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recurrent stroke - Top 30 Publications

Management of Phenobarbital and Apixaban Interaction in Recurrent Cardioembolic Stroke.

Angiography vs transesophageal echocardiography-guided patent foramen ovale closure: A propensity score matched analysis of a two-center registry.

The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term outcomes of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure using angiography or transesophageal echocardiography as procedural guidance.

Simplified percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect with use of plain fluoroscopy: Single operator experience in 110 consecutive patients.

Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal defect (ASD) is routinely performed under general anesthesia or deep sedation and use of transesophageal (TEE) or intracardiac echocardiography, incurring longer duration and higher cost. We have used a simplified, economical, fluoroscopy-only guided approach with local anesthesia, and herein report our data.

American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 at Middle Age and Prognosis After Myocardial Infarction in Later Life.

The American Heart Association recommends focusing on 7 health factors (Life's Simple 7) for primordial prevention of cardiovascular health. However, whether greater adherence to Life's Simple 7 in midlife improves prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) in later life is unknown.

The Optimal Anti-Coagulation for Enhanced-Risk Patients Post-Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation (OCEAN) trial.

The optimal long-term antithrombotic regimen for patients after successful catheter-based atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is not well defined. Presently, practice variation exists, and the benefits of oral anticoagulation over antiplatelet therapy across the entire spectrum of stroke risk profile remain undefined in the postablation population. To date, there are no randomized trials to inform clinicians on this therapeutic question.

Apixaban following acute coronary syndromes in patients with prior stroke: Insights from the APPRAISE-2 trial.

Patients with prior stroke are at greater risk for recurrent cardiovascular events post-acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and may have a different risk/benefit profile with antithrombotic therapy than patients without prior stroke.

Atrial fibrillation detected after stroke is related to a low risk of ischemic stroke recurrence.

To compare the risk of 1-year ischemic stroke recurrence between atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS) and sinus rhythm (SR) and investigate whether underlying heart disease is as frequent in AFDAS as it is in AF known before stroke (KAF).

Familial aortic disease and a large duplication in chromosome 16p13.1.

A recurrent duplication of chromosome 16p13.1 was associated with aortic dissection as well as with cervical artery dissection. We explore the segregation of this duplication in a family with familial aortic disease.

Anticoagulants Resumption after Warfarin-Related Intracerebral Haemorrhage: The Multicenter Study on Cerebral Hemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy).

Whether to resume antithrombotic treatment after oral anticoagulant-related intracerebral haemorrhage (OAC-ICH) is debatable. In this study, we aimed at investigating long-term outcome associated with OAC resumption after warfarin-related ICH, in comparison with secondary prevention strategies with platelet inhibitors or antithrombotic discontinuation. Participants were patients who sustained an incident ICH during warfarin treatment (2002-2014) included in the Multicenter Study on Cerebral Hemorrhage in Italy. Primary end-point was a composite of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points were ischemic stroke/SE, all-cause mortality and major recurrent bleeding. We computed individual propensity score (PS) as the probability that a patient resumes OACs or other agents given his pre-treatment variables, and performed Cox multivariable analysis using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting (IPTW) procedure. A total of 244 patients qualified for the analysis. Unlike antiplatelet agents, OAC resumption was associated with a lower rate of the primary end-point (weighted hazard ratio [HR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.45), as well as of overall mortality (weighted HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06-0.45) and ischemic stroke/SE (weighted HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.60) with no significant increase of major bleeding in comparison with patients receiving no antithrombotics. In the subgroup of patients with atrial fibrillation, OACs resumption was also associated with a reduction of the primary end-point (weighted HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09-0.54), and the secondary end-point ischemic stroke/SE (weighted HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.40). In conclusion, in patients who have an ICH while receiving warfarin, resuming anticoagulation results in a favorable trade-off between bleeding susceptibility and thromboembolic risk.

Evaluation and Acute Management of Ischemic Stroke in Infants and Children.

This article provides an overview of stroke in neonates, infants, and children.

Recurrent Stroke after Transcatheter PFO Closure in Cryptogenic Stroke or Tia: Long-Term Follow-Up.

