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rectal bleeding - Top 30 Publications

Accurate low ligation of inferior mesenteric artery and root lymph node dissection according to different vascular typing in laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer.

To explore the feasibility and clinical significance of precision low inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation with the left colonic artery (LCA) preservation and root lymph node dissection in laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer, according to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) types.

10-year series studies of chronic radiation proctopathy from The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

Chronic radiation proctopathy (CRP) is the delayed adverse effect after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. It is characterized as progressive fibrosis in pathology. The symptoms are usually unspecific which include rectal bleeding, perianal pain, tenesmus, stool frequencies and so on. The course of CRP can present from months to years after radiation. Severe complications can occur in the late stage and will greatly affect the quality of life. Currently, there is no standard guides for diagnosis and treatment of CRP. For advancing the knowledge and proposing new treatment modalities of CRP, this article summarizes our 10-year experience as follows: (1) Except the existence of vessel damage, interstitial fibrosis, mucous ulcer, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the radiation-injury area, the capillary count was obviously reduced in mucous substratum and angiostatin expression up-regulated remarkably in above area, resulting in the continuous development of compensatory capillary expansion and interstitial fibrosis in mucous layer. (2) Rectal ultrasound examination was used the first time to diagnose CRP. According to thickness change of rectal wall layer and increase of blood signal, severity of CRP activity was evaluated with good diagnostic value. (3) For slight-moderate rectal bleeding, moderate-heavy bleeding and heavy bleeding, application of retention enema with compound preparation based on mucoprotective agents, regional perfusion hemostasis with formaldehyde and proximal colostomy gained satisfactory efficacy. (4) Improved Parks operation should be recommended for CRP patients with advanced complications. (5) For rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, "proximal extended excision" should be performed innovatively to decrease the risk of anastomotic complications (Tianhe Procedure).

Allergic Proctocolitis Is a Risk Factor for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children.

To test the hypothesis that allergic proctocolitis, a cause of self-limiting rectal bleeding in infants, can predispose to the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) later in childhood.

Single-Incision Laparoscopic Transgastric Underrunning and Closure of Cameron Ulcers in Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

Endoscopic therapy remains the cornerstone of hemostasis for gastrointestinal bleeding. In situations where hemostasis cannot be achieved via endoscopic or radiological methods, surgery is necessary. Traditional open surgery for bleeding gastric ulcers can be very morbid and unsuitable especially in hemodynamically unstable patients in extremis. We describe a minimally invasive, transgastric approach for underrunning and closure of Cameron ulcers.

Safety and timing of resuming dabigatran after major gastrointestinal bleeding reversed by idarucizumab.

The recent introduction of direct oral anticoagulants, including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban, for the acute treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism and in atrial fibrillation has been shown to provide greater clinical benefit than oral vitamin K antagonists. However, direct oral anticoagulants are associated with adverse events, the most common being major bleeding; such events require the reversal of the anticoagulant effects by specific agents. In this case report, we describe an 87-year-old female with atrial fibrillation treated with dabigatran who had massive rectal bleeding. Idarucizumab 5 g (2 × 2.5 g/50 mL) was successfully used to reverse dabigatran effect; subsequent to this, treatment with dabigatran was resumed, and there were no further bleeding events. This suggests that dabigatran can be safely restarted after major bleeding, but this outcome needs to be confirmed in studies involving larger groups of patients.

Causes of death in hospitalized children younger than 12 years of age in a Chinese hospital: a 10 year study.

In China, the majority (77%) of urban children die in hospitals. Hospital-based review could provide insight leading to improvements in clinical practice and increase the survival of critically ill children. The aim of the present study is to identify the trends of immediate causes and chronic underlying diseases associated with deaths of children at one of the largest teaching hospitals in China over a period of 10 years (2006-2015).

Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection: a new endoscopic method for resection of rectal neuroendocrine tumor grade 1 (carcinoid) ≤ 10 mm in diameter.

Background and study aims  Rectal neuroendocrine tumors grade 1 (NET G1; carcinoid) ≤ 10 mm in diameter often extend into the submucosa, making their complete histological resection difficult using endoscopic techniques. Endoscopic submucosal resection with a ligation device (ESMR-L) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are commonly used to overcome these difficulties. We also previously reported that underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) could facilitate resection of rectal NET G1. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UEMR for removing rectal NET G1 ≤ 10 mm in diameter. 6 consecutive patients with rectal NET G1 ≤ 10 mm in diameter underwent UEMR at our hospital. The rate of en bloc resection was 100 %, and the rate of R0 resection was 83 %. The median procedure time was 8 min (range 5 - 12 min). No perforations or delayed bleeding occurred in this study. In conclusion, UEMR allows the safe and reliable resection of rectal NET G1 ≤ 10 mm in diameter with comparable results to ESMR-L or ESD, including high en bloc and R0 resection rates with no increase in significant adverse events. A multicenter trial is required to confirm the validity of the present results.

