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physical examination - Top 30 Publications

Congenital unilateral diaphragmatic eventration in an adult: A rare case presentation.

We present a rare case of 32year old female with congenital diaphragmatic eventeration female presenting in an adult. She had symptoms of intermittent dyspnea and occasional epigastric discomfort. Patient had no previous history of trauma. Physical examination showed bowel sound involving the left hemithorax. Imaging modalities confirmed the diagnosis of a congenital left diaphragmatic eventeration. Patient underwent plication of the diaphragm using the abdominal approach. Intra-operatively, the left diaphragm was attenuated. Plication was done with 1st layer of imbricating silk heavy sutures buttressed by a second layer of interrupted absorbable sutures. She post-operatively had atelectasis on the left lung. Incentive spirometry and deep breathing exercises were started with resolution of the atelectasis after 1 week post-operatively. Patient had an unremarkable post-operative stay with resolution of symptoms. There are reports that diaphragmatic eventration diagnosed even as late 70 years old, highlighting the dogma that this is an asymptomatic disorder does not need all the time surgical therapy. But we still recommend surgical therapy as soon as diagnosis is confirmed. In this patient, there was no recurrence of symptoms after a follow-up of 2 years. Whether surgery indeed improved lung functions in these vastly asymptomatic patients, these questions could be an active area of research in the long term outcomes of these patients.

Quadratus femoris muscle tear.

Quadratus femoris tear is an uncommon injury that usually cause hip pain, it incidence is unknown. The patient can suffer of posterior gluteal pain or groin pain or both, which makes accurate diagnosis difficult, because the differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad.

Toddler's fracture, case report and review of literature.

The suspected diagnosis of a Toddler's fracture can often be complicated by an unclear history, the lack of specific clinical findings and the absence of obvious changes in the initial radiographs. We present the case of an infant of 3 years and 7 months old with a history of falling from her own height with a rotation mechanism of the left pelvic limb. The purpose of this paper is to describe the etiopathology, diagnosis and therapeutic management of these fractures.

Association between CYP3A5 genotypes with hypertension in Chinese Han population: A case-control study.

The association of CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms with hypertension in the Chinese population is unknown. We explored the association between the CYP3A5 (rs776746) gene and hypertension in the Chinese Han population.

Clinical and duplex ultrasound evaluation of lower extremities varicose veins - a practical guideline.

Lower extremities varicose veins are among the most frequent diseases in the general population. They can cause complaints with a deterioration of the quality of life and are associated with potentially threatening clinical conditions such as chronic venous ulceration, haemorrhage from ruptured varicose veins, and venous thromboembolism. An accurate diagnostic work-up is crucial to confirm the presence and the extension of the venous problem, in order to obtain an optimal management of the condition. In the past years, great efforts have been made to reach an international consensus on the terminology, the symptomatology, the classification, and the duplex ultrasound examination of lower extremities varicose veins. Mainly guided by these consensus documents, the present article describes the diagnostic work-up of lower extremities varicose veins, based on a careful medical history, physical examination, and duplex ultrasound examination.

Traumatic spinal cord injury.

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration. Several animal models and complementary behavioural tests of SCI have been developed to mimic this pathological process and form the basis for the development of preclinical and translational neuroprotective and neuroregenerative strategies. Diagnosis requires a thorough patient history, standardized neurological physical examination and radiographic imaging of the spinal cord. Following diagnosis, several interventions need to be rapidly applied, including haemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit, early surgical decompression, blood pressure augmentation and, potentially, the administration of methylprednisolone. Managing the complications of SCI, such as bowel and bladder dysfunction, the formation of pressure sores and infections, is key to address all facets of the patient's injury experience.

The iliotibial band and anterolateral capsule have a combined attachment to the Segond fracture.

The purpose of this report was to describe the injury mechanism, surgical findings, and outcomes in a 21-year-old professional female football player who presented with a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and Segond fracture. Interview and video analysis were performed to elicit the injury mechanism. Clinical examination and imaging revealed a complete ACL tear, Segond fracture, lateral meniscus tear, MCL sprain, and posterolateral corner sprain. Examination under anaesthesia revealed Grade 2 pivot shift and varus/valgus instability. Surgical examination revealed attachment of the posterior fibres of the iliotibial band and the lateral capsule to the Segond fragment. The fracture was reduced with suture fixation, and an anatomic ACL reconstruction was performed. Follow-up demonstrated rotatory and anterior tibial translation stability, and imaging at 7 months post-operatively revealed no movement and continued osseous integration of the Segond fragment. Level of evidence V.

Environmental medical syndromes.

