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physical examination - Top 30 Publications

Acute Abdominal Pain.

Acute abdominal pain is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires a concise and quick workup. Patient history, physical examination and laboratory studies help to establish a working diagnosis. If abdominal Ultrasound is not conclusive, contrast-enhanced Computertomography should be performed. Every patient should be treated aggressively for pain control and fluid substitution independent of the diagnostic workflow. In cases of severe disease, initiation of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy should be considered early.

The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the "¡Caminemos!" Study.

We examined the prospective effect of an evidence-based exercise intervention (¡Caminemos!) on cognitive function among older Hispanic/Latino adults and the potential synergistic effects (if any) of an attribution-retraining intervention given to a random sample to counter negative ascriptions of the aging process.

"I Feel Trapped": The Tension Between Personal and Structural Factors of Social Isolation and the Desire for Social Integration Among Older Residents of a High-Crime Neighborhood.

The aim of this study was to examine the factors contributing to the social isolation of older residents of a high-crime neighborhood through the in-depth examination of their lived experiences. A deeper understanding of factors contributing to social isolation can allow policymakers and health care providers to create policies and programs to alleviate the social isolation of these vulnerable and understudied individuals.

Low Normalized Grip Strength is a Biomarker for Cardiometabolic Disease and Physical Disabilities Among U.S. and Chinese Adults.

Evidence highlights the importance of muscular strength as a protective factor for health and function across aging populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which low normalized grip strength (NGS) serves as a biomarker for both cardiometabolic disease and physical disability in U.S. and Chinese adults.

Vertebrobasilar system computed tomographic angiography in central vertigo.

The incidence of vertigo in the population is 20% to 30% and one-fourth of the cases are related to central causes. The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings of the vertebrobasilar system in central vertigo without stroke.CTA and magnetic resonance images of patients with vertigo were retrospectively evaluated. One hundred twenty-nine patients suspected of having central vertigo according to history, physical examination, and otological and neurological tests without signs of infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. The control group included 120 patients with similar vascular disease risk factors but without vertigo. Vertebral and basilar artery diameters, hypoplasias, exit-site variations of vertebral artery, vertebrobasilar tortuosity, and stenosis of ≥50% detected on CTA were recorded for all patients. Independent-samples t test was used in variables with normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney U test in non-normal distribution. The difference of categorical variable distribution according to groups was analyzed with χ and/or Fisher exact test.Vertebral artery hypoplasia and ≥50% stenosis were seen more often in the vertigo group (P = 0.000, <0.001). Overall 78 (60.5%) vertigo patients had ≥50% stenosis, 54 (69.2%) had stenosis at V1 segment, 9 (11.5%) at V2 segment, 2 (2.5%) at V3 segment, and 13 (16.6%) at V4 segment. Both vertigo and control groups had similar basilar artery hypoplasia and ≥50% stenosis rates (P = 0.800, >0.05).CTA may be helpful to clarify the association between abnormal CTA findings of vertebral arteries and central vertigo.This article reveals the opportunity to diagnose posterior circulation abnormalities causing central vertigo with a feasible method such as CTA.

Retropharyngeal Abscess Presenting With Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is the second most common deep neck space infection after peritonsiller abscess in pediatric population. Major signs and symptoms on physical examination include fever, hypersalivation, odynophagia, reduced oral intake, sore throat, swelling on the neck, torticollis, limitation in neck mobility, and voice changes. In this paper, the authors present a case of RPA with unusual and interesting presenting symptoms in a 10-month-old infant that exhibit new-onset and worsening snoring and sleep apnea. The purposes of this manuscript are to present the authors' experience with this patient, to emphasize the diagnosis, clinical course, and management of RPA in infants, also to signify the importance of including RPA in the differential diagnosis of patients with sleep apnea syndrome.

Plasma exchange successfully treated macrophage activation syndrome in rheumatoid factor-positive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis with combined pneumonia.

