PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

sexually transmitted diseases - Top 30 Publications

AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions.

Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses.

Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Infection and HIV Infection Outcomes Among Peruvian Transgender Women: Results from a Cohort Study.

Latin American transgender women are highly vulnerable to HIV infection, and although much is known about factors associated with HIV infection in this population, little is known about the association of human papilloma virus (HPV) with HIV infection. We investigated anogenital HPV and cumulative HIV incidence among 68, initially HIV uninfected, Peruvian transgender women enrolled into a 2-year, prospective cohort study: 95.6% had at least one anogenital HPV genotype at baseline, 19.1% had visible anogenital warts, and 6.0% became infected with HIV over the course of the study. Due to the high anogenital HPV prevalence, this population would likely benefit from early immunization with the HPV vaccine.

Sexual Assertiveness Skills and Sexual Decision-Making in Adolescent Girls: Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Program.

To evaluate the efficacy of an interactive, Web-based sexual health program (Health Education and Relationship Training [HEART]) for developing sexual assertiveness skills and enhancing sexual decision-making in adolescent girls.

Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador.

The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases. HPV detection and typing was done by PCR-sequencing (MY09/MY11). HPV variants and estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was assessed through phylogeny and coalescence analysis. HPV DNA was found in 54.4% of CIN1, 74.7% of CIN2/3 and 78.6% of cancer samples. HPV16 (38.9%) and HPV58 (19.5%) were the most prevalent types. Risk factors for the development of cervical lesions/cancer were the following: three or more pregnancies (OR=4.3), HPV infection (OR=3.7 for high-risk types; OR=3.5 for HPV16), among others. With regard to HPV evolution, HPV16 isolates belonged to lineages A (69%) and D (31%) whereas HPV58 isolates belonged only to lineage A. The period of emergence of HPV16 was in association with human populations (tMRCA=91052 years for HPV16A and 27000 years for HPV16D), whereas HPV58A preceded Homo sapiens evolution (322257 years). This study provides novel data on HPV epidemiology and evolution in Ecuador, which will be fundamental in the vaccine era.

Current treatments for anal condylomata acuminata.

Condylomata acuminate are the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. They are usually a serious problem, but it causes emotional distress to patient and physician alike because of its marked tendency to recurrence. The presence of anogenital warts mandates treatment, also for potential degeneration of the lesions.

In vitro activity and time-kill curve analysis of sitafloxacin against a global panel of antimicrobial-resistant and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.

Treatment of gonorrhoea is a challenge worldwide because of emergence of resistance in N. gonorrhoeae to all therapeutic antimicrobials available and novel antimicrobials are imperative. The newer-generation fluoroquinolone sitafloxacin, mostly used for respiratory tract infections in Japan, can have a high in vitro activity against gonococci. However, only a limited number of recent antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Japan have been examined. We investigated the sitafloxacin activity against a global gonococcal panel (250 isolates cultured in 1991-2013), including multidrug-resistant geographically, temporally and genetically diverse isolates, and performed time-kill curve analysis for sitafloxacin. The susceptibility to sitafloxacin (agar dilution) and seven additional therapeutic antimicrobials (Etest) was determined. Sitafloxacin was rapidly bactericidal, and the MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 was ≤0.001-1, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. There was a high correlation between the MICs of sitafloxacin and ciprofloxacin; however, the MIC50 and MIC90 of sitafloxacin were 6-fold and >6-fold lower, respectively. Sitafloxacin might be an option for particularly dual antimicrobial therapy of gonorrhoea and for cases with ceftriaxone resistance or allergy. However, further in vitro and particularly in vivo evaluations of potential resistance, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and ideal dosing for gonorrhoea, as well as performance of randomized controlled clinical, trials are crucial.

Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data.

Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia.

Anti-retroviral Status and HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors are Associated with Age, Time Since Diagnosis, and Psychosocial Factors Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS Enrolling in the WILLOW Intervention at Community-Based Organizations.

