A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

review - Top 30 Publications

The Effect of Exercise on Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: What the Lymphatic Surgeon Needs to Know.

 Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) affects many areas of daily living. Individuals with lymphedema may experience chronic and progressive swelling, recurrent skin infections, and decreased self-image and quality of life. For many years, it was considered best practice for this population to avoid exercise; however, in recent years, research has begun to challenge this belief. This systematic review and meta-analyses examined the recent literature on the effects of exercise for patients with, or at risk for, BCRL to inform best practice.

Characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in young and elderly gravidas with hypertensive disease.

Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with increased risk for preeclampsia, however, a paucity of data exists regarding the characteristics of the disease in this age group. Our aim was to compare the characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in older and younger gravidas.

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among high-risk groups in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans. Nevertheless, up-to-date data on the prevalence of HCV infection remain scarce in Iran. This study aimed to review the relevant literature systematically and determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among high-risk groups in Iran.

Multi-effects of Resveratrol on stem cell characteristics: Effective dose, time, cell culture conditions and cell type-specific responses of stem cells to Resveratrol.

Stem cells which defined by dual features of self-renewal and differentiation potential provide a unique source for repairing damaged tissues to treat a wide spectrum of diseases and injuries. Several recent studies suggest that Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol component, possesses the ability to improve either culture conditions of stem cells or their target differentiation in culture. This review covers the literature that deals with the effects of RSV and its underlying mechanisms on survival, self-renewal and lineage commitment of various stem cells. Concentration of RSV and duration of treatment with this component could exert differential effects on cellular differentiation processes and cell fate. Therefore, RSV could be accounted as an effective small molecule for a variety of cell therapies which should be implemented by a special care considering, effective concentration and duration of exposure.

Tuning B cell responses to antigens by cell polarity and membrane trafficking.

The capacity of B lymphocytes to produce specific antibodies, particularly broadly neutralizing antibodies that provide immunity to viral pathogens has positioned them as valuable therapeutic targets for immunomodulation. To become competent as antibody secreting cells, B cells undergo a series of activation steps, which are triggered by the recognition of antigens frequently displayed on the surface of other presenting cells. Such antigens elicit the formation of an immune synapse (IS), where local cytoskeleton rearrangements coupled to mechanical forces and membrane trafficking orchestrate the extraction and processing of antigens in B cells. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate polarized membrane trafficking and mechanical properties of the immune synapse, as well as the potential extracellular cues from the environment, which may impact the ability of B cells to sense and acquire antigens at the immune synapse. An integrated view of the diverse cellular mechanisms that shape the immune synapse will provide a better understanding on how B cells are efficiently activated.

Mendelian randomisation in type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and hypertension are associated with anthropometric and biomarker traits, including waist-to-hip-ratio, body mass index and altered glucose and insulin levels. Clinical trials, for example of weight-loss interventions, show these factors are causal, but lifelong impact of subtle changes in body mass index and body fat distribution are less clear. The use of human genetics can quantify the causal effects of long-term exposure to subtle changes of modifiable risk factors. Mendelian randomisation (MR) uses human genetic variants associated with the risk factor to quantify the relationship between risk factor and disease outcome. The last two years have seen an increase in the number of MR studies investigating the relationship between anthropometric traits and metabolic diseases. This review provides an overview of these recent MR studies in relation to type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and hypertension. MR provides evidence for causal associations of waist-to-hip-ratio, body mass index and altered glucose levels with type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and hypertension.

Analysis of and reflection on bachelor thesis in nursing students: A descriptive study in Spain.

The bachelor thesis, a final year subject to obtain a nursing degree, presents an ideal opportunity for the development and assessment of professional competencies. Thus, it is necessary to specify that the structure of the bachelor thesis works as an element of review and reflection from both a pedagogical and professional perspective.

The role of PNPLA3 in health and disease.

