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stroke - Top 30 Publications

Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on sleep architecture of acute ischemic stroke patients.

Objective: To investigate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on sleep architecture in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: Seventy AIS patients with polysomnography examination from June 2014 to April 2016 were included in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Twenty-seven healthy controls during the same period were chosen as control group. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), AIS patients were divided into AIS group (AHI<5/h) and AIS+ OSA group (AHI≥5/h). Their general conditions, Neurological function defect (national institutes of health stroke scale, NIHSS) on admission and at discharge and self-care ability (modified Rankin Scale, mRS) at discharge and 3 months later (mRS score <2 reflected good prognosis, and mRS score≥2 reflected unfavorable prognosis) were collected. Results: Fifty-two patients (74.3%) had OSA in total seventy AIS patients. Total sleep time (TST) was significantly shorter and sleep efficiency (SE) was lower in AIS group than the control group (P=0.007, 0.008, respectively). AIS+ OSA group had longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM)1 than control group [24.9(21.3) vs 14.3(10.6), P=0.044]. Compared with AIS group, AIS+ OSA group had shorter NREM3 [13.0(13.2) vs 19.6(12.8), P=0.039]. There was no significant difference between the infarct location of AIS group and AIS+ OSA group. However, AIS+ OSA group had higher mRS score observed at 3 months through follow-up visit than AIS group (P=0.027). Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between unfavorable prognosis of stroke at 3 months and atrial fibrillation, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI), percentage of oxygen saturation <90% of total recording time (TS90%), AHI, the longest time of apnea and hypopnea, respiratory related microarousal and NIHSS, while a negative correlation between unfavorable prognosis of stroke and NREM3, lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation (L-SaO(2)). On Logistic analysis, the unfavorable prognosis was independently predicted by AHI and NIHSS. Conclusions: Sleep architecture of cerebral infarction patients are disturbed with its characteristic of shorter total sleep time and lower sleep efficiency. Cerebral infarction patients with OSA have longer NREM1 and shorter NREM3.

Hybrid surgery for complex symptomatic intracranial fistulas: a technical note.

Objective: To explore the efficacy of hybrid management of complex symptomatic intracranial fistulas in neurovascular hybrid operating room. Methods: From March 2014 to January 2015, 2 complex dural arteriovenous fistulas and 1 carotid cavernous fistulas were managed by hybrid surgeries in the PLA Rocket Force General Hospital.With first attempts with endovascular treatment failed, all cases were finally managed by hybrid surgery.Dural arteriovenous fistulas were approached via meningeal artery followed craniotomy.The carotid cavernous fistulas were treated by direct puncture into the left cavernous sinus after craniotomy. Results: Post-operative angiography demonstrated complete occlusion for 2 cases and nearly complete occlusion for 1 case.All 3 cases had no complications.On discharge 2 patients presented no symptoms and 1 greatly improved.Within the follow-up (1-33 months), 1 patient had recurrence after 21 months and received re-embolization with complete occlusion. Conclusion: Hybrid surgery is a promising method to manage complex intracranial fistulas.

The clinical characteristics of stroke in young patients with cardiac myxoma.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of stroke in young patients with cardiac myxoma. Methods: Medical records of young patients (aged between 18-44 years) diagnosed with cardiac myxoma in Beijing Anzhen Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2005 to March 2016 were retrospective reviewed. Results: A total of 117 cases were included (85 female and 32 male)with the average age (36±7)years old. Most myxomas (83.8%) were located in the left atrium, 7.7% were in the right atrium, 3.5% were in the both atriums, 2.6% were in the left ventricle, and a few were in the left atrium plus left ventricle and in the right ventricle. Of all the patients, 24 (20.5%) (16 women and 8 men) were complicated with cerebral infarction. Among them, 3 patients were with lower extremity arterial embolisms. Two patients were with cerebral hemorrhage. The cerebral infarction mainly involved in the distribution area of the internal carotid artery. Infarctions involving 2 or more cerebral vessels were found in 4 cases. Most subjects (58.3%) manifested with hemiplegia, and some (18.2%) with syncope. The proportion of the left atrial myxoma in patients with cerebral infarction (100.0%) was significantly higher than those in patients without cerebral infarction (85.1%, P=0.044). Subjects with tumor diameter less than 3 cm were more frequently complicated with cerebral infarction (37.5% vs 13.8%, P= 0.009). A logistic analysis showed that the odds ratio of myxoma with tumor diameter less than 3 cm for cerebral infarction was 3.750(95%CI 1.343-10.470). Conclusions: Cardiac myxoma is more common in young women, and often complicated with cerebral infarction. The infarctions are mainly distributed in internal carotid artery system, and some are involved in multiple vascular systems. The incidence of stroke is associated with the position of the myxoma. Smail-size myxoma cannot be ignored for its risk of stroke.

