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physical examination - Top 30 Publications

Non-menopausal endocrine and non-endocrine causes of flushing and sweating.

Hot flushes and generalised sweating are relatively common presenting complaints, with hypogonadism an important differential diagnosis in both sexes and menopause being the most typical cause in females of climacteric age. However, a variety of other conditions do need to be carefully considered in respect of eugonadal individuals and also for those hypogonadal ones where properly dosed sex steroid replacement has failed to control flushing and sweating, or where the presentation is atypical. Alternative aetiologies may be immediately obvious from the history and physical examination, but more unusual conditions may require deeper scrutiny. This clinical review elaborates on the non-menopausal endocrine and non-endocrine causes of flushing and sweating, including both common and rarer conditions.

Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain.

Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor that accounts for less than one percent of pancreatic tumors. The diagnosis could be challenging as SPN tend to manifest with nonspecific abdominal symptoms, variable radiological features, and inconsistent morphology. The cellular origin of SPN is unclear and might involve ductal, acinar and endocrine stem cells.  We report a rare case of a 27-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain for two years, associated with a decrease in appetite. Her medical history was significant for abdominoplasty five years ago. Vital signs were stable. Physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. Laboratory tests were unremarkable. Contrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed a 2 x 2 cm indeterminate pancreatic tail lesion. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) disclosed a 2.1 x 1.8 cm hypoechoic mass in the tail of the pancreas.Trans-gastric fine needle aspiration was obtained to show clusters of uniform neoplastic cells with abundant cytoplasm and oval bean-shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for beta-catenin, Vimentin, CD10, CD56, cytokeratin-7 (Ck7), Cyclin D1, and negative for chromogranin, epithelial-cadherin (E cadherin) which was consistent with a pseudopapillary tumor. The patient underwent a robotic assisted en-bloc distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. There were no intra-abdominal metastases. SPN is a rare tumor characterized by a specific immunohistological pattern which makes it highly distinct from other pancreatic neoplasms particularly neuroendocrine tumors, acinar carcinomas, and carcinoids. It is important to differentiate SPN from other pancreatic neoplasms because it is characterized as low potential for malignancy and a favorable prognosis after resection, with a five-year survival rate approaching 85%-95%.

Clinically-evident tophi are associated with reduced muscle force in the foot and ankle in people with gout: a cross-sectional study.

The foot and ankle represent a common site for tophi in people with gout, yet it is unclear whether the presence of tophi is related to impaired muscle function. This study aimed to determine the association between foot and ankle tophi and muscle force in people with gout.

Extraovarian Primary Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Case Report.

BACKGROUND Extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma (EOPPC) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 6.78 per million, which arises from the peritoneal lining with minimal or no ovarian involvement. EOPPC is a diagnosis of exclusion with the absence of other identifiable primary sites and after surgical assessment and consideration of the histological report to evaluate the extent of ovarian invasion. CASE REPORT A 66-year-old woman complained of mild postprandial epigastric pain. Physical exam revealed positive bowel sounds over all 4 quadrants, with a soft, non-tender abdomen. Distension and dullness to percussion were noted. A CT scan revealed peritoneal fluid, and evaluation of the peritoneal fluid showed an elevated white blood cell count, while fulfilling criteria for exudate. There was no bacterial growth from the peritoneal fluid. Serum tumor markers CEA were significantly elevated, suggestive of an underlying malignancy. An exploratory laparoscopy confirmed diffuse carcinomatosis in the omentum, the coloparietal region bilaterally, as well as surrounding small bowel loops, the transverse and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. A bilateral oophorectomy was performed and 2 biopsies from the thickened peritoneum were taken. The histomorphological features from the pathology examination concluded the patient had peritoneal serous carcinoma with uninvolved ovaries. CONCLUSIONS EOPPC may be misdiagnosed as epithelial ovarian cancer, and should be considered in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, normal-sized ovaries, and no identifiable primary lesion. Since the common therapeutic strategies achieve comparable survival rates, failed recognition may be without consequences. However, to further improve survival, optimal cytoreductive surgery is essential and should be made a priority in disease management.