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt placement and embolization for hemorrhage associated with rupture of anorectal varices.

Portal hypertension can lead to ectopic varices, which occur most frequently in the rectum. Rectal variceal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension is rare but can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. However, no specific treatment guidelines have been established for rectal variceal bleeding. We herein report a case involving a woman with portal hypertension due to autoimmune liver disease who was successfully treated with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt and variceal embolization. We recommend treatment of refractory ectopic variceal bleeding with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt in combination with embolization.

Outcomes of Closed Versus Open Defects After Local Excision of Rectal Neoplasms: A Multi-institutional Matched Analysis.

The management of the rectal wall defect after local excision of rectal neoplasms remains controversial, and the existing data are equivocal.

Acute gastrointestinal bleeding from appendiceal diverticulitis diagnosed preoperatively by combined short-interval computed tomography and colonoscopy: A case report.

Colonic diverticular bleeding is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding1,2 . Appendiceal diverticulosis is an uncommon clinical entity, with an incidence of 0.004%-2% in surgical pathologic specimens3,4 . Appendiceal diverticulitis in symptomatic patients should be treated with early resection, because of the risk of perforation and peritonitis; the rate of perforation is higher in appendicitis (27%) with diverticulosis than in appendicitis alone (6.6%)5 . Untreated appendiceal diverticulitis can also lead to massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage and abscess formation, and has a potential role in the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and final diagnosis is often determined by histopathological examination after appendectomy. Moreover, preoperative imaging has rarely been reported. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Surgery of multiple lymphangioma in small bowel: a rare case report of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding.

Small bowel lymphangioma is a rare benign tumor of the lymphatic system, characterized by the presence of dilated lymphatic spaces and significant gastrointestinal bleeding. Small bowel lymphangiomas are rare in adults and case reports are few. Lymphangiomas in the jejunum or ileum are extremely rare and account for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. The case reported herein is of an older patient (70-year-old male) with melena and chronic anemia (hemoglobin count < 5 g/dL) who had small-sized multiple lymphangiomas in his small bowel (jejunum). Surgical resection was performed after failure of treatment by gastroenteroscopy. Final pathological analysis revealed lymphangioma with thrombus and hemorrhage. After surgery, he no longer had decreased hemoglobin count, nor symptoms of anemia and melena. Also, at the last follow-up visit, the patient's hemoglobin count patient was normal and he returned to normal daily functions.

Multifaceted behavior of Meckel's diverticulum in children.

Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is one of the most common congenital malformations of gastrointestinal tract in children. However, the nonspecific clinical manifestations of MD often cause a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge to pediatric surgeon. This study aimed to review our experience in managing this disease while evaluating the management strategies.

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by exfoliative esophagitis in one patient with hepatitis B cirrhosis.

Perforated Meckel Diverticulum: A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in Children.

Meckel diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in children. Although it usually follows the rule of 2's, exceptions to this rule are reported in the literature. Often asymptomatic, MD is commonly an incidental finding during surgical interventions. When symptomatic, the most common presentation of this condition is painless rectal bleeding. A myriad of other nonspecific symptoms are however possible, especially in adults, thus making this diagnosis difficult. Meckel diverticulum has been reported to mimic other abdominal pathologies like appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and pancreatitis to name a few.We report a patient with acute abdomen in whom the more common causes of acute abdomen were ruled out and a diagnosis of MD was established on exploratory laparoscopy, only after he developed perforation. This report emphasizes the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion towards a possibility of a complicated MD in patients presenting with an acute abdomen, once other causes of acute abdomen are ruled out.

Prospective surveillance pilot of rivaroxaban safety within the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel System.

The US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel system developed tools for sequential surveillance.

Abdominal Pregnancy in the Small Intestine Presenting as Acute Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

An abdominal pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy in which the implantation site occurs in the abdominal cavity outside the female reproductive organs. There have been four reported cases that ruptured into the gastrointestinal tract and into the large intestine. We present the first case of an abdominal pregnancy rupturing into the small intestine with a good outcome.

Patient rescue and blood utilization in the Ogasawara blood rotation system.

In the past, blood products were not transported to the Ogasawara Islands because of the distance; the islands are approximately 1000 km from the mainland and lack an airport. The Ogasawara Blood Rotation system involves the routine, long-distance transportation of Type O, RhD-positive, irradiated red blood cells to rescue patients with acute hemorrhage and severe anemia and to reduce wastage from the expiration of red blood cell solution.

Etiology of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Traditionally thought to cause mostly upper GIB (UGIB), some recent reports suggest that incidence of lower GIB (LGIB) may be increasing. We conducted a study to assess the endoscopic findings and etiology of GIB in patients who presented with GIB on DAPT compared to those not on DAPT.