The relationship between LDL-C and ischemic stroke in 2 470 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Xinjiang region.

Objective: To evaluate the association between LDL-C and ischemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: A total of 2 470 patients with nonvalvular AF were included in the present study. The clinical data and laboratory examination results of the patients in the hospital were collected. The subjects were either divided into the ischemic stroke history (n=560), and non- ischemic stroke history groups (n=1 910), or divided into the low-middle risk (n=566) and high risk groups (n=1 904) based on CHA(2)DS(2) - VASc score. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of Han, the ratio of gender, age, hemoglobin, hematocrit, ALT, serum uric acid, HDL-C and LDL-C between the patients with ischemic stroke history and without (all P<0.05). Similarly, there were significant differences in the proportion of Han, the ratio of gender, age, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, ALT, albumin, TG and LDL-C between subjects in the low-middle risk group and those in the high risk group (all P<0.05). A logistical regression analysis showed that LDL-C was an independent risk factor for both the ischemic stroke history (OR 2.089, 95% CI 1.860-2.347, P<0.05), and future ischemic stroke risk (OR 1.270, 95% CI 1.079-1.494, P<0.05) in patients with nonvalvular AF. Conclusion: LDL-C is associated with ischemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF, and it is also an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke in these patients.

Laboratory Monitoring of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Review.

The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban are administered in fixed doses without anticoagulant monitoring. Randomized trials show that unmonitored NOAC therapy is at least as effective as and safer than dose-adjusted warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Subgroup analyses indicate that plasma drug levels or anticoagulant activity of the NOACs predict stroke and bleeding. This review examines the historical basis for anticoagulant monitoring, discusses methods to measure and interpret drug levels, and critically assesses the role of routine laboratory monitoring in the management of NOAC therapy.

Economic Analysis of Apixaban Therapy for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation From a US Perspective: Results From the ARISTOTLE Randomized Clinical Trial.

The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial reported that apixaban therapy was superior to warfarin therapy in preventing stroke and all-cause death while causing significantly fewer major bleeds. To establish the value proposition of substituting apixiban therapy for warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using patient-level data from the ARISTOTLE trial.

Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61-84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

Validation of the Frenchay activity index on stroke victims.

To evaluate the inter-rater reliability and predictive validity of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) in patients after stroke.

Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight.

Mosquitoes exhibit unusual wing kinematics; their long, slender wings flap at remarkably high frequencies for their size (>800 Hz)and with lower stroke amplitudes than any other insect group. This shifts weight support away from the translation-dominated, aerodynamic mechanisms used by most insects, as well as by helicopters and aeroplanes, towards poorly understood rotational mechanisms that occur when pitching at the end of each half-stroke. Here we report free-flight mosquito wing kinematics, solve the full Navier-Stokes equations using computational fluid dynamics with overset grids, and validate our results with in vivo flow measurements. We show that, although mosquitoes use familiar separated flow patterns, much of the aerodynamic force that supports their weight is generated in a manner unlike any previously described for a flying animal. There are three key features: leading-edge vortices (a well-known mechanism that appears to be almost ubiquitous in insect flight), trailing-edge vortices caused by a form of wake capture at stroke reversal, and rotational drag. The two new elements are largely independent of the wing velocity, instead relying on rapid changes in the pitch angle (wing rotation) at the end of each half-stroke, and they are therefore relatively immune to the shallow flapping amplitude. Moreover, these mechanisms are particularly well suited to high aspect ratio mosquito wings.

The effectiveness and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or receptor blockade in vascular diseases in patients with hemodialysis.