The human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene encodes for a protein of 481 amino-acids. The variant rs738409 is a cytosine to guanine substitution, encoding for the isoleucine to methionine substitution at position 148 (I148M) of the protein. This variant is strongly associated with the entire spectrum of liver disease. Although this variant is one of the best characterized and deeply studied, the mechanism behind the PNPLA3 and the liver disease is still not well defined. Functionally, it has become clear that the PNPLA3 protein is an enzyme with lipase activity towards triglycerides and retinyl esters, and acyltransferase activity on phospholipids. The aim of this review is to collect the latest data, obtained by in vitro and in vivo experiments, on the functional aspects of the PNPLA3 protein. Defining the precise role of PNPLA3 in the liver lipid metabolism, in order to develop novel therapies for the treatment of liver disease, will be the key of future research.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive processing deficits associated with body dysmorphic disorder.

This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence supporting the association between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptomology and four types of cognitive processing abnormalities: local processing, selective attention, interpretive biases, and memory deficits. Twenty-three studies met inclusion requirements that examined differences in performance on cognitive tasks between BDD and control groups across the four categories. Multilevel modelling was used to calculate an overall effect size for each cognitive category. BDD and control groups differed significantly on measures of selective attention (g = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.26: 0.93), interpretive biases (g = 0.30, 95% CI = . 07: 0.54), and memory deficits (g=.56, 95% CI = 0.26: 0.87). Differences between the BDD and control groups on measures of local processing did not reach significance. These findings support the hypothesis that people with BDD may selectively attend to perceived threats or to disorder-related stimuli, misinterpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening, overvalue the importance of attractiveness, and have inaccurate coding and recall for facial or bodily stimuli. Recommendations for future research of these specific cognitive deficits in BDD include introducing the use of Modified Dot Probe Paradigms and new treatment targets that can be used as adjuncts to current treatment modalities.

Cytokine modulation of atopic itch.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by two primary features: relapsing skin lesions and chronic itch. Major advances in our understanding of type 2 immunity have led to new insights into the critical factors that promote the development and persistence of AD-associated skin inflammation. Although inflammation is strongly associated with the development of atopic itch, the precise mechanisms by which itch arises in AD are poorly understood. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have started to unveil how various proinflammatory factors released within the skin can elicit sensations of itch and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting these neuroimmunologic processes.

Caenorhabditis elegans in high-throughput screens for anti-infective compounds.

New classes of antimicrobials that are effective therapies for infections with multi-drug resistant pathogens are urgently needed. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been incorporated into small molecule screening platforms to identify anti-infective compounds that provide protection of a host during infection. The use of a live animal in these screening systems offers several advantages, including the ability to identify molecules that boost innate immune responses in a manner advantageous to host survival and compounds that disrupt bacterial virulence mechanisms. In addition, new classes of antimicrobials that target the pathogen have been uncovered, as well as interesting chemical probes that can be used to dissect new mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions.

Emerging roles of microRNAs in the metabolic control of immune cells.

Immunometabolism is an emerging field that focuses on the role of cellular metabolism in the regulation of immune cells. Recent studies have revealed an intensive link between the metabolic state and the functions of immune cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding, single-stranded RNAs generally consisting of 18-25 nucleotides that exert crucial roles in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Although the role of miRNAs in immune regulation has long been recognized, their roles in immunometabolism have not yet been well established. Over the past decade, increasing studies have proven that miRNAs are intensively involved in the metabolic control of immune cells including macrophages, T cells, B cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we highlight recent emerging findings in the miRNA-mediated metabolic control of immune cells.

Self-care profiles of the elderly institutionalized in Elderly Care Centres.

The concept of self-care in the elderly has been frequently associated with autonomy, independence and personal accountability. Self-care practices are a result of individual lifestyles and paths adapted to the circumstances and expectations of the elderly. Based on the model by Backman and Hentinen (1999), the present study attempts to categorically describe the types of self-care of the elderly. This is an exploratory study, transversal, of a quantitative nature. The sample was comprised of 313 participants, randomly selected among Elderly Care Centres in the interior North of Portugal. The Portuguese version of Self-care of Home Dwelling Elderly was used for data collection. The results call for a replication of the study, using the theoretical derivation of the four self-care profiles (responsible, formally guided, independent and abandoned).

The future of hazardous chemical safety in China: Opportunities, problems, challenges and tasks.