Safe sexual behaviors and anti-retroviral use help prevent HIV transmission. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed correlates of anti-retroviral (ART) status and transmission risk (a constructed variable) among a convenience sample of n = 1041 HIV-positive women (pre-intervention) enrolled in an evidence-based intervention at four CBOs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used. Younger women and those diagnosed with HIV in the last 5 years more often reported that they had not been prescribed ART. Self-reported non-adherence to ART was less frequently reported among women who were older, had a higher HIV knowledge, and those with attitudes/beliefs supportive of condom use. The highest-risk transmission group (condomless sex with HIV-negative/unknown partner and not prescribed or non-adherent to ART) was associated with younger age, attitudes/beliefs less supportive of condom use, and low self-efficacy discussing condom use. Our findings inform HIV prevention efforts among similar populations of HIV-positive women enrolled in interventions at CBOs.

The Evolution of HIV Testing Continues.

Selecting an HIV Test: A Narrative Review for Clinicians and Researchers.

Given the many options available, selecting an HIV test for a particular clinical or research setting can be daunting. Making an informed decision requires an assessment of the likelihood of acute infection in the test population and an understanding of key aspects of the tests themselves. The ability of individual tests to reliably detect HIV infection depends on the target(s) being detected, when they can be expected to be present after infection, and the concentration of stable target in test specimens, all of which are explained by the virologic and serologic events after infection. The purpose of this article is to review the timeline of HIV infection, nomenclature, and characteristics of different tests; compare point-of-care and laboratory-based tests; discuss the impact of different specimens on test performance; and provide practical advice to help clinicians and researchers new to the field select a test that best suits their needs.

Can Chlamydia Serology Be Used to Help Inform a Potential Future Chlamydia Vaccination Strategy?

Bivalent vaccine effectiveness against type-specific HPV positivity: evidence for cross-protection against oncogenic types among Dutch STI clinic visitors.

Observational post-marketing studies are important to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). We estimated VE from the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV positivity of vaccine and non-vaccine types in a high-risk population.

Contraception for young women with focus on long-acting, reversible contraceptives.

Long-acting, reversible contraceptives are about 20 times more effective in terms of contraceptive efficacy than oral hormonal contraceptives, patch or vaginal ring are. Long-acting, reversible contraceptives are not associated with serious adverse events but induce changes in menstrual bleeding pattern in about 75% of the users. The progestogen intrauterine device is effective in the treatment of menor-rhagia and dysmenorrhoea. Increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives is expected to reduce unplanned pregnancies and legal abortions in all ages. Concomitant use of barrier methods is important to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

Potential risk factors for reactive arthritis and persistence of symptoms at 2 years: a case-control study with longitudinal follow-up.

The objective of the study is to determine the risk factors for the development of reactive arthritis (ReA) and examine the factors associated with the persistence of symptoms. Patients with a new diagnosis of ReA and controls with a gastrointestinal (GI), urogenital, or sexually transmitted infection in the 3-6 months prior to study entry were prospectively enrolled in Guatemala City. ReA patients fulfilled the Assessment in Spondyloarthritis International Society criteria for peripheral spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Patients underwent history, examination, Achilles tendon ultrasound, and blood draw. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type and serum biomarkers were measured. t tests and nonparametric equivalents were used to examine the association of clinical, laboratory, and imaging factors with ReA. Patients were contacted 2 years later to assess for persistence of symptoms. Study subjects included patients with ReA (N = 32) and controls (N = 32). ReA patients were most frequently infected in April whereas controls were most frequently infected in August. Two ReA patients and two controls were HLA-B27-positive. Serum cathepsin K and C-reactive protein were higher in ReA patients compared to controls (p = 0.03 for both), while total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were lower (p = 0.008 and 0.045, respectively). Among those with ReA, 15 (47%) patients had continued symptoms at 2 years. These patients had a lower matrix metalloproteinase-3 level at diagnosis than patients for whom ReA resolved (p = 0.004). HLA-B27 was not associated with development of ReA in Guatemala; however, the month of infection was associated with ReA. The most striking finding was the persistence of arthritis at 2 years in nearly half of the patients.

Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan.

Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, P<0.001). The proportion of Han HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P=0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non-marital sexual partners (11.1%(8)) (χ(2)=61.10, P<0.001). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who lived mobile was 72.9% (94), which was higher than who lived fixedly (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=19.34, P<0.001). Qualitative interviews results revealed that the age of the respondents were 22-69. Respondents whose ages are in 22-34 were more likely to use mobile phone (4/10) and respondents whose ages are in 35-69 were less likely to look partners through party and the context of working. Conclusion: The proportion of cases being infected by non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission in Qian dongnan was higher than general national levels. The characteristics of sex, marriage status, migration, vocation, the members of non-marital sex partners were significant differed between commercial heterosexual transmission and non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission.