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are on hemodialysis have high risk of vascular diseases. Our study sought to examine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) could reduce the frequencies of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients receiving hemodialysis using the medication possession ratio (MPR) method of analysis.This retrospective cohort study identified cases of ESRD with dialysis from the National Health Insurance Research Database between 1999 and 2006, and used Cox-regression methods to evaluate risk of poor outcomes. Primary outcomes, including death from any cause, and secondary outcomes, including admission for stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, were examined.Compared to the nonuser group, the adjusted HRs for mortality of the nonadherence group and the adherence group were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86-1.13), respectively. Cardiovascular events were more frequent in patients with ESRD receiving ACEIs /ARBs than in nonusers. Compared with nonusers, the hazard of secondary outcome significantly increased in the nonadherence group or adherence group in 10 years follow-up.Compared with patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, patients on hemodialysis may not experience the same cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits from ACEIs/ARBs use.

Association of high waist-to-height ratio with functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke: A report from the ACROSS-China study.

The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and all-cause mortality and functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke in a prospective cohort study.A total of 2076 patients (36.66% females) with ischemic stroke were analyzed from ACROSS-China, which is a nationwide, prospective, hospital-based stroke registry aimed to detect the glucose abnormality in China. One-year follow-up evaluation was done by telephone interview. Outcome measures were all-cause mortality and functional outcome defined as modified Rankin score being 6 and from 0 to 6, respectively. We identified predictors for functional outcomes using logistic regression analysis, and mortality outcome using Cox proportional hazards model which incorporated covariates with P value of < 0.2 in the univariate analysis and those of clinical importance.The higher WHR was associated with worse functional outcome, but not predictive of the patients' mortality outcomes. Compared with the first quartile (≤0.48), the fourth quartile of the WHR was more likely to be associated with poor functional recovery (fourth quartile (≥0.56), OR = 1.38, CI: 1.08-1.77, P = 0.01; third quartile OR = 1.10, CI: 0.86-1.40, P = 0.45; second quartile OR = 1.05, CI: 0.83-1.33, P = 0.71).Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation may be associated with functional recovery after stroke, and is not associated with mortality after stroke. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of WHR at admission was possibly associated with worse postacute ischemic stroke functional recovery.

Nonspecific ST-T changes associated with unsatisfactory blood pressure control among adults with hypertension in China: Evidence from the CSPTT study.

Nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave (ST-T) changes represent one of the most prevalent electrocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the association between nonspecific ST-T changes and unsatisfactory blood pressure (BP) control in adults with hypertension.The study population comprised 15,038 hypertensive patients, who were selected from 20,702 participants in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The subjects were examined with electrocardiogram test at the initial visit in order to monitor baseline heart activity. According to the results of the electrocardiogram (defined by Minnesota coding), the subjects were divided into 2 groups: ST-T abnormal and ST-T normal. Unsatisfactory BP control was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg following antihypertensive treatment during the 4.5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze the association between nonspecific ST-T abnormalities and unsatisfactory BP control.Nonspecific ST-T changes were common in hypertensive adults (approximately 8.5% in the study), and more prevalent in women (10.3%) and diabetic patients (13.9%). The unsatisfactory BP control rate was high in the total population (47.0%), notably in the ST-T abnormal group (55.5%). The nonspecific ST-T abnormal group exhibited a significantly greater rate of unsatisfactory BP control (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 1.36], P = 0.005]), independent of traditional risk factors, as demonstrated by multivariate regression analysis. Notable differences were further observed in male subjects (OR 1.51, 95% CI [1.17, 1.94], P = 0.002) and in patients with comorbid diabetes (OR 1.47, 95% CI [1.04, 2.07], P = 0.029).Greater rates of unsatisfactory BP control in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic nonspecific ST-T abnormalities were observed, notably in the subcategories of the male subjects and the diabetic patients.

Satisfaction, quality of life and perception of patients regarding burdens and benefits of vitamin K antagonists compared with direct oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

To compare the satisfaction of patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) with that of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and to determine the impact on quality of life of both treatments in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived quantification of myocardial ischemia and scar improves risk stratification and patient management in stable coronary artery disease.

Quantification of myocardial ischemia and necrosis might ameliorate prognostic models and lead to improved patient management. However, no standardized consensus on how to assess and quantify these parameters has been established. The aim of this study was to quantify these variables by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and to establish possible incremental implications in cardiovascular risk prediction.