China is a major country producing and using hazardous chemicals. Unfortunately, the hazardous chemical industry is still one of the most high-risk industries in China. In recent years, especially after two devastating hazardous chemical accidents, namely "Qingdao 11.2 Crude Oil Leaking and Explosion Accident" and "Tianjin Port 8.12 Fire and Explosion Accident" which occurred in 2013 and 2015 respectively, China has attached great importance to hazardous chemical safety. The period between 2016 and 2017 is a crucial period for the future direction of hazardous chemical safety in China because China released a series of important government documents (such as 'Thirteenth Five-Year (2016-2020) Plan for Hazardous Chemical Safety' and 'Comprehensive Plan for Hazardous Chemical Safety Management (December 2016-November 2019)') to promote hazardous chemical safety in the future. What is the future development of China's hazardous chemical safety? To answer this question, this paper attempts to briefly analyze and introduce the opportunities, problems, challenges and tasks of the future of safety with hazardous chemical industrial activities in China, according to the current situation of hazardous chemical safety in China and using the latest government documents and studies. Obviously, this study can provide useful evidence and suggestions for the future of safety management in the hazardous chemical industry both within China and in other countries.

Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Chinese Salvia species: A review.

The genus Salvia is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. In China, about 40 Salvia species have been used as medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases, specifically hepatic and renal diseases and those of the cardiovascular and immune systems.

The A-Z of Zika drug discovery.

Despite the recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), there are still no approved treatments, and early-stage compounds are probably many years away from approval. A comprehensive A-Z review of the recent advances in ZIKV drug discovery efforts is presented, highlighting drug repositioning and computationally guided compounds, including discovered viral and host cell inhibitors. Promising ZIKV molecular targets are also described and discussed, as well as targets belonging to the host cell, as new opportunities for ZIKV drug discovery. All this knowledge is not only crucial to advancing the fight against the Zika virus and other flaviviruses but also helps us prepare for the next emerging virus outbreak to which we will have to respond.

Factors Associated with Combined Do-Not-Resuscitate and Do-Not-Intubate Orders: A Retrospective Chart Review at an Urban Tertiary Care Center.

In clinical practice, do-not-intubate (DNI) orders are generally accompanied by do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. Use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders is associated with older patient age, more comorbid conditions, and the withholding of treatments outside of the cardiac arrest setting. Previous studies have not unpacked the factors independently associated with DNI orders.

Pathogenicity, population genetics and dissemination of Bacillus anthracis.

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, procures its particular virulence by a capsule and two AB type toxins: the lethal factor LF and the edema factor EF. These toxins primarily disable immune cells. Both toxins are translocated to the host cell by the adhesin-internalin subunit called protective antigen PA. PA enables LF to reach intra-luminal vesicles, where it remains active for long periods. Subsequently, LF translocates to non-infected cells, leading to inefficient late therapy of anthrax. B. anthracis undergoes slow evolution because it alternates between vegetative and long spore phases. Full genome sequence analysis of a large number of worldwide strains resulted in a robust evolutionary reconstruction of this bacterium, showing that B. anthracis started to diverge more than 10'000 years ago splitting in three main clades: A, B and C. Clade A efficiently disseminated worldwide underpinned by human activities including heavy intercontinental trade of goat and sheep hair. Subclade A.Br·WNA, which is widespread in the Northern American continent, is estimated to have split from clade A reaching the Northern American continent in the late Pleistocene epoch via the former Bering Land Bridge and further spread from Northwest southwards. An alternative hypothesis is that subclade A.Br·WNA evolved from clade A.Br.TEA tracing it back to strains from Northern France that were assumingly dispatched by European explorers that settled along the St. Lawrence River. Clade B established mostly in Europe along the alpine axis where it evolved in association with local cattle breeds and hence displays specific geographic subclusters. Sequencing technologies are also used for forensic applications to trace unintended or criminal acts of release of B. anthracis. Under natural conditions, B. anthracis generally affects domesticated and wild ruminants in arid ecosystems. The more recently discovered B. cereus biovar anthracis spreads in tropical forests, where it threatens particularly endangered primate populations.

Modulation of the innate immune response by human cytomegalovirus.

