. Multivariate logistic regression stepwise analysis found a significant correlation between age and BMI but did not find correlation between BMI and clinical pregnancy (p = 0.436) or LB (p = 0.206). The results of our relatively large retrospective study did not demonstrate a significant impact of BMI on the ART cycle outcome. Therefore, BMI should not be a basis for IVF treatment denial.

Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence.

Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days?

Comparison of Kaposi sarcoma risk in HIV-positive adults across five continents: a multiregional multicohort study.

We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America.

Growing up with perinatal HIV: changes in clinical outcomes before and after transfer to adult care in the UK.

With improved survival, adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) are transitioning from paediatric to adult care, but there are few published data on clinical outcomes post-transfer. Using linked data from patients in the national UK/Ireland paediatric cohort (CHIPS) and an adult UK cohort of outpatient clinics (UK CHIC), we describe mortality and changes in immunological status post-transfer.

Where do HIV-infected adolescents go after transfer? - Tracking transition/transfer of HIV-infected adolescents using linkage of cohort data to a health information system platform.

To evaluate long-term outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents, it is important to identify ways of tracking outcomes after transfer to a different health facility. The Department of Health (DoH) in the Western Cape Province (WCP) of South Africa uses a single unique identifier for all patients across the health service platform. We examined adolescent outcomes after transfer by linking data from four International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) cohorts in the WCP with DoH data.

Concomitant contraceptive implant and efavirenz use in women living with HIV: perspectives on current evidence and policy implications for family planning and HIV treatment guidelines.

Preventing unintended pregnancies is important among all women, including those living with HIV. Increasing numbers of women, including HIV-positive women, choose progestin-containing subdermal implants, which are one of the most effective forms of contraception. However, drug-drug interactions between contraceptive hormones and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce implant effectiveness. We present four inter-related perspectives on this issue.

Patch-Based Discrete Registration of Clinical Brain Images.

We introduce a method for registration of brain images acquired in clinical settings. The algorithm relies on three-dimensional patches in a discrete registration framework to estimate correspondences. Clinical images present significant challenges for computational analysis. Fast acquisition often results in images with sparse slices, severe artifacts, and variable fields of view. Yet, large clinical datasets hold a wealth of clinically relevant information. Despite significant progress in image registration, most algorithms make strong assumptions about the continuity of image data, failing when presented with clinical images that violate these assumptions. In this paper, we demonstrate a non-rigid registration method for aligning such images. The method explicitly models the sparsely available image information to achieve robust registration. We demonstrate the algorithm on clinical images of stroke patients. The proposed method outperforms state of the art registration algorithms and avoids catastrophic failures often caused by these images. We provide a freely available open source implementation of the algorithm.

Governmental efforts for cardiovascular disease prevention efforts in the Russian Federation.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in Russia as is case with the most other countries of the world, although Russia has unique features and demographic trends. In the late 90's and early 2000's Russia has sustained a profound demographical crisis with a period of overmortality but since 2003 the mortality rates are declining. By 2013, the birth rates exceeded mortality. The reversal of the demographic crisis took place on the background of a number of comprehensive governmental efforts with focus on non-communicable diseases prevention. The National Priority Project "Health" implied enhancement of primary care along with improving availability of state-of-art care for CVD patients. The most notable activities in the field of preventive medicine were the launch of Health Centers for universal free-of-charge screening for risk factors and for preventive counseling and the Dispanserization program (a large scale health screening aiming on detection of both people with chronic conditions and of high-risk persons).

"Beyond saving lives": Current perspectives of interventional radiology in trauma.

Interventional radiology (IR) has become an integral part in the management of traumatic injuries. There is an ever-increasing role of IR in traumatic injuries of solid abdominal organs, pelvic and peripheral arteries to control active bleeding by therapeutic embolization or vascular reconstruction using stent grafts. Traditionally, these endovascular treatments have been offered to hemodynamically stable patients. However, in recent times endovascular approach has become preferable to surgery even in hemodynamically unstable patients with injury of surgically difficult-to-access sites. With shifting trends towards non operative management coupled with availability of the current state-of-the-art equipments, hardware and technical expertise, IR has gained an impeccable role in trauma management. However, due to lack of awareness and widespread acceptance, IR continues to remain an ocean of unexplored potentialities.

Quality of life in patients with intermittent claudication.

Intermittent claudication (IC) is a common condition that causes pain in the lower limbs when walking and has been shown to severely impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The QoL is therefore often regarded as an important measure in clinical trials investigating intermittent claudication. To date, no consensus exits on the type of life questionnaire to be used. This review aims to examine the QoL questionnaires used in trials investigating peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Patient-centred care and shared decision-making in Chile: Rising momentum for progress and implementation in clinical practice.

The Chilean legislation establishes that patients have rights and responsibilities in regards to their healthcare. This is an important statement as it declares that people must be informed and become actively involved in their care; meanwhile, the health system needs to coordinate the provision of personalised and effective services. Although patient-centred care (PCC) and shared decision-making (SDM) are relatively new concepts in Chile, the country is experiencing an interesting political momentum to create more interventions to achieve PCC and SDM and explore clinical implementation. Currently, research efforts in Chile have focused on better understanding the state of the art related to both concepts and how new clinical approaches could help to operationalize them.