Self-Reported Unsteadiness Predicts Fear of Falling, Activity Restriction, Falls, and Disability.

To determine if self-reported unsteadiness during walking is associated with fear of falling (FOF), fear-related activity restriction, falls, and disability over 2 years in community-dwelling adults.

Gaining Thermodynamic Insight from Distinct Glass Formation Kinetics of Structurally Similar Organic Compounds.

Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of crystallization of 12 structurally similar organic compounds were investigated from the supercooled liquid state by calorimetric and rheological measurements. Based on their crystallization behaviors, these compounds were divided into three categories: stable glass formers, poor glass formers, and good glass formers with poor stability on reheating. Correlation was sought between thermodynamic quantities and glass formation based on nucleation and crystal growth theories. Larger values of enthalpy of fusion and melting point were found to correlate with poor glass forming ability (GFA). Conversely, lower entropy of fusion was found to correlate with glass formation. Examination of kinetic aspects of glass formation revealed two important facets of good glass formers, i.e., rapid increase in viscosity on supercooling and high melting-point viscosity as compared with non-glass formers. A broader relationship was sought between entropy of fusion and glass formation by including several glass formers from literature. Our analysis indicated that good glass formers tend to have an entropy of fusion closer to 0.3 J cm(-3) K(-1). The structural similarity of the compounds in this study provides insights regarding the nature of intermolecular interactions responsible for the observed effect on entropy of fusion, viscosity, and crystallization kinetics.

Hypothyroidism associated with parathyroid disorders.

Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended.

Bone tumour as differential diagnosis of pain in the extremities in a newborn baby.

Infants are a challenging group of patients: their symptoms can be subtle, and it is difficult to differentiate between pain and normal reaction to their needs. It is important to investigate symptoms by a thorough examination of the physical condition and the history of symptoms and to contact a specialist at an early stage. An X-ray should also be performed early. Infants can also suffer from serious conditions such as bone tumours which need fast and proper treatment, and this case report describes an infant boy with suspected bone tumour, which turned out to be a fracture from the prenatal period or during labour.

Spontaneous otoacoustic emission recordings during contralateral pure-tone activation of medial olivocochlear reflex.

We hypothesized that cochlear frequency discrimination occurs through medial olivocochlear efferent (MOCE)-induced alterations in outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility, which is independent from basilar membrane traveling waves. After obtaining informed consent, volunteers with normal hearing (n = 10; mean age: 20.6 ± 1.2 years) and patients with unilateral deafness (n = 10; mean age: 30.2 ± 17.9 years) or bilateral deafness (n = 8; mean age: 30.7 ± 13.8 years) underwent a complete physical and audiological examination, and audiological tests including transient evoked otoacoustic emission and spontaneous otoacoustic emission (TEOAE and SOAE, respectively). SOAE recordings were performed during contralateral pure-tone stimuli at 1 and 3 kHz. SOAE recordings in the presence of contralateral pure-tone stimuli showed frequency-specific activation out of the initial frequency range of SOAE responses. Basilar membrane motion during pure-tone stimulation results from OHC activation by means of MOCE neurons rather than from a traveling wave. Eventually, frequency-specific responses obtained from SOAEs suggested that OHC electromotility may be responsible for frequency discrimination of the cochlea independently from basilar membrane motion.

A multi-level examination of the experiences of female sex workers living with HIV along the continuum of care in the Dominican Republic.

Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but there is limited research on their HIV care experiences. This study explored the experiences of 44 FSWs living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic along the HIV care continuum using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Data were analysed through narrative and thematic analysis. Individual-level factors that facilitated engagement in HIV care were physical and mental health. At the interpersonal level, disclosure of HIV or sex work status and receipt of emotional and economic support were important influences on engagement. Yet, negative reactions to or lack of disclosure of these statuses compromised engagement, further highlighting the role of stigma and discrimination. At the environmental level, FSWs described considerable challenges with the health system including long waits and treatment stock-outs at their clinics, but were generally satisfied with HIV clinic staff. At the structural level, lack of economic resources complicated care and treatment adherence. Findings underscore the need for psychosocial and economic support tailored to the unique needs of FSWs to maximise the individual and public health benefits of HIV care.