There are few data on the mechanism of recurrent neurological events after transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in cryptogenic stroke or TIA.

8-year retrospective analysis of intravenous arginine therapy for acute metabolic strokes in pediatric mitochondrial disease.

Intravenous (IV) arginine has been reported to ameliorate acute metabolic stroke symptoms in adult patients with Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) syndrome, where its therapeutic benefit is postulated to result from arginine acting as a nitric oxide donor to reverse vasospasm. Further, reduced plasma arginine may occur in mitochondrial disease since the biosynthesis of arginine's precursor, citrulline, requires ATP. Metabolic strokes occur across a wide array of primary mitochondrial diseases having diverse molecular etiologies that are likely to share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. Therefore, IV arginine has been increasingly used for the acute clinical treatment of metabolic stroke across a broad mitochondrial disease population.

Web of the carotid artery: An under-recognized cause of ischemic stroke.

Ischemic stroke has rarely been reported in association with a web of the carotid artery. We describe here an additional case of ischemic stroke caused by a carotid web in a young healthy woman. Detection of this vascular abnormality required the use of CT angiography and cerebral digital subtraction angiography. Although there is little evidence regarding the optimal management of this condition, under medical treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy our patient remained free of recurrent stroke events. This case report study illustrates that the web of the carotid artery is an uncommon cause of stroke which should always be considered and ruled out, especially in young patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Clinicians should be aware of this condition, which represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

Implantable Loop Recorders for Cryptogenic Stroke (Plus Real-World Atrial Fibrillation Detection Rate with Implantable Loop Recorders).

Cryptogenic stroke (CS) represents 10%-40% of ischemic strokes and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and high risk of recurrence. Undetected atrial fibrillation is an important consideration in these patients. Tools for electrocardiographic monitoring range from 12-lead electrocardiogram to implantable loop recorders (ILRs). ILRs have become an important tool for long-term electrocardiogram monitoring in CS patients. Advancements in ILR technology are needed to ensure more robust connectivity and to help triage incoming data. An unresolved issue is what duration of AF indicates that the CS patient is at high risk for recurrent stroke and thus would benefit from initiation of anticoagulation.

Emerging Role of Immunity in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the main causes of vascular dementia in older individuals. Apart from risk containment, efforts to prevent or treat CSVD are ineffective due to the unknown pathogenesis of the disease. CSVD, a subtype of stroke, is characterized by recurrent strokes and neurodegeneration. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, chronic inflammatory responses, and leukocyte infiltration are classical pathological features of CSVD. Understanding how BBB disruption instigates inflammatory and degenerative processes may be informative for CSVD therapy. Antigens derived from the brain are found in the peripheral blood of lacunar stroke patients, and antibodies and sensitized T cells against brain antigens are also detected in patients with leukoaraiosis. These findings suggest that antigen-specific immune responses could occur in CSVD. This review describes the neurovascular unit features of CSVD, the immune responses to specific neuronal and glial processes that may be involved in a distinct mechanism of CSVD, and the current evidence of the association between mechanisms of inflammation and interventions in CSVD. We suggest that autoimmune activity should be assessed in future studies; this knowledge would benefit the development of effective therapeutic interventions in CSVD.

Recurrent Stroke in a Young Woman with a Single Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula: An Unusual Association.

Cryptogenic stroke is present in about 40% of ischemic stroke patients. Extracardiac shunt related to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) could be a rare potential risk factor for embolic stroke. Most PAVFs are multiple, congenital, and associated with hereditary conditions. On the other hand, isolated PAVFs are rare conditions and an uncommon cause of cryptogenic stoke.

Stroke Chameleons Manifesting as Distinct Radial Neuropathies: Expertise Can Hasten the Diagnosis.

Stroke chameleons encompass an atypical group of syndromes that do not initially appear to be cerebrovascular accidents. The objective of this study was to report patients with different lesions of central origin clinically presenting as wrist drop and with a semiology similar to that produced by peripheral lesions of the radial nerve at different topographical levels.

Implications of the New National Guidelines for Hypertension.