A case-control study of non-AIDS-defining cancers in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients.

We present a case-control study of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in a cohort of HIV-infected patients where we value the incidence, survival and prognostic factors of mortality.

Intraoperative mechanical ventilation: state of the art.

Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass. While anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation are becoming increasingly safe practices, the contribution to surgical mortality attributable to post-operative lung injury is not negligible: for these reasons, the prevention of PPCs, including the use of protective mechanical ventilation is mandatory. Mechanical ventilation should be optimised providing an adequate respiratory support while minimizing unwanted negative effects. Due to the high number of surgical procedures performed daily, the impact on patients' health and healthcare costs can be relevant, even when new strategies result in an apparently small improvement of outcome. A protective intraoperative ventilation should include a low tidal volume of 6-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, plateau pressures ideally below 16 cmH2O, the lowest possible driving pressure, moderate-low PEEP levels except in obese patients, laparoscopy and long surgical procedures that might benefit of a slightly higher PEEP. The work of the anesthesiologist should start with a careful pre-operative visit to assess the risk, and a close post-operative monitoring.

The management of the acute ischemic priapism: A state of the art review.

To review the current literature on early penile prosthesis implantation in patients with refractory ischemic priapism (IP).

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetes: A State-of-the-Art Review.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic treatable sleep disorder and a frequent comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardinal features of OSA, including intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, have been linked to abnormal glucose metabolism in laboratory-based experiments. OSA has also been linked to the development of incident type 2 diabetes. The relationship between OSA and type 2 diabetes may be bidirectional in nature given that diabetic neuropathy can affect central control of respiration and upper airway neural reflexes promoting sleep-disordered breathing. Despite the strong association between OSA and type 2 diabetes, the effect of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on markers of glucose metabolism has been conflicting. Variability with CPAP adherence may be one of the key factors behind these conflicting results. Lastly, accumulated data suggests an association between OSA and type 1 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes. This review will explore the role of OSA in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, glucose metabolism dysregulation and complications of type 2 diabetes. The association between OSA and diabetic complications as well as gestational diabetes will also be reviewed in the online supplement.

Cosmetic micromanipulation of vitrified-warmed cleavage stage embryos does not improve ART outcomes: An ultrastructural study of fragments.

The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group. Fragmented embryo was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant improvement was observed in the morphological parameters, such as fragmentation degrees, evenness of the blastomeres and embryo grade during the subsequent development, after applying cosmetic micromanipulation, when compared to sham or control groups (P=0.00001). However, there were no differences in the clinical outcomes amongst the three studied groups e.g. the rates of clinical, ongoing and multiple pregnancies, implantation, delivery and live birth. In fine structure view, fragments exhibited uniform cytoplasmic texture containing majority of organelles that were observed in normal blastomeres including mitochondria. In conclusion, application of cosmetic micromanipulation in low-grade vitrified-warmed embryos showed significant improvement on embryo morphology parameters; however, did not result in noticeable improvements in clinical outcomes of the patients undergoing ART program. In addition, embryo vitrification had no adverse effects on fine structure of the fragments.

Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia in People Living with HIV (PLHIV) with Severe Immunosuppression: Is Routine CrAg Screening Indicated in India?

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV.

Blocking of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 potently reduces stress-induced depression in rat highlighting a pivotal role of lipid metabolism.

Major depressive disorder is a complex and common mental disease, for which the pathology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) is a key molecule involved in lipid metabolism and mutations in CPT1a causing reduced function is hypothesized to have a protective role in the development of depression. Moreover, CPT1a is found to be upregulated in suicide patients with history of depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of CPT1a activity can be developed as an innovative treatment strategy for depression. Stress exposure combined with different pharmacological treatment regimens; Etomoxir, CPT1 blocker, and Escitalopram, a favoured antidepressant drug, was applied in state-of-the-art chronic mild stress model. Etomoxir treatment induced statistical significant reduction of anhedonic behavior compared to vehicle treatment (p < 0.0001) and reversed depression-like phenotype in 90% of the rats (p = 0.0007), whereas Escitalopram only proved 57% efficacy. Moreover, Etomoxir revealed downregulation of interferon-γ, interleukin-17α and tumor necrosis factor-α. This indicate that alteration in metabolism is pivotal in the pathogenesis of depression, since CPT1 blockage is highly efficient in treating anhedonia and inflammation, thereby opening up for a novel class of antidepressant medication.

The Second Victim: a Review.

Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors.

Antiretroviral therapy containing HIV protease inhibitors enhances fracture risk by impairing osteoblast differentiation and bone quality.

Long-term ART is associated with increased fracture risk, but the mechanism remains elusive. We measured serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine (markers of poor bone quality) in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing regimens. The results demonstrated significantly higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine in PIs-treated patients. Switching to INSTI resulted in significant decrease in these markers. We also showed impaired bone mechanical properties with higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin level in PIs-treated mice and inhibited osteoblast differentiation in PIs-treated osteogenic cells. The results confirmed the adverse effects of PIs on bone quality and osteoblast differentiation.