Environmental medical syndromes comprise sick building syndrome (SBS), multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)/idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), electromagnetic hypersensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), burnout, fibromyalgia, and the candida syndrome. There is also some overlap described in the literature. There is still no established knowledge of etiology, pathology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, therapy, prevention and prognosis. These syndromes are thought to result from a complex interaction of physical, chemical and/or (micro)biological environmental stresses, individual dispositions, psychological influencing factors, perceptual and processing processes, variants of somatization disorders, culturally or socially caused distress, or simply iatrogenic causation. Examination and treatment methods must be developed or existing ones scientifically validated. However, all uncertainties in the assessment of these syndromes do not absolve the physician from taking patients seriously and helping them as best as possible.

Neuroprotective Effects of Exercise on Brain Edema and Neurological Movement Disorders Following the Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats.

Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion causes physiological and biochemical changes in the neuronal cells that will eventually lead to cell damage. Evidence indicates that exercise reduces the ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain damages in animal models of stroke. In the present study, the effect of exercise preconditioning on brain edema and neurological movement disorders following the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats was investigated.

Status epilepticus in dogs and cats, part 1: etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnosis.

To review current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in veterinary patients.

BC-PROM: validation of a patient-reported outcomes measure for patients with breast cancer.

Key issues of treatment for patients with breast cancer such as patient satisfaction with treatments, compliance, and some side effects are essential for evaluating quality of life by patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials. The study aimed to develop and evaluate a specific patient-reported measure which included physical, psychological, social, and therapeutic domain for assessing the survival of patients with breast cancer.The pool of items was drafted after a theoretical revision and cognitive interviews with women with breast cancer. The draft scale was formed after the adjustment of the items and dimensions, and the selected items were submitted to expert's judgments. Five statistical methods were used to select these items by 2 validation samples. The final scale was administered to a sample of 417 patients from 8 hospitals and 135 controls for reliability, validity, and responsive analyses.The final BC-PROM consisted of 52 items, 13 subdomains, and 4 domains, being developed after preexamination and formal examination. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.902 and 0.712 for the full scale and therapeutic domain. The structural validity results showed that the multidimensional measurement of the scale fulfilled expectations. Differences in the BC-PROM mean scores were significant between cancer patients and healthy participants in 13 subdomains (P < .05), indicating good responsiveness. Among the sample survey of patients, the scale copy acceptance rate was 98.2%, completion rate 94.6%, and average filling time 10 minutes.The new and reliable BC-PROM was developed in patients with breast cancer and applied to clinical treatment evaluation and clinical trials for such patients.

Different clinical presentations of choledochal cyst among infants and older children: A 10-year retrospective study.

Choledochal cyst is a rare and often benign congenital cystic dilation throughout the biliary tree. Due to the benign nature of choledochal cyst among early-diagnosed patients, the clinical assumption and diagnosis seem to be of utmost significance. Therefore, we sought to assess different clinical manifestations of choledochal cyst and relevant laboratory findings in infants and older children.Retrospectively, medical records of all patients with the diagnosis of choledochal cyst between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. Demographic data, initial clinical presentation, positive findings on physical examination, history of any remarkable behavior such as persistent and unexplained crying and poor feeding, and diagnostic imaging modalities were listed. In addition, laboratory values for total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were recorded for each patient. Patients were divided into 2 groups; younger than 1-year-old (infants), and 1 year to 18 years old (older children). Demographic data, clinical data, and laboratory values were compared between the infants and older children.Thirty-two patients with a diagnosis of choledochal cyst were included in the study: 9 patients (28.12%) were infants and 23 patients (71.87%) were older children. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (62.5%), followed by nausea/vomiting (59.4%) and jaundice (28.1%). None of the patients presented with the classic triad of abdominal pain, jaundice, and right upper quadrant mass. Seventeen older children (73.91%) presented with nausea and vomiting, while 2 subjects (22.22%) in the infantile group presented with this feature (P = .01). Similarly, abdominal pain was found in 20 older children (86.95%); however, none of the infants presented with abdominal pain at diagnosis (P < .001). By contrast, the abdominal mass was more detected in infants than the older children (33.33% vs. 0%, P = .01). In terms of laboratory values, the median PTT was 44 and 36 s in infants and older children, respectively (P = .04).Infants were more likely to present with abdominal mass and older children were more likely to have nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Furthermore, infants had more prolonged PTT than older children, implying a potential bleeding tendency.

Laparoscopic Spigelian Hernia Repair: Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh-Plus Technique-Video Presentation.

Spigelian hernia represents a rare entity. Traditionally, it was repaired by the open technique. Various laparoscopic techniques have emerged periodically. Most laparoscopic repairs use the technique of placing an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM). There is currently a tendency to close the hernia defect.

Range limitation in hip internal rotation and fifth metatarsal stress fractures (Jones fracture) in professional football players.

To identify unknown risk factors associated with fifth metatarsal stress fracture (Jones fracture).