Automated validated devices should be used for measuring blood pressure (BP). A systolic BP between 120 and 129 mm Hg with a diastolic BP < 80 mm Hg should be treated by lifestyle measures. Lifestyle measures plus BP lowering drugs should be used for secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in persons with clinical CVD (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke) and an average systolic BP of ≥130 mm Hg or an average diastolic BP ≥ 80 mm Hg. Lifestyle measures plus BP lowering drugs should be used for primary prevention of CVD in persons with an estimated 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD ≥ 10% and an average systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or an average diastolic BP ≥ 80 mm Hg. Lifestyle measures plus BP lowering drugs should be used for primary prevention of CVD in persons with an estimated 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD of <10% and an average systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or an average diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg. Initiate antihypertensive drug therapy with 2 first-line drugs from different classes either as separate agents or in a fixed-dose combination in persons with a BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or with a BP > 20/10 mm Hg above their BP target. White coat hypertension must be excluded before initiating treatment with antihypertensive drugs in persons with hypertension at low risk for atherosclerotic CVD. Antihypertensive drug treatment for different disorders is discussed.

Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Addition to Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention After Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain at high risk for experiencing recurrent ischemic events. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been proposed for secondary prevention after ACS.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and ischemic stroke.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with substantially increased risk for cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke. In turn, ischemic stroke represents a leading cause of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. The newest class of glucose-lowering agents is sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, which act through inhibition of glucose reabsorption in the kidney, resulting in glucose excretion without stimulating insulin release. Accumulating data suggests that these agents improve multiple risk factors for ischemic stroke except their glucose-lowering effect.

Caveolin-1 in stroke neuropathology and neuroprotection: a novel molecular therapeutic target for ischemic-related injury.

Cardiovascular disease and associated cerebral stroke are a global epidemic attributed to genetic and epigenetic factors, such as diet, life style and an increasingly sedentary existence due to technological advances in both the developing and developed world. There are approximately 5.9 million stroke-related deaths worldwide annually. Current epidemiological data indicate that nearly 16.9 million people worldwide suffer a new or recurrent stroke yearly. In 2014 alone, 2.4% of adults in the United States (U.S.) were estimated to experience stroke, which is the leading cause of adult disability and the fifth leading cause of death in the U.S. There are 2 main types of stroke: hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS), with IS occurring more frequently. HS is caused by intra-cerebral hemorrhage mainly due to high blood pressure, while IS is caused by either embolic or thrombotic stroke. Both result in motor impairments, numbness or abnormal sensations, cognitive deficits, and mood disorders (e.g. depression). This review focuses on the 1) pathophysiology of stroke (neuronal cell loss, defective blood brain barrier, microglia activation, and inflammation), 2) the role of the membrane protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in normal brain physiology and stroke-induced changes, and, 3) we briefly discussed the potential therapeutic role of Cav-1 in recovery following stroke.

Endovascular recanalization for chronic symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery total occlusion: experience of a single center and review of literature.

The optimal treatment of chronic symptomatic total occlusion of the intracranial vertebral artery (ICVA) remains undefined. We report a single-center experience of endovascular recanalization for patients with chronic symptomatic ICVA occlusion who were refractory to medical therapy.

Ticagrelor for Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events in Patients With Multivessel Coronary Disease.

Patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) and multivessel coronary disease (MVD) are at high risk for recurrent coronary events.

History of vasomotor symptoms, extent of coronary artery disease, and clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome in postmenopausal women.

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) during menopausal transition have been linked to a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and subsequent vascular events. We aim to investigate the association of VMS with the extent of coronary disease and their prognostic role after an acute coronary syndrome.

Quality of Care for Veterans With Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke.

The timely delivery of guideline-concordant care may reduce the risk of recurrent vascular events for patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke. Although many health care organizations measure stroke care quality, few evaluate performance for patients with TIA or minor stroke, and most include only a limited subset of guideline-recommended processes.

Automatic Detection of Compensation During Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation Therapy.