Stroke bricks - spatial brain regions to assess ischemic stroke localization.

Computer-aided analysis of non-contrast CT (NCCT) images for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke is based on the augmented visualization of evolving ischemic lesions. Computerized support of NCCT often leads to overinterpretation of ischemic areas, thus it is of great interest to provide neurologically verified regions in order to improve accuracy of subsequent radiological assessment. We propose Stroke Bricks (StBr) as an arbitrary spatial division of brain tissue into the regions associated with specific clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke. Neurological stroke deficit is formally translated into respective areas of possible ischemic lesions. StBr were designed according to formalized mapping of neurological symptoms and were attributed to the uniquely defined areas of impaired blood supply. StBr concept may be useful for an integrated radiological CT-based assessment of suspected stroke cases or can be included into computer-aided tools to optimize the evaluation of stroke site and its extent. These data in turn are appropriable for further diagnosis, predicting the therapeutic outcome as well as for patients' qualification for an appropriate form of reperfusion therapy. The usefulness of Stroke Bricks was illustrated in the case studies.

Multiplexing Biomarker Methods, Proteomics and Considerations for Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomarker research for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing rapidly over recent years especially as the number of persons affected by this disease is nearing approximately 46 million worldwide. Single biomarker assays are challenging to establish since AD is multifactorial and complex. In addition to the classic signs of diminished cognition and memory, AD patients can also exhibit symptoms which may be confused with some psychiatric disorders, such as depression. No molecular biomarkers have been established or translated into clinical tools although recent efforts have resulted in addition of molecular biomarker profiles to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for research purposes. The three accepted molecular biomarkers are amyloid-βeta peptide 1-42, total tau protein and hyperphosphorylated tau at threonine 181 in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Aside from these three CSF markers, a number of potential candidates have been identified in CSF and other body fluids. In order to identify biomarkers for diagnosis, early prevention, prognosis and response to therapeutic treatment, multiplex biomarker tests will be required. These include multiplex immunoassay and mass spectrometry-based proteomics platforms. Proteomics analyses of bodily fluids such as plasma are growing in number and providing potential targets for further investigation and validation in AD research. This chapter highlights proteomic biomarker assays and their applications and potential use for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of AD.

The Use of Brain Stimulation in Dysphagia Management.

Dysphagia is common sequela of brain injury with as many as 50% of patients suffering from dysphagia following stroke. Currently, the majority of guidelines for clinical practice in the management of dysphagia focus on the prevention of complications while any natural recovery takes place. Recently, however, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have started to attract attention and are applied to investigate both the physiology of swallowing and influences on dysphagia. TMS allows for painless stimulation of the brain through an intact skull-an effect which would normally be impossible with electrical currents due to the high resistance of the skull. By comparison, tDCS involves passing a small electric current (usually under 2 mA) produced by a current generator over the scalp and cranium external to the brain. Initial studies used these techniques to better understand the physiological mechanisms of swallowing in healthy subjects. More recently, a number of studies have investigated the efficacy of these techniques in the management of neurogenic dysphagia with mixed results. Controversy still exists as to which site, strength and duration of stimulation yields the greatest improvement in dysphagia. And while multiple studies have suggested promising effects of NIBS, more randomised control trials with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of NIBS in neurogenic dysphagia.

Oral Microbiome and Nitric Oxide: the Missing Link in the Management of Blood Pressure.

Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the USA and worldwide. One out of every three Americans has hypertension, and it is estimated that despite aggressive treatment with medications, only about half of those medicated have managed blood pressure. Recent discoveries of the oral microbiome that reduces inorganic nitrate to nitrite and nitric oxide provide a new therapeutic target for the management of hypertension. The presence or absence of select and specific bacteria may determine steady-state blood pressure levels. Eradication of oral bacteria through antiseptic mouthwash or overuse of antibiotics causes blood pressure to increase. Allowing recolonization of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing bacteria can normalize blood pressure. This review will provide evidence of the link between oral microbiota and the production of nitric oxide and regulation of systemic blood pressure. Management of systemic hypertension through maintenance of the oral microbiome is a completely new paradigm in cardiovascular medicine.