Evolution of acute hepatitis C virus infection in a large European city: Trends and new patterns.

The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections since 2004 and to determine its associated factors. Acute HCV infections diagnosed in Barcelona from 2004 to 2015 were included. Incidence ratios (IR) were then estimated for sex and age groups. Cases were grouped between 2004-2005, 2006-2011 and 2012-2015, and their incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated. In addition, risk factors for acute HCV infection were identified using multinomial logistic regression for complete, available and multiple imputed data. 204 new HCV cases were identified. Two peaks of higher IR of acute HCV infection in 2005 and 2013 were observed. Men and those aged 35-54 had higher IR. IRR for men was 2.9 times greater than in women (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.8 ‒ 4.7). Factors related to the period 2012-2015 (versus 2006-2011) were: a) sexual risk factor for transmission versus nosocomial (relative-risk ratio (RRR): 13.0; 95% CI: 2.3 ‒ 72.1), b) higher educated versus lower (RRR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.6 ‒ 18.7), and c) HIV co-infected versus not HIV-infected (RRR: 53.1; 95% CI: 5.7 ‒ 492.6). This is one of the few studies showing IR and RRRs of acute HCV infections and the first focused on a large city in Spain. Sexual risk for transmission between men, higher educational level and HIV co-infection are important factors for understanding current HCV epidemic. There has been a partial shift in the pattern of the risk factor for transmission from nosocomial to sexual.

Early screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young women for primary prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease (i-Predict): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months.

Time Since First Acting on Same-Sex Attraction and Recreational Drug Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Is There an Effect of "Gay Age"?

Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of substance use compared to men who have sex with women. Among MSM, drug use is linked to higher-risk sexual behavior and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Two Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Randomized, Crossover Studies to Assess the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Orally Administered Granules of Secnidazole (2 g) in Healthy Female Volunteers Under Different Administration Conditions.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in reproductive-age women and a significant risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy complications. Standard 5- to 7-day antimicrobial treatments for BV are associated with high rates of recurrence and adverse events. SYM-1219 is a novel granule formulation containing 2 g of secnidazole, developed as an oral, single-dose BV treatment. Two phase 1, open-label, single-center, randomized, crossover trials (studies 102 and 103) assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of SYM-1219 single doses (≥7-day washout between doses) in healthy, nonpregnant women aged 18 to 65 years inclusive. Study 102 compared SYM-1219 in applesauce in fasted vs fed states. Study 103 compared SYM-1219 (fasted) in pudding and yogurt vs applesauce. Studies 102 and 103 each dosed 24 subjects (mean [standard deviation] ages, 36 [1.8] and 40 [11.6] years, respectively). In both studies the 90% confidence intervals for all treatment comparisons of maximum plasma concentration, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to last measurable concentration and to infinity, geometric mean ratios were within 80% to 125%, demonstrating bioequivalence. In both studies median fasted time to maximum plasma concentration was 4 hours (6 hours fed in study 102), and mean half-life ranged from 17 to 19 hours. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 70.8% and 83.3% subjects in studies 102 and 103, respectively, most commonly headache (41.7% and 50.0%) and gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse events. The pharmacokinetics of SYM-1219 were similar in fed and fasted states and when administered in different foods.

Sexually transmitted infections of the lower gastrointestinal tract.

The World Health Organization estimates that there is greater than one million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) every day. In many countries, STIs are at an unprecedented high, including the USA, where nearly 20 million new cases were reported in 2016. Although morbidity associated with STIs is usually seen in the context of genitourinary disease, these pathogens may also affect the gastrointestinal tract and cause anal pain, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. It is important to recognize patterns of injury associated with these pathogens, especially those that may mimic other gastrointestinal diseases, such as idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review focuses upon STIs of the lower gastrointestinal tract, organized by the most common site of involvement: the anus, rectum, and colon.

Strengthening global vaccine access for adolescents and adults.

Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults. New vaccines under development for these diseases and under-used vaccines such as for human papilloma virus will have the greatest health and economic impact in these populations. Global consensus, political will, policies, global and country infrastructure, and financing mechanisms are needed to accelerate access for the billions of adolescents and adults living under the threat of devastating infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics, especially in lower income countries. The global health community and countries cannot afford to delay planning for implementation of adolescent and adult vaccine programs that will potentially save millions of lives and strengthen global and national economies. The article examines this next challenge and suggests a research agenda and a framework for action to galvanize global and national policy decision-makers to begin preparations for future immunization challenges.