Lack of Adrenomedullin Aggravates Acute TNBS-Induced Colitis Symptoms in Mice, Especially in Females.

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a biologically active peptide which has been tested as a new therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in animal models and in patients with severe ulcerative colitis. We used an inducible knockout (KO) mouse model for AM to evaluate the effects of endogenous levels of this peptide on the development and degree of pathogenesis of IBD. Acute colitis was induced in mice of both sexes by rectal instillation of 3 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in 100 μL of 50% ethanol. Control mice received the same volume of saline in 50% ethanol. During the following 5 days, the weight and the disease severity index of all animals were recorded. After sacrifice, the inflammatory response was macroscopically assessed by analyzing the weight of the colon; by histomorphometrical analysis on histological sections; and by qRT-PCR determination of different inflammatory, adhesion, and regeneration molecules. TNBS administration caused a significantly more severe colitis in KO mice, and especially in females, when compared to wild type (WT) animals. Abrogation of the AM gene caused more severe diarrhea, accompanied by rectal bleeding, anorexia, and a significant increase of colon weight. Histological analysis of TNBS-treated KO mice showed large areas of lymphocyte infiltrates in the mucosa and submucosa, with loss of tissue architecture. No alterations were observed in the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines at the time of sacrifice; meanwhile lack of AM resulted in lower levels of some adhesion molecules and regeneration markers. Taken together, these results support the protective role of endogenous AM against the development of acute colitis, and that its effects are particularly beneficial on females.

Continuing Medical Education Questions: January 2018: "Weekend Effect" in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Rate of adverse events of gastroduodenal snare polypectomy for non-flat polyp is low: A prospective and multicenter study.

To evaluate the rate of adverse events (AEs) during consecutive gastric and duodenal polypectomies in several Spanish centers.

Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients Presenting to Primary Care with Rectal Bleeding.

Rectal bleeding is a common, frequently benign problem that can also be an early sign of colorectal cancer. Diagnostic evaluation for rectal bleeding is complex, and clinical practice may deviate from available guidelines.

Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure of the diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases. ERCP combines both endoscopic and radiologic imaging. Despite the fact that it is widely considered as relatively safe and useful procedure when performed by an experienced endoscopist, ERCP may potentially result in complications due to its invasive nature. These complications vary in severity and include post-ERCP pancreatitis, cholangitis, hemorrhage and perforations of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the selection of patients and their appropriate preparation before the procedure as well as the careful consideration of indications are highly required.

Leveraging electronic health records for predictive modeling of post-surgical complications.

Hospital-specific electronic health record systems are used to inform clinical practice about best practices and quality improvements. Many surgical centers have developed deterministic clinical decision rules to discover adverse events (e.g. postoperative complications) using electronic health record data. However, these data provide opportunities to use probabilistic methods for early prediction of adverse health events, which may be more informative than deterministic algorithms. Electronic health record data from a set of 9598 colorectal surgery cases from 2010 to 2014 were used to predict the occurrence of selected complications including surgical site infection, ileus, and bleeding. Consistent with previous studies, we find a high rate of missing values for both covariates and complication information (4-90%). Several machine learning classification methods are trained on an 80% random sample of cases and tested on a remaining holdout set. Predictive performance varies by complication, although an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as high as 0.86 on testing data was achieved for bleeding complications, and accuracy for all complications compares favorably to existing clinical decision rules. Our results confirm that electronic health records provide opportunities for improved risk prediction of surgical complications; however, consideration of data quality and consistency standards is an important step in predictive modeling with such data.

The emergency medicine evaluation and management of the patient with cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is a significant cause of death in the U.S. and has a variety of causes, most commonly Hepatitis C and alcohol. Liver fibrosis and nodule formation result in significant complications due to portal system hypertension. There are several deadly complications emergency physicians must consider.

Urgent surgical care for patients with colon cancer complicated by hemorrhage.

To evaluate an effectiveness of various hemostatic methods in patients with colon and rectal cancer.

The management of rectal bleeding following transrectal prostate biopsy: A review of the current literature.

Since the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based testing, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy has become a standard part of the diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer (PCa). Rectal bleeding is one of the common side effects of this transrectal route. While rectal bleeding is usually mild and self-limiting, it can be life-threatening. In this article, we examine rectal bleeding post TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and explore the literature to evaluate techniques and strategies aimed at preventing and managing this common and important complication.

Changing Epidemiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in the Last Decade: A Nationwide Analysis.

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is common and carries substantial mortality requiring frequent hospitalizations.

Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric and duodenal subepithelial lesions using a new, flat-based over-the-scope clip.

Surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal (GI) subepithelial tumors (SETs) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A new over-the-scope (OTS) clip can be used for endoscopic full-thickness resection (eFTR). We aimed to prospectively evaluate feasibility and safety of upper GI eFTR with a new, flat-based OTS clip.