Assessing the psychedelic "after-glow" in ayahuasca users: post-acute neurometabolic and functional connectivity changes are associated with enhanced mindfulness capacities.

Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood. Here we investigated in an open-label uncontrolled study in sixteen healthy volunteers ayahuasca-induced post-acute neurometabolic and connectivity modifications, and their association with mindfulness measures.

How Can I Promote Healing Outside of My Clinical Setting for Patients in Need of a Transplantation?

Nurses are individuals called to both care for patients and families and facilitate the healing process. Our profession fills a unique role in health care as oncology nurses combine medical science with the art of interpersonal relationships to provide both physical and emotional support for patients. Promoting healing and facilitating adjustment draws individuals to become exceptional nurses and is an innate quality of oncology nurses (American Nurses Association, 2016). It is a characteristic not easily separated from one's personality. Often, nurses become frustrated in their inability to do more for a patient or the family members. This feeling becomes particularly prevalent in life-limiting or life-threatening conditions, most notably cancer.
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Wnt signaling, a novel pathway regulating blood pressure? State of the art review.

Recent antihypertensive trials show conflicting results on blood pressure (BP) targets in patient populations with different metabolic profiles, with lowest benefit from tight BP control observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paradox could arise from the heterogeneity of study populations and underscores the importance of precision medicine initiatives towards understanding and treating hypertension. Wnt signaling pathways and genetic variations in its signaling peptides have been recently associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes, generating a breakthrough for advancement of precision medicine in the field of hypertension. We performed a review of PubMed for publications addressing the contributions of Wnt to BP regulation and hypertension. In addition, we performed a manual search of the reference lists for relevant articles, and included unpublished observations from our laboratory. There is emerging evidence for Wnt's role in BP regulation and its involvement in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Wnt signaling has pleiotropic effects on distinct pathways that involve vascular smooth muscle plasticity, and cardiac, renal, and neural physiology. Hypertension is a heterogeneous disease with unique molecular pathways regulating its response to therapy. Recognition of these pathways is a prerequisite to identify novel targets for drug development and personalizing medicine. A review of Wnt signaling reveals its emerging role in BP regulation and as a target for novel drug development that has the potential to transform the therapy of hypertension in specific populations.

High FGF21 levels are associated with altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients.

Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss.

Virological Suppression and Patterns of Resistance Amongst Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy at 4 Nigerian Military Hospitals.

In resource-constrained settings, plasma HIV-1 RNA quantification has not been routinely available for the monitoring of response to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated virological suppression rates amongst patients on first-line ART in four Nigerian military hospitals.

Overcoming the current issues surrounding device leads: reducing the complications during extraction.

The implantation rate of of Cardiac implantable Elecrtonical Devices has consistently increased in the last 20 years, so as related complication rates. According, devices infections and malfunctions required the development of appropriate strategies. The most relevant issue is the removal of pacing and ICD leads, which, few months after implantation, tend to develop intravascular fibrosis, often making extraction a challenging and risky procedure. Areas Covered: TLE scenario is constantly evolving. Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) is a key procedure in lead management strategies. Many efforts have been done to develop new TLE approaches and techniques allowing a safe and effective procedure for patients. The increasing rate of CIED implantations and of CIED related complications highlight the importance of transvenous lead extraction (TLE). Lead related- and patient-related factors may change consistently the extraction playground. We review the status of the art of TLE, focusing on available strategies to perform the optimal procedure in the right patient, reducing procedure related complications. Expert Commentary: Understanding the importance of an accurate TLE risk stratification is mandatory to optimize the procedural risk benefits ratio. The use of adequate tools, techniques and approaches, and an appropriate training are the cornerstone for safer procedures achievement.

A structured latent model for ovarian carcinoma subtyping from histopathology slides.

Accurate subtyping of ovarian carcinomas is an increasingly critical and often challenging diagnostic process. This work focuses on the development of an automatic classification model for ovarian carcinoma subtyping. Specifically, we present a novel clinically inspired contextual model for histopathology image subtyping of ovarian carcinomas. A whole slide image is modelled using a collection of tissue patches extracted at multiple magnifications. An efficient and effective feature learning strategy is used for feature representation of a tissue patch. The locations of salient, discriminative tissue regions are treated as latent variables allowing the model to explicitly ignore portions of the large tissue section that are unimportant for classification. These latent variables are considered in a structured formulation to model the contextual information represented from the multi-magnification analysis of tissues. A novel, structured latent support vector machine formulation is defined and used to combine information from multiple magnifications while simultaneously operating within the latent variable framework. The structural and contextual nature of our method addresses the challenges of intra-class variation and pathologists' workload, which are prevalent in histopathology image classification. Extensive experiments on a dataset of 133 patients demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed method against state-of-the-art approaches for histopathology image classification. We achieve an average multi-class classification accuracy of 90%, outperforming existing works while obtaining substantial agreement with six clinicians tested on the same dataset.