Serology reflects a decline in the prevalence of trachoma in two regions of The Gambia.

Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3.4% (25/742) with no statistically significant difference in prevalence between the regions. There was a significant difference in overall seroprevalence by region: 26.2% in LRR and 17.1% in URR (p < 0.0001). In children 1-9 years old, seroprevalence was 4.4% in LRR and 3.9% in URR. Reversible catalytic models using information on age-specific seroprevalence demonstrated a decrease in the transmission of Ct infection in both regions, possibly reflecting the impact of improved access to water, health and sanitation as well as mass drug administration campaigns. Serological testing for antibodies to Ct antigens is potentially useful for trachoma programmes, but consideration should be given to the co-endemicity of sexually transmitted Ct infections.

Chlamydia trachomatis regulates growth and development in response to host cell fatty acid availability in the absence of lipid droplets.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity from sexually transmitted and ocular diseases globally. Ct acquires host fatty acids (FA) to meet the metabolic and growth requirements of the organism. Lipid droplets (LDs) are storehouses of FAs in host cells and have been proposed to be a source of FAs for the parasitophorous vacuole, termed inclusion, in which Ct replicates. Previously, cells devoid of LDs were shown to produce reduced infectious progeny at 24 hours post-infection (hpi). Here, while we also found reduced progeny at 24 hpi, there were significantly more progeny at 48 hpi in the absence of LDs compared to the control wild-type (WT) cells. These findings were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy where cells without LDs were shown to have significantly more metabolically active reticulate bodies at 24 hpi and significantly more infectious but metabolically inert elementary bodies at 48 hpi than WT cells. Furthermore, by measuring basal oxygen consumption rates (OCR) using extracellular flux analysis, Ct infected cells without LDs had higher OCRs at 24 hpi than cells with LDs, confirming ongoing metabolic activity in the absence of LDs. While the FA oleic acid (OA) is a major source of phospholipids for Ct and stimulates LD synthesis, treatment with OA, but not other FAs, enhanced growth and led to an increase in basal OCR in both LD depleted and WT cells, indicating that FA transport to the inclusion is not affected by the loss of LDs. Our results show that Ct regulates inclusion metabolic activity and growth in response to host FA availability in the absence of LDs.

Effectiveness of a combination strategy for linkage and retention in adult HIV care in Swaziland: The Link4Health cluster randomized trial.

Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to poor health outcomes and increase HIV transmission. A combination of interventions targeting multiple steps in the continuum is needed to achieve the full beneficial impact of HIV treatment.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.

HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART.

Contemporary disengagement from antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A cohort study.

Retention in care is an essential component of meeting the UNAIDS "90-90-90" HIV treatment targets. In Khayelitsha township (population ~500,000) in Cape Town, South Africa, more than 50,000 patients have received antiretroviral therapy (ART) since the inception of this public-sector program in 2001. Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013-2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged.

Reaching global HIV/AIDS goals: What got us here, won't get us there.

In a Perspective, Wafaa El-Sadr and colleagues discuss tailored approaches to treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV): seroprevalence and HEV RNA detection in subjects attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels, Belgium.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased incidence of pathogens transmitted by the oro-fecal route. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of acute hepatitis and fecal shedding is observed during primary infection. We investigated whether MSM are at increased risk of HEV infection. Subjects who attended a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels and had an HIV test performed between 1 June 2014 and 15 January 2016 were identified. A total of 576 samples were retrospectively screened for both total HEV IgG and HEV RNA. Samples positive for IgG were tested for IgM. MSM proportion was 31·1% (179/576). Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 9·03% (52/576) and was identical in MSM and heterosexual subjects. Among the IgG positive samples, 2/52 (3·84%) samples (both women) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. No sample was positive for HEV RNA. Age over 35 was the only risk factor significantly associated with HEV seropositivity (OR 2·07; 95% CI 1·16-3·67). In conclusion, MSM were not found to have an increased prevalence of HEV as previously reported in other European countries suggesting distinct dynamics of HEV infection in this group across Europe and increased age was associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.