The interplay between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the innate immune response is a critical process that has attracted the attention of many research groups. The emerging scenario is that the immune response of an HCMV-infected host is mediated by a plethora of viral DNA sensors acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are capable of inhibiting indirectly viral infection through the activation of two distinct downstream signaling cascades. The first one triggers the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons (IFNs), while the second one leads to inflammasome complex formation, which in turn promotes the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). An additional first line of defense against HCMV is represented by a multiplicity of constitutively expressed restriction factors that inhibit viral replication by directly interfering with the activity of essential viral/cellular genes. Here, we take a closer look at some of the most representative intrinsic restriction factors involved in HCMV infection (e.g. IFI16, ND10 complex, viperin and APOBEC3) and review our current understanding of the mechanisms that HCMV has evolved to counteract both IFN and inflammasome responses.

Loss of Response to Vedolizumab and Ability of Dose Intensification to Restore Response in Patients With Crohn's Disease or Ulcerative Colitis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Vedolizumab is effective and safe for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Little is known about the incidence rate of loss of response to vedolizumab maintenance therapy or whether dose intensification restores response to this drug.

Posterior fossa metastasis-associated obstructive hydrocephalus in adult patients: literature review and practical considerations from the Neuro-Oncology Club of the French Society of Neurosurgery.

There is no consensus concerning the management of adult posterior fossa metastasis-associated obstructive hydrocephalus patients, especially regarding surgical procedures.

Safety and Efficacy of Surgical Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: The Experience of a Single Brazilian Center.

Nowadays, the use of microsurgery for clipping aneurysms has decreased considerably.

Reactive oxygen species in cancer stem cells of head and neck squamous cancer.

One of the greatest challenges in systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a small tumor cell population, namely, cancer stem-like cells (CSC). CSC can regenerate and maintain a heterogenic tumor by their self-renewal capacity. Their potential ability to be more resistant to and survival after chemo- and radiation therapy was also identified. Further studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to this CSC-associated resistance. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of HNSCC-CSC, with regard to ROS as a possible and novel therapeutic approach in targeting CSC.

The reciprocal function and regulation of tumor vessels and immune cells offers new therapeutic opportunities in cancer.

Tumor angiogenesis and escape of immunosurveillance are two cancer hallmarks that are tightly linked and reciprocally regulated by paracrine signaling cues of cell constituents from both compartments. Formation and remodeling of new blood vessels in tumors is abnormal and facilitates immune evasion. In turn, immune cells in the tumor, specifically in context with an acidic and hypoxic environment, can promote neovascularization. Immunotherapy has emerged as a major therapeutic modality in cancer but is often hampered by the low influx of activated cytotoxic T-cells. On the other hand, anti-angiogenic therapy has been shown to transiently normalize the tumor vasculature and enhance infiltration of T lymphocytes, providing a rationale for a combination of these two therapeutic approaches to sustain and improve therapeutic efficacy in cancer. In this review, we discuss how the tumor vasculature facilitates an immunosuppressive phenotype and vice versa how innate and adaptive immune cells regulate angiogenesis during tumor progression. We further highlight recent results of antiangiogenic immunotherapies in experimental models and the clinic to evaluate the concept that targeting both the tumor vessels and immune cells increases the effectiveness in cancer patients.

Molecular pathway activation - new type of biomarkers for tumor morphology and personalized selection of target drugs.

Anticancer target drugs (ATDs) specifically bind and inhibit molecular targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression, being deeply implicated in intracellular signaling pathways. To date, hundreds of different ATDs were approved for clinical use in the different countries. Compared to previous chemotherapy treatments, ATDs often demonstrate reduced side effects and increased efficiency, but also have higher costs. However, the efficiency of ATDs for the advanced stage tumors is still insufficient. Different ATDs have different mechanisms of action and are effective in different cohorts of patients. Personalized approaches are therefore needed to select the best ATD candidates for the individual patients. In this review, we focus on a new generation of biomarkers - molecular pathway activation - and on their applications for predicting individual tumor response to ATDs. The success in high throughput gene expression profiling and emergence of novel bioinformatic tools reinforced quick development of pathway related field of molecular biomedicine. The ability to quantitatively measure degree of a pathway activation using gene expression data has revolutionized this field and made the corresponding analysis quick, robust and inexpensive. This success was further enhanced by using machine learning algorithms for selection of the best biomarkers. We review here the current progress in translating these studies to clinical oncology and patient-oriented adjustment of cancer therapy.

The embryonic and evolutionary boundaries between notochord and cartilage: A new look at nucleus pulposus-specific markers.