Spinal radiographs in those with back pain-when are they appropriate to diagnose vertebral fractures?

The presence of an osteoporotic vertebral fracture improves fracture risk assessment and may change management, so it is vital for healthcare professionals to assess patients for the presence or absence of these fractures. This may be particularly important in the presence of back pain. However, the correlation between low back symptoms and spinal imaging results is poor and the pathophysiology of most low back pain is not known, leading to a common conclusion that spinal radiographs are not appropriate for the assessment of back pain. For individual patients with back pain, spinal radiographs should be considered if they have certain features in the history and examination. As well as the traditional risk factors for osteoporosis, self-reported descriptives of back pain and novel physical examination findings have been shown to make the presence of vertebral fractures more likely. Systematic approaches have the potential to improve bone health across the population but need to be targeted to be cost-effective. Spinal radiographs should be considered for individual older patients with back pain if they have certain additional features in the history and examination.

Childhood sustained hypercalcemia: A diagnostic challenge.

This study aimed to call attention to hypercalcemia, a rare finding in children, which carries the potential of leading serious complications without proper intervention.

Evaluation of Inferior Turbinate Stroma with Ultrasound Elastography in Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is primarily based on history, physical examination and allergy testing. A technique that noninvasively evaluates the soft tissue changes in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients has not been defined.

Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

Growth hormone (GH) is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD). Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

Do Factors Associated Self-rated Good Health and Their Influences Differ between Males and Females across Different Age Groups in Korean and Australia?

This was a comparative study between Australia and Korea that investigated whether and to what extent factors related to self-rated good health (SRGH) differ by gender among age groups.

Evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms in multiple sclerosis patients: Review of the literature and current guidelines.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a unique neurological disease with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations that are time- and disease course-related. MS plaque location (intracranial and/or spinal) is a key feature in the pathophysiology of disease-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The prevalence of these symptoms in MS patients is very high, with nearly 90% of them experiencing some degree of voiding dysfunction and/or incontinence. LUTS rarely present as primary MS manifestations and usually appear 6-8 years after the initial diagnosis. Symptom severity usually correlates with the disability status of patients. Patient assessment comprises clinical and advanced investigations. Each patient should be evaluated uniquely, after taking into account his/her symptoms, disease course and length, comorbidities, physical status, and medications. Basic investigation includes detailed history-taking, physical examination, and post-void residual volume measurement. Advanced evaluation consists of imaging and specific testing, with pivotal importance on urodynamic study.

Physics for Surgeons Part 3: Why Cyst Is Spherical in Shape?

Physical examination of any swelling is the first step in making a diagnosis. Many a times we see a patient with a spherical swelling, which is usually a cyst. The interpretation of physical signs should be based on sound principles of physics. In the present paper, we explain physical characteristics of a swelling (cyst) using principles of fluid mechanics.

Study of pruritus vulvae in geriatric age group in tertiary hospital.

According to the World Health Organization criteria, geriatric population is people above 60 years of age. In this phase of life, a woman has already gone through menopause and its associated emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. These changes are due to gradual loss of estrogen that comes with menopause which results in dramatic changes in the appearance of vulva and vagina. With age, skin of vulva becomes thin, loses elasticity, and moisture so that the patient starts feeling burning and itchy sensation. The normal acidic pH changes to basic which alters the flora and makes the person prone to other bacterial infections. Apart from infections, there are many other dermatological and nondermatological causes of vulvar itching in this age group such as eczema, contact dermatitis, lichen planus (LP), lichen sclerosus atrophicans, lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), prolapse, incontinence, and carcinoma. The aim is to diagnose the causes of pruritus vulvae in the geriatric age group to decrease the misery of these patients.

A Novel Fibrillin-1 Gene Mutation Leading to Marfan Syndrome in a Korean Girl.

Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by a connective tissue defect. A nine-year-old girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology clinic for tall stature. Physical examination revealed a lens dislocation with strabismus, high palate, positive wrist and thumb signs, joint hypermobility, and pes planus. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed dilatation of the aortic root. She was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome based on the revised Ghent diagnostic criteria. Molecular investigation identified a heterozygous c.2810G >A variation in the FBN1 gene in the patient, but not in her parents. To our knowledge, this sequence variant has been reported as a polymorphism (rs113602180), but it is the first report identifying it as the genetic cause of Marfan syndrome. We hypothesize that this de novo novel missense FBN1 mutation disrupts fibrillin-1 function and is probably involved in the development of Marfan syndrome in this patient.

Is abdominal auscultation a still relevant part of the physical examination?

Fitness Fatness Index and Alzheimer-specific mortality.

We evaluated the specific association between a Fitness Fat Index (FFI) and Alzheimer's-specific mortality among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population.

Return to sports after plate fixation of humeral head fractures 65 cases with minimum 24-month follow-up.