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the serious complications associated with rheumatic diseases, especially systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Here we describe a 9-year-old girl with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarticular JIA, not sJIA, combined with pneumonia who was successfully treated by plasma exchange. She was diagnosed with RF-positive polyarticular JIA based on positive RF and multiple joint swelling and tenderness 3 years ago. She was admitted in our hospital with myalgia for 2 days and a high fever for half a day. Physical examination revealed relapsing joints symptoms and rough breathing sounds of lungs. The laboratory examination showed increased liver enzymes, elevated serum ferritin and procalcitonin (PCT), decreased percentage of nature killer (NK) cells and fibrinogen, and activated macrophage phagocytosing hematopoietic elements in bone marrow. The elevated PCT and chest computed tomography scan confirmed she also had pneumonia. Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral cyclosporine A followed by intravenous immunoglobulin were added on the basis of antibiotics therapy, but clinical symptoms and laboratory findings did not improve. Finally, we changed to plasma exchange once every other day for a total of three times. Within 1 week, the girl recovered from the MAS completely.

Impaired nutritional status in geriatric trauma patients.

Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients.

Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, and pain assessments in dogs suffering from traumatic bone fractures.

Traumatic bone fractures cause moderate to severe pain, which needs to be minimized for optimal recovery and animal welfare, illustrating the need for reliable objective pain biomarkers for use in a clinical setting. The objectives of this study were to investigate catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS) concentrations as two new potential biomarkers, and cortisol concentrations, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF), and visual analog scale (VAS) in dogs suffering from traumatic bone fractures before and after morphine administration in comparison with healthy dogs.

Association of physical activity on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Korean population (from the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008-2011).

Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare.

Gender differences in physical activity and health-related behaviors among stroke survivors: data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Physical activity and health-related behaviors are important in primary prevention of stroke and are also recommended for secondary prevention. Gender differences in physical activity and health-related behaviors have been reported in various populations and diseased states but data is lacking on stroke survivors.

Latvian family physicians' experience diagnosing depression in somatically presenting depression patients: A qualitative study.

Depression continues to be under-diagnosed in primary care settings. One factor that influences physicians' likelihood of diagnosing depression is patients' presentation style. Patients who initially present with somatic symptoms are diagnosed at a lower rate and with greater delay than patients who present with psychosocial complaints.

Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50-84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the "Functional Fitness Battery Test," BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values.

Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common chronic genital pain condition affecting approximately 12% of premenopausal women. Although parallels have been drawn between PVD and neuropathic pain (NP), no studies have examined self-reported NP characteristics in PVD.

Scabietic vasculitis: Report of 2 cases.

The infectious causes of cutaneous vasculitis are well known and include streptococcal infections among others. Cases resulting from parasitic infection are less frequent. Scabies, which is currently on the increase, has only been reported in a few isolated cases. Herein, we report two noteworthy cases of profuse scabies complicated by cutaneous vasculitis.

Interaction of homeopathic potencies with the water soluble solvatochromic dye bis-dimethylaminofuchsone. Part 1: pH studies.

Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of solvatochromic dyes for investigating the physical chemistry of homeopathic potencies.

Clinical application of ROM in psychosis.

The use of 'routine outcome monitoring' (ROM) in mental health care has increased widely during the past decade. However, little is known about the use of ROM outcome in daily clinical practice. We investigated to what extent ROM results were reflected in psychotic patients' treatment plans.

Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy.

Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed.

The health assessment questionnaire disability index (haq-di) as a valid alternative for measuring the functional capacity of people with haemophilia.

There are several scales for evaluating the functional capacity of people with haemophilia (PWH).

Supporting a Youth with Cerebellar Ataxia into Adolescence.

Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia.At age 2, Zoe saw a neurologist and brain MRI revealed cerebellar atrophy. She recently saw a geneticist and genetic studies are pending. Parents report receiving "little" information regarding prognosis; through their own research, they read about individuals having similar symptoms in adulthood, with a degenerative pattern. They worry that Zoe is "still very young and we do not know what her future will be like."Despite ongoing speech and feeding challenges, the parents report difficulty finding a speech and language therapist in their area. Zoe does see an otolaryngologist for frequent otitis media and hearing loss and an ophthalmologist for vision problems. Still, she continues to fall further behind in school. Furthermore, she is intensely afraid of falling at school and has few friends, resulting in the family being at a loss regarding "what to do about school."She lives with both parents and 2 healthy older sisters. Her mother has Crohn's disease and has been unable to work. Her maternal aunt is close to Zoe and has hypothyroidism. Her father works as an insurance agent and resources have been "tight." Zoe's mother describes "making" Zoe go out to the movies, "otherwise she just stays home." Zoe usually needs assistance to walk in public, to keep from stumbling. Parents share that simply being in a public place or meeting a new physician may trigger emesis. Zoe does enjoy interacting with neighborhood children and says she wants to be "normal," wear nail polish, and date. She seeks independence, often refusing to use her wheelchair. Parents feel she requires more intensive occupational and physical therapy.On examination, she is very slender with hypertelorism and nystagmus. Holding an emesis bag, she gags intermittently, producing clear secretions. She has a notable tremor and walks slightly stooped with wide-based gait. Her few words demonstrate articulation differences and cognitive expression characteristic of a younger child. She wears light make-up and age-appropriate clothes. She asks, "When can I go home?"At the end of the visit, parents share their worry that Zoe is "so young and we do not know anything, what to expect, or what to tell her." As the family's new medical home, they ask you to weigh in on what to do next to best support her? Where do you begin?

Localization of the corticospinal tract within the porcine spinal cord: Implications for experimental modeling of traumatic spinal cord injury.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) researchers have predominately utilized rodents for SCI modeling and experimentation. Unfortunately, a large number of novel therapies developed in rodent models have failed to demonstrate efficacy in human clinical trials which suggests that improved animal models are an important translational tool. Recently, porcine models of SCI have been identified as a valuable intermediary model for preclinical evaluation of promising therapies to aid clinical translation. However, the localization of the major spinal tracts in pigs has not yet been described. Given that significant differences exist in the location of the corticospinal tract (CST) between rodents and humans, determining its location in pigs will provide important information related to the translational potential of the porcine pre-clinical model of SCI. Thus, the goal of this study is to investigate the localization of the CST within the porcine spinal cord. Mature female domestic pigs (n=4, 60kg) received microinjections of fluorescent dextran tracers (Alexa Fluor, 10,000 MW) into the primary motor cortex, using image-guided navigation (StealthStation(®)), to label the CST. At 5 weeks post-tracer injection animals were euthanized, the entire neuroaxis harvested and processed for histological examination. Serial sections of the brain and spinal cord were prepared and imaged using confocal microscopy to observe the location of the CST in pigs. Results demonstrate that the CST of pigs is located in the lateral white matter, signifying greater similarity to human anatomical structure compared to that of rodents. We conclude that the corticospinal tract in pigs demonstrates anatomical similarity to human, suggesting that the porcine model has importance as a translational intermediary pre-clinical model.

Examination of swallowing maneuver training and transfer of practiced behaviors to laryngeal vestibule kinematics in functional swallowing of healthy adults.

Swallowing maneuvers are routinely trained in dysphagia rehabilitation with the assumption that practiced behaviors transfer to functional swallowing, however transfer is rarely examined in the deglutition literature. The goal of this study was to train the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure (vLVC) maneuver, which is a swallowing maneuver that targets prolonged laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC). In two different training experiments, 69 healthy adults underwent Long-hold (hold vLVC as long as possible) or Short-hold vLVC training (hold vLVC for 2s). Before and after vLVC training, natural swallows (swallowing without a therapeutic technique) were completed. The outcome variables included laryngeal vestibule closure reaction time and the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure. Results indicate that during both Long-hold and Short-hold vLVC trainings, vLVC swallows had faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times and longer durations of laryngeal vestibule closure than in pre-training 5ml liquid swallows. However, only faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times transferred to post-training 5ml liquid swallows (20-24% faster), but not prolonged durations of laryngeal vestibule closure. Our findings suggest that swallowing maneuver training has the potential to induce transfer of what was practiced to functional swallowing behavior, although not all practiced behaviors may generalize. These findings are significant for bolstering the effectiveness of dysphagia management in medical settings and should be tested in individuals with dysphagia.

Vulvovaginitis: Find the cause to treat it.