Robotic stroke rehabilitation therapy can greatly increase the efficiency of therapy delivery. However, when left unsupervised, users often compensate for limitations in affected muscles and joints by recruiting unaffected muscles and joints, leading to undesirable rehabilitation outcomes. This paper aims to develop a computer vision system that augments robotic stroke rehabilitation therapy by automatically detecting such compensatory motions. Nine stroke survivors and ten healthy adults participated in this study. All participants completed scripted motions using a table-top rehabilitation robot. The healthy participants also simulated three types of compensatory motions. The 3-D trajectories of upper body joint positions tracked over time were used for multiclass classification of postures. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier detected lean-forward compensation from healthy participants with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.98, F1 = 0.82), followed by trunk-rotation compensation (AUC = 0.77, F1 = 0.57). Shoulder-elevation compensation was not well detected (AUC = 0.66, F1 = 0.07). A recurrent neural network (RNN) classifier, which encodes the temporal dependency of video frames, obtained similar results. In contrast, F1-scores in stroke survivors were low for all three compensations while using RNN: lean-forward compensation (AUC = 0.77, F1 = 0.17), trunk-rotation compensation (AUC = 0.81, F1 = 0.27), and shoulder-elevation compensation (AUC = 0.27, F1 = 0.07). The result was similar while using SVM. To improve detection accuracy for stroke survivors, future work should focus on predefining the range of motion, direct camera placement, delivering exercise intensity tantamount to that of real stroke therapies, adjusting seat height, and recording full therapy sessions.

When to Screen Ischaemic Stroke Patients for Cancer.

Ischemic stroke can be the first manifestation of cancer and it is therefore important to ascertain which stroke patients should be considered for cancer-diagnostic investigations. We aimed to determine the frequency of active cancer in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to compare clinical findings in stroke patients with active cancer to ischemic stroke patients with no history of cancer. Finally, we aimed to develop a predictive and feasible score for clinical use to uncover underlying malignancy.

Short-term outcomes of a simple and effective approach to aortic root and arch repair in acute type A aortic dissection.

To evaluate short-term outcomes following direct aortic root and arch repair in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) without technical adjuncts.

Post-stroke hypertension control and receipt of health care services among veterans.

Many ischemic stroke patients do not achieve goal blood pressure (BP < 140/90 mm Hg). To identify barriers to post-stroke hypertension management, we examined healthcare utilization and BP control in the year after index ischemic stroke admission. This retrospective cohort study included patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke to a VA hospital in fiscal year 2011 and who were discharged with a BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg. One-year post-discharge, BP trajectories, utilization of primary care, specialty and ancillary services were studied. Among 265 patients, 246 (92.8%) were seen by primary care (PC) during the 1-year post-discharge; a median time to the first PC visit was 32 days (interquartile range: 53). Among N = 245 patients with post-discharge BP data, 103 (42.0%) achieved a mean BP < 140/90 mm Hg in the year post-discharge. Provider follow-ups were: neurology (51.7%), cardiology (14.0%), nephrology (7.2%), endocrinology (3.8%), and geriatrics (2.6%) and ancillary services (BP monitor [30.6%], pharmacy [20.0%], nutrition [8.3%], and telehealth [8%]). Non-adherence to medications was documented in 21.9% of patients and was observed more commonly among patients with uncontrolled compared with controlled BP (28.7% vs 15.5%; P = .02). The recurrent stroke rate did not differ among patients with uncontrolled (4.2%) compared with controlled BP (3.8%; P = .89). Few patients achieved goal BP in the year post-stroke. Visits to primary care were not timely. Underuse of specialty as well as ancillary services and provider perception of medication non-adherence were common. Future intervention studies seeking to improve post-stroke hypertension management should address these observed gaps in care.

Risk of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke with Unintended Low-Dose Oral Anticoagulant Therapy and Optimal Timing of Review.

Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dose is adjusted according to manufacturer's recommendations when introduced. However, subsequent changes from appropriate DOAC doses to "unintended" inappropriate low-dose DOAC (ILD) due to increased body weight (BW) or decreased serum creatinine concentration might be overlooked. We investigated outcomes in patients receiving appropriate DOAC, "intended" ILD, or unintended ILD, to determine the optimal review time for DOAC doses and associated factors.