Humeral head fractures requiring surgical intervention are severe injuries, which might affect the return to sports and daily activities. We hypothesize that athletic patients will be constrained regarding their sporting activities after surgically treated humeral head fractures. Despite a long rehabilitation program physical activities will change and an avoidance of overhead activities will be noticed.

Clinical analysis of seven cases of pulmonary malignant tumors in children.

Objective: To understand the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and outcomes of pulmonary malignant tumors in children. Method: We retrospectively collected information about seven cases of pulmonary malignant tumors in children in our hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2016. The information included clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, pathologic results, and treatment. Result: (1) All the seven patients firstly visited pediatric internal medicine departments. Symptoms included cough (n=6), dyspnea (n=4), fever (n=2), anorexia (n=2), chest tightness (n=1), chest pain (n=1), lameness (n=1), abdominal distension and constipation (n=1). We did not find hemoptysis, wheezing or weight loss in those patients. Physical examinations revealed unilateral reduced breath sounds (n=5), moist rales and wheezes (n=1), and normal (n=1). Extrapulmonary signs included abdominal distension (n=2), left hip tenderness (n=1), and mass in left scrotum. We did not identify clubbing finger, anemic appearance, lymph node enlargement, or hepatosplenomegaly etc. (2) Laboratory examination results: complete blood count showed white blood cells in normal range except one case (17.44×10(9)/L). Neutrophil percentage ranged from 0.348 to 0.767. C reactive protein ranged between<1 and 162 mg/L. Hemoglobin was normal. Three out of four cases had abnormal blood tumor markers.(3) Imaging results showed multiple nodes (n=3), multiple cystic lesions in lungs (n=2) (both with pleuropulmonary blastoma), endobronchial soft tissue mass (n=1), pulmonary round-shaped mass (n=1), and mediastinal mass (n=1). Imaging results also found atelectasis (n=3), pneumonia (n=2), pneumothorax (n=2), longitudinal diaphragmatic hernia (n=2), pleural effusion (n=1), subcutaneous emphysema (n=1). (4) All the patients underwent tumor puncture biopsy or tumor resection. Pathology revealed the final diagnosis of pleuropulmonary blastoma (n=3), endodermal sinus tumors (n=2), squamous cell carcinoma of lung (n=1), and thyroid papillary carcinoma (n=1). All of them were malignant tumors. We followed up them. Two patients died (both with pleuropulmonary blastoma) after their parents refused any medical help. Two cases were lost to follow-up. Three patients survived (followed up for 19 months, 11 months and tow months, respectively). One case with thyroid papillary carcinoma pulmonary metastasis underwent right thyroid cancer radical plus left thyroid lobe resection plus modified selective central lymph node dissection, then iodine (131) treatment. One case with endodermal sinus tumor pulmonary metastasis underwent three times of chemotherapies, resection of left retroperitoneal tumor and left testicular tumor, and six additional chemotherapies. Another one case of endodermal sinus tumor pulmonary metastasis underwent three times of chemotherapies and was discharged. Conclusion: Pulmonary malignant tumors are rare diseases in children. Clinical signs are often non-specific. For those with chest CT showing multiple cystic lesions, endobronchial soft tissue mass or multiple nodes, but no significant infection manifestation or no response to anti-infection therapy, pulmonary malignant tumors should be considered. Biopsy may be needed to confirm the final diagnosis.

Common Mistakes in the Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in Turkey. A Retrospective Descriptive Multicenter Study.

Osteoporosis is a widespread metabolic bone disease representing a global public health problem currently affecting more than two hundred million people worldwide. The World Health Organization states that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the best densitometric technique for assessing bone mineral density (BMD). DXA provides an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis, a good estimation of fracture risk, and is a useful tool for monitoring patients undergoing treatment. Common mistakes in BMD testing can be divided into four principal categories: 1) indication errors, 2) lack of quality control and calibration, 3) analysis and interpretation errors, and 4) inappropriate acquisition techniques. The aim of this retrospective multicenter descriptive study is to identify the common errors in the application of the DXA technique in Turkey.

Characteristics of test anxiety among medical students and congruence of strategies to address it.

Introduction Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with 'high stakes' exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals' strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion Students' adoption of a 'menu' of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a 'real' experience, and students would benefit from educator support.

How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

Background Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students' quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin) were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1) when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1) levels (p<0.001). The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74-1.4 mIU/L) was significantly lower (p=0.001) when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90-3.60). The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001). Median serum ferritin (SF) level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5-63.3) µg/L) was significantly lower (p≤0.001) when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9-94.9) µg/L). However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41). Conclusions Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological, Social interaction and Environment). The higher the QoL scores, the better the grades were. It was also found that students who failed exhibited profound differences in the QoL score.