Vulvar and vaginal disorders are among the most common problems seen in ambulatory care. The cause is usually infectious, but noninfectious causes should also be considered, and differentiating them can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis based on patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing is necessary so that effective therapy can be chosen.

C-reactive protein may misdiagnose prosthetic joint infections, particularly chronic and low-grade infections.

Periprosthetic tissue cultures, sonication and synovial fluid cultures remain the gold standard for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. However, some 15-20% culture-negative PJI are still reported. Therefore, there is the need for other diagnostic criteria. One point of concern relative to the different definitions of PJI is as to the inclusion of the c-reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as diagnostic criteria for PJI despite them being non-specific inflammatory blood tests.

Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP Initiate the Coronary Artery Calcification in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Background. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) contributes to high risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in dialysis patients. However, the risk factors for CAC initiation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not known clearly. Methods. Adult patients with baseline CaCS = 0 and who were followed up for at least 3 years or until the conversion from absent to any measurable CAC detected were included in this observational cohort study. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. Results. 70 patients recruited to our study were split into a noninitiation group (n = 37) and an initiation group (n = 33) according to the conversion of any measurable CAC during their follow-up or not. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, serum creatinine, and triglycerides were positively associated with the initiation of CAC, while the high density lipoprotein and nPCR did the opposite function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation after adjustments. Conclusions. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. These results suggested potential clinical strategies to prevent the initiation of CAC in PD patients.

Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases.

Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.

Myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosed on the occasion of Fournier's gangrene.

Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a fulminant infective necrotizing fasciitis, which includes the genital, perineal, and perianal regions. A 77-year-old man had previously been diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus (DM) and was treated with pioglitazone (15 mg) and miglitol (150 mg). He developed sudden perineal discomfort, fever with painful penile, and scrotal edema, subsequently leading to urinary retention. According to physical examination and CT scan results for the swollen penis and scrotum, he was diagnosed with FG. FG was eventually controlled by extensive treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and repeated surgical debridement including penectomy and scrotectomy. He showed persistent anemia and decreased neutrophils exhibiting hypogranulation. Bone marrow aspiration revealed hypercellularity with 9% myeloblasts, micromegakaryocytes, abnormal leukocyte granulation, and erythrocytic dyspoiesis, leading to a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) RAEB-1, and he was evaluated as high risk according to IPSS-R. After 4 courses of azacitidine treatment, he achieved HI-E and had no further recurrence of FG for more than 18 months. Although DM and alcohol misuse are common systemic comorbidities in patients with FG, MDS should be considered in elderly FG cases, even when DM complications are present.

The weight of pupils' schoolbags in early school age and its influence on body posture.

Postural development progresses through a series of stages (growth spurts, development of balance and coordination, postural stability) which occur when children are at school age. The reduction in the level of physical activity, increased body weight, overloaded school bags, asymmetry of the backpack straps, the method of putting on and taking off the backpacks and increased usage of electronic devices have negative side effects such as bad body posture habits.

Prevalence of Peripheral Neuropathy and associated factors in HIV-infected patients.

The progress on HIV infection treatment has allowed a longer survival for HIV-infected patients. However, chronic comorbidities are emerging. Peripheral Neuropathy (PN) represents one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders among these patients, and comprehensive studies may contribute to a reduction in the morbidity of this condition. This is a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil. This study investigates the prevalence of PN among HIV-infected patients and associated demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A number of 150 HIV-infected patients admitted between January and May 2016 were interviewed, submitted to physical and neurological examination, and data from their medical records were obtained. The prevalence of PN was 31.3%. It was increased among older patients (p=0.02), patients with higher CD4 lymphocytes levels (p=0.02), and smokers (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.6-6.9; p<0.01). The research identified a high prevalence of PN in HIV-infected patients. Older age and higher CD4 levels have been associated with PN. To the best of our knowledge, this was one of the first studies reporting an association between tobacco use and PN among HIV-infected patients. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the pathological mechanisms linking PN and tobacco.

Early markers of kidney dysfunction and cognitive impairment among older adults.

Age-related decline in kidney function can be an important risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults. In this study, we examined several kidney function measures for the association with cognitive function in older adults in hope to identify early and sensitive markers that can be used for the detection or screening for cognitive impairment.