Knowledge, attitude and practice to chronic diseases and associated influencing factors in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) to chronic diseases and associated influencing factors in Uygur adults in Kashgar of southern Xinjiang, and provide basic information for developing ethnic specific prevention and control strategies for chronic diseases. Methods: With stratified cluster random sampling, investigations, including questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory tests were performed among local residents who were aged ≥18 years and selected in Shufu county in southern Xinjiang. KAP scores were calculated and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze influencing factors. Results: A total of 4 772 Uygur adults were surveyed. The awareness rate of chronic disease related knowledge ranged from 4.32% to 56.04%, while the awareness rate of preventive measures were from 1.76% to 85.18% and the participation rate of prevention program varied from 4.00% to 97.99%. The average KAP score was 15.90±4.20 and the rate of total KAP was 47.86%. Multi-factor analysis suggested the pass rate of total KAP score increased with educational level. Other factors positively associated with 'KAP score pass rate' were commercial insurance investment, hypertension, family history of common chronic diseases, female and abdominal obesity, while overweight was negatively associated with the KAP score pass rate. Conclusions: The KAP level on chronic diseases was low in Uygur adults in Kashgar. It is necessary to continuously implement ethnic targeted health education and health promotion campaigns, especially in low education level, low income level, overweight and male groups.

Prevalence of hypertension and risk factors in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors in Uygur adults in Kashgar of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 4 748 Uygur adults aged ≥18 years selected through cluster random sampling in Shufu county of Kashgar prefecture were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension of different groups were calculated and risk factors of hypertension was analyzed by using non-conditional logistic regression model. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 15.73% (age-adjusted prevalence was 13.75%). The prevalence rates of hypertension in men and women were 16.36% (age-adjusted prevalence was 12.96%), 15.39% (age-adjusted prevalence was 14.34%), respectively. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 59.57%, 52.74%, 21.29%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Compared with age group 18-34 years, the age groups 55-64, ≥65 years had higher risk of hypertension and the OR values were 10.53, 20.96 for men and 16.27, 33.20 for women. The overweight (OR=1.47 for men, OR=1.82 for women, P<0.05) and obesity (OR=1.88 for men, OR=2.66 for women, P<0.05) also increased the risk of hypertension. The groups with family history of hypertension (OR=3.85 for men, OR=2.34 for women, P<0.05) also had higher risk of hypertension. Hypertriglyceridemia was positively correlated with the prevalence of hypertension in men (OR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.09-2.41). Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in Uygur adults in Kashgar area of Xinjiang was at relatively low level. The related risk factors were age, overweight, obesity, family history and hypertriglyceridemia in men and the risk factors were similar in women except hypertriglyceridemia.

Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56% were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50% (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39%. Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95% CI: 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95% CI: 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95% CI: 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95% CI: 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia (OR=0.507, 95%CI: 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13%. Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ(2)=18.049, P<0.001; trend test χ(2)=10.582, P=0.001; χ(2)=19.081, P<0.001), but increased with educational level (trend test χ(2)=9.764, P=0.002). Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur residents in Kashgar of Xinjiang. Methods: The survey was conducted among the Uygur residents aged ≥18 years selected through stratified cluster sampling in Kashgar by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and basic laboratory test. The prevalence of different groups were calculated and risk factors of DM was analyzed by logistic vegression model. Results: A total of 4 608 adults were surveyed. The prevalence of DM was 11.31% (standardized prevalence: 10.59%) and the prevalence was 13.65% (standardized prevalence: 12.34%) in males and 10.04% (standardized prevalence: 9.83%) in females. The prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of DM was higher than the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in people aged >60 years, especially in females. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of DM were 28.02%, 21.31% and 5.57%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that people aged 45-55, 55-65 and >65 years had higher risk of DM and the odds ratio were 2.08 (95%CI: 1.24-3.48), 2.73 (95%CI: 1.63-4.56) and 3.90 (95%CI: 2.24-6.78) for men and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.71-4.02), 3.14 (95%CI: 2.00-4.94) and 5.56 (95%CI: 3.47-8.92) for woman, respectively. Family history of DM (OR=2.88 for men, 95% CI: 1.45-5.72; OR=2.52 for women, 95% CI: 1.49-4.26) and BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2) (OR=1.77 for men, 95% CI: 1.19-2.64, OR=1.80 for women, 95% CI: 1.30-2.50) were also risk factors for DM. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM was high in Uygur residents in Kashgar, but the rate of awareness, treatment and control of DM were low. It is necessary to improve the detection rate of DM and conduct targeted prevention and control of DM.

More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber980nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber1470nm Laser Application.

Varices and venous insufficiency are common and serious health problems in the general population which affect quality of life. Endothermal treatment of the great saphenous vein has become the first line of treatment for superficial venous reflux, and the endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) method has been widely accepted all over the world. In this method, ablation is provided by a laser fiber inserted into the lumen of the vein. Initially, the fibers were 810 nm, but today the fibers are usually 940, 980, or 1470 nm.

Endovascular Repair of Iatrogenic Iliocaval Fistula Causing High-Output Cardiac Failure after Spine Fusion.

The case being presented is a 35-year-old female with a three-year history of progressive dyspnea and right-sided heart failure following spine surgery. Physical examination identified a continuous bruit in the lower abdomen radiating to her back which prompted further evaluation. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricle (LV) systolic function, enlarged right ventricle (RV), functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and moderate pulmonary hypertension. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated findings consistent with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the right common iliac artery and the inferior vena cava (IVC). She underwent an uneventful endovascular repair without perioperative complication. The patient's symptoms resolved a few hours after the procedure and she continued to be symptom free at 3-month follow-up. This case illustrates an iatrogenic iliocaval fistula causing high-output cardiac failure which was successfully treated endovascularly with excellent clinical result.

Intra-articular lipoma of the hip.

Intra-articular lipoma of the hip is a rare entity, with only two reports published in the English-language literature. We present a case of successful arthroscopic resection of an intra-articular peripheral compartment lipoma in a 69-year-old woman with a coincident labral tear. This woman presented with left hip pain that developed gradually over 2 years and increased over 2 months. MRI showed a fat-intense mass in the anterior aspect of the hip joint, convincing for intra-articular lipoma. Physical examination in the operating room reproduced decreased range of motion and evidence of impingement but with a soft endpoint. Arthroscopy revealed an anterior intrasubstance labral tear, which was debrided. The mass was excised and confirmed as true lipoma on histology. The soft endpoint on examination illustrates that a large lipoma of the hip joint can cause clinical symptoms of impingement in the absence of bony abnormality or trauma.

Childhood Traumatic Experiences and the Association with Marijuana and Cocaine Use in Adolescence through Adulthood.

Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood.

Self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of painful neck conditions: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies.

Rising healthcare costs and inherent risks with over-utilizing diagnostic imaging require a quality subjective examination to improve effectiveness and time management of physical examinations. This systematic review investigates the diagnostic accuracy of subjective history and self-report items to determine if there is significant alteration in the probability of identifying specific painful neck conditions. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed.

Intraosseous administration of antidotes - a systematic review.

Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available.

Physical Examination in Psychiatric Patients: "Myth or Reality" - Where are the guidelines?

Choosing Surgery for Neurogenic TOS: The Roles of Physical Exam, Physical Therapy, and Imaging.