The adult nucleus pulposus (NP) and articular cartilage are similar in terms of their histocytological components and biomechanical functionalities, requiring a deep understanding of NP-specific markers to better evaluate stem-cell-based NP regeneration. Here, we seek to distinguish NP cells from articular chondrocytes (ACs), focusing on differences in their embryonic formation and evolutionary origin. Embryonically, NP cells are conservatively derived from the axial notochord, whereas ACs originate in a diversified manner from paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells. Evolutionarily, although the origins of vertebrate NP and AC cells can be traced to similar structures within protostomia-like bilaterian ancestors, the distant phylogenetic relationship between the two groups of animals and the differences in the bodily origins of the tissues suggest that the tissues may in fact have undergone parallel evolution within the protostomia and deuterostomia. The numbers of supposedly NP-specific markers are increasing gradually as microarray studies proceed, but no final consensus has been attained on the specificity and physiology of "exclusive" NP markers because of innate variations among species; intrinsic expression of genes that destabilize the circadian clock; and cooperation by, and crosstalk among, different genes in terms of physiology-related phenotypes. We highlight the embryonic and evolutionary boundaries between NP and AC cells, to aid in recognition of the challenges associated with evaluation of the role played by nucleopulpogenic differentiation during stem-cell-based intervertebral disc regeneration.

Brief report: Early use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab.

Checkpoint inhibitors augment the immune system's natural surveillance mechanisms and have increasing applications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunosuppressive corticosteroids are also frequently used in this population to treat unwanted inflammation. Based on this mechanistic opposition, we investigated the interaction between nivolumab and corticosteroids in patients with advanced NSCLC.

A tutorial for developing a topical cream formulation based on the Quality by Design approach.

The pharmaceutical industry has entered in a new era, as there is a growing interest in increasing the quality standards of dosage forms, through the implementation of more structured development and manufacturing approaches. For many decades, the manufacturing of drug products was controlled by a regulatory framework to guarantee the quality of the final product through a fixed process and exhaustive testing. Limitations related to the Quality by Test (QbT) system have been widely acknowledged. The emergence of Quality by Design (QbD) as a systematic and risk-based approach introduced a new quality concept based on a good understanding of how raw materials and process parameters influence the final quality profile. Although the QbD system has been recognized as a revolutionary approach to product development and manufacturing, its full implementation in the pharmaceutical field is still limited. This is particularly evident in the case of semisolid complex formulation development. The present review aims at establishing a practical QbD framework to describe all stages comprised in the pharmaceutical development of a conventional cream in a comprehensible manner.

The effects of donor age on organ transplants: A review and implications for aging research.

Despite the considerable amount of data available on the effect of donor age upon the outcomes of organ transplantation, these still represent an underutilized resource in aging research. In this review, we have compiled relevant studies that analyze the effect of donor age in graft and patient survival following liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, lung and cornea transplantation, with the aim of deriving insights into possible differential aging rates between the different organs. Overall, older donor age is associated with worse outcomes for all the organs studied. Nonetheless, the donor age from which the negative effects upon graft or patient survival starts to be significant varies between organs. In kidney transplantation, this age is within the third decade of life while the data for heart transplantation suggest a significant effect starting from donors over age 40. This threshold was less defined in liver transplantation where it ranges between 30 and 50 years. The results for the pancreas are also suggestive of a detrimental effect starting at a donor age of around 40, although these are mainly derived from simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation data. In lung transplantation, a clear effect was only seen for donors over 65, with negative effects of donor age upon transplantation outcomes likely beginning after age 50. Corneal transplants appear to be less affected by donor age as the majority of studies were unable to find any effect of donor age during the first few years posttransplantation. Overall, patterns of the effect of donor age in patient and graft survival were observed for several organ types and placed in the context of knowledge on aging.

Modulation of heat shock proteins by statins.

Heat shock proteins (HSP or stress proteins) are intracellular molecules that participate in physiological cell metabolism and growth, although they are known to be involved in many stress conditions. Statins inhibit the action of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), which is important in the synthesis of cholesterol and essential isoprenoid intermediates, thereby lowering circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of statins in the regulation of HSPs. A better understanding of this involvement can help in development of new and more effective treatment strategies for CVD.