Radiological imaging features of the basal ganglia that may predict progression to hemicraniectomy in large territory middle cerebral artery infarct.

Predicting which patients are at risk for hemicraniectomy can be helpful for triage and can help preserve neurologic function if detected early. We evaluated basal ganglia imaging predictors for early hemicraniectomy in patients with large territory anterior circulation infarct.

Effect of Milrinone Infusion on Pulmonary Vasculature and Stroke Work Indices: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 69 Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation.

Although milrinone infusion is reported to benefit left ventricular function in chronic left heart failure, few insights exist regarding its effects on pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.

Coxibs Refocus Attention on the Cardiovascular Risks of Non-Aspirin NSAIDs.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were differentiated from steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to help clinicians who needed to use anti-inflammatory agents that were safer than steroids. With market entry of rofecoxib in 1999, NSAIDs were then further classified into traditional NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs), the latter posing potentially fewer gastrointestinal risks. In 2005, rofecoxib was withdrawn from the market because of concerns about the risk of heart attack and stroke with long-term use, and clinical practice began focusing more on the cardiovascular versus gastrointestinal safety of coxibs. Since then, many coxibs have remained unapproved by the US FDA or have been removed from the market. This article explains how coxibs refocused attention on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs and the general implications of that. COX-2 activity/specificity is one factor associated with increased cardiovascular risks; however, these risks cannot be attributed to coxibs alone. The traditional NSAIDs (i.e., meloxicam, etodolac, and nabumetone) have significant COX-2 specificity, but naproxen and ibuprofen have less specificity. All NSAIDs, whether traditional or a coxib, pose some cardiovascular risks. It is possible that clinicians continue to focus more on decreasing the immediate gastric risks than preventing the later cardiovascular risks. The cardiovascular risks posed by NSAIDs should not be disregarded for the sake of achieving gastrointestinal benefits. Current recommendations suggest NSAIDs should be considered a single class of non-aspirin NSAIDs. Preferred NSAIDs are ibuprofen and naproxen. Coxibs are preferred in patients with low cardiovascular risk and high gastrointestinal risk who are intolerant to anti-dyspepsia therapy.

Lower-limb motor coordination is significantly impaired in ambulatory people with chronic stroke: A cross-sectional study.

To establish the deficits of motor coordination of the lower limbs after stroke, in comparison with healthy controls, and to investigate whether the magnitude of the deficits would be influenced by the levels of motor recovery.

Impact of sensory integration training on balance among stroke patients: sensory integration training on balance among stroke patients.

This study attempts to investigate the impact that the sensory integration training has on the recovery of balance among patients with stroke by examining the muscle activity and limit of stability (LOS). A total of 28 subjects participated. The subjects were randomly allocated by the computer program to one of two groups: control (CON) group (n=15), sensory integration training (SIT) group (n=13). The research subjects received intervention five days a week for a total of four weeks. The CON group additionally received 30-minute general balance training, while the SIT group additionally received 30-minute sensory integration training. In the muscle activity, the improvement of Erector spinae (ES) and Gluteus medius (GM) was more significant in the SIT group than in the CON group. In the LOS, the improvement of affected side and forward side was significantly higher in the SIT group compared to the CON group. Sensory integration training can improve balance ability of patients with stroke by increasing muscle activity of stance limb muscles such as GM and trunk extensor such as ES along with enhancement of the limit of stability.

A meta-analysis of adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility.

Several studies have investigated the correlation between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were not conclusive with each other. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, we performed this meta-analysis to further explicate the adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility. Case-control or cohort studies focused on adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk were electronic searched in the databases of Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica database(EMBASE) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). All the potentially relevant studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke was expressed by odds ratio with its confidence interval. Publication bias has been assessed by begg's funnel plot. All the analyses have been performed by Revman 5.1 statistical software. Finally, a total of six studies with 1,345 cases and 1,421 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (p<0.05). People with G single nucleotide of adiponectin gene have the increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared to T single nucleotide.

Bayés syndrome and acute cardioembolic ischemic stroke.

Bayés syndrome is an under-recognized clinical condition characterized by advanced interatrial block. Bayés syndrome is a subclinical disease that manifests electrocardiographically as a prolonged P wave duration > 120 ms with biphasic morphology ± in the inferior leads. The clinical relevance of Bayés syndrome lies in the fact that is a clear arrhythmological syndrome and has a strong association with supraventricular arrhythmias, particularly atypical atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Likewise, Bayés syndrome has been recently identified as a novel risk factor for non-lacunar cardioembolic ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Advanced interatrial block can be a risk for embolic stroke due to its known sequelae of left atrial dilation, left atrial electromechanical dysfunction or atrial tachyarrhythmia (paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation), conditions predisposing to thromboembolism. Bayés syndrome may be responsible for some of the unexplained ischemic strokes and shall be considered and investigated as a possible cause for cryptogenetic stroke. In summary, Bayés syndrome is a poorly recognized cardiac rhythm disorder with important cardiologic and neurologic implications.

Niche astrocytes promote the survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of co-transplanted neural stem cells following ischemic stroke in rats.

Niche astrocytes have been reported to promote neuronal differentiation through juxtacrine signaling. However, the effects of astrocytes on neuronal differentiation following ischemic stroke are not fully understood. In the present study, transplanted astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSCs) were transplanted into the ischemic striatum of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model rats 48 h following surgery. It was observed that the co-transplantation of astrocytes and NSCs resulted in a higher ratio of survival and proliferation of the transplanted NSCs, and neuronal differentiation, in MCAO rats compared with NSC transplantation alone. These results demonstrate that the co-administration of astrocytes promotes the survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs in the ischemic brain. These results suggest that the co-transplantation of astrocytes and NSCs is more effective than NSCs alone in the production of neurons following ischemic stroke in rats.

Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score Infarct Location Predicts Outcome Following M2 Occlusion.

Although it is generally thought that patients with distal middle cerebral artery (M2) occlusion have a favorable outcome, it has previously been demonstrated that a substantial minority will have a poor outcome by 90 days. We sought to determine whether assessing the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) infarct location allows for identifying patients at risk for a poor 90-day outcome.

Behavioral Dynamics in Swimming: The Appropriate Use of Inertial Measurement Units.

Motor control in swimming can be analyzed using low- and high-order parameters of behavior. Low-order parameters generally refer to the superficial aspects of movement (i.e., position, velocity, acceleration), whereas high-order parameters capture the dynamics of movement coordination. To assess human aquatic behavior, both types have usually been investigated with multi-camera systems, as they offer high three-dimensional spatial accuracy. Research in ecological dynamics has shown that movement system variability can be viewed as a functional property of skilled performers, helping them adapt their movements to the surrounding constraints. Yet to determine the variability of swimming behavior, a large number of stroke cycles (i.e., inter-cyclic variability) has to be analyzed, which is impossible with camera-based systems as they simply record behaviors over restricted volumes of water. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) were designed to explore the parameters and variability of coordination dynamics. These light, transportable and easy-to-use devices offer new perspectives for swimming research because they can record low- to high-order behavioral parameters over long periods. We first review how the low-order behavioral parameters (i.e., speed, stroke length, stroke rate) of human aquatic locomotion and their variability can be assessed using IMUs. We then review the way high-order parameters are assessed and the adaptive role of movement and coordination variability in swimming. We give special focus to the circumstances in which determining the variability between stroke cycles provides insight into how behavior oscillates between stable and flexible states to functionally respond to environmental and task constraints. The last section of the review is dedicated to practical recommendations for coaches on using IMUs to monitor swimming performance. We therefore highlight the need for rigor in dealing with these sensors appropriately in water. We explain the fundamental and mandatory steps to follow for accurate results with IMUs, from data acquisition (e.g., waterproofing procedures) to interpretation (e.g., drift correction).

Efficacy of N-Butylphthalide and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Delayed Encephalopathy After Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

BACKGROUND Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) is one of the most serious complications after CO poisoning. This study was conducted to explore the efficacy of the combined application of N-Butylphthalide and hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBO) on cognitive dysfunction in patients with DEACMP. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 184 patients with DEACMP were randomly assigned to either receive HBO or N-Butylphthalide and HBO. Meanwhile, all patients received conventional treatment. The total remission rate (RR) was used to assess the clinical efficacy. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess the cognitive function, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the neurological function. RESULTS Finally, there were 90 