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is characterized by arm and hand pain, paresthesias, and sometimes weakness resulting from compression of the brachial plexus within the thoracic outlet. While it is the most common subtype of TOS, nTOS can be difficult to diagnose. Furthermore, patient selection for surgical treatment can be challenging as symptoms may be vague and ambiguous, and diagnostic studies may be equivocal. Herein, we describe some approaches to aid in identifying patients who would be expected to benefit from surgical intervention for nTOS. We describe the role of physical examination, physical therapy, and imaging in the evaluation and diagnosis of nTOS.

Disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma.

A 70 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss and night sweats. On physical examination, she presented with a 5 cm diameter abdominal mass extended from epigastrium to the left flank, and at least three bilateral supraclavicular adenopathies. A disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma was diagnosed through a biopsy of the abdominal mass. After that, a CHOP regime (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) was iniciated. She died after completion of the first cycle of treatment, six months after diagnosis.

Adaptation of the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) from English to Mandarin using the dual-panel translation approach.

The aims of this study were to translate and adapt the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) from US English to Mandarin using the dual-panel method, and to assess its psychometric properties in an outpatient rehabilitation setting.

Microscopic hematuria : Reasonable and risk-adapted diagnostic evaluation.

Microscopic hematuria that is not explained by an obvious underlying condition is a frequent and often an incidental finding that commonly triggers urological or nephrological evaluation. Potential underlying conditions range from benign to severe malignant diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Correction of Rhytides, Peau d'Orange, and Thin Dermis of the Face by Neocollagenesis Using Novel Collagen Stimulating Slurry Protocol.

We reviewed 200 patient records from 2009 to 2015 of individuals who presented at the authors offices for facial wrinkle reduction and who on physical examination had rhytides, peau d'orange, or thin dermis and underwent novel adipose slurry injections. The patients were evaluated at week 2, 1, 3 and 6 months revealing an 80, 60 and 40% improvement in rhytides and dermis density, respectively. We present the protocol and description of a reasonable alternative or adjunct to manufactured fillers that is comprised of autologous adipose, stem cells, and growth factor slurry. The slurry is easily produced and injected at the bedside in the office setting, and has remarkable and reproducible positive outcomes in skin tone, color, texture, and rhytides as judged by both patient and physician.

Combined vaginoplasty technique for male-to-female sex reassignment surgery: Operative approach and outcomes.

Several therapy options exist for male-to-female (MTF) transgenders desiring sex reassignment. Surgery includes numerous different procedures. Of those, vaginoplasty is predominant and aims at providing attractive esthetics and fully functional genitals. This study aimed to present the surgical results of our modified combined vaginoplasty technique in a consecutive patient cohort.

Rehabilitation of symptomatic atraumatic degenerative rotator cuff tears: A clinical commentary on assessment and management.

Clinical Commentary.

A child with hypertension and ambiguous genitalia - an uncommon variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report.

Deficiency in 11β-hydroxylase as a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is uncommon. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension with virilization in any prepubescent child.

Musculoskeletal dysfunction in migraine patients.

Objective The aim of this project was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal dysfunctions in migraine patients using a rigorous methodological approach and validating an international consensus cluster of headache assessment tests. Methods A physiotherapist, blinded towards the diagnosis, examined 138 migraine patients (frequent episodic and chronic), recruited at a specialised headache clinic, and 73 age and gender matched healthy controls following a standardised protocol. Eleven tests, previously identified in an international consensus procedure, were used to evaluate cervical and thoracic musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Results Primary analyses indicated statistically significant differences across groups for the total number of trigger points, flexion-rotation test, thoracic screening, manual joint testing of the upper cervical spine, cranio-cervical flexion test, and reproduction and resolution. Ninety three percent of the assessed patients had at least three musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Post-hoc tests showed significant differences between episodic or chronic migraine patients and healthy controls, but not between migraine groups. Conclusions A standardised set of six physical examination tests showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions in migraine patients. These dysfunctions support a reciprocal interaction between the trigeminal and the cervical systems as a trait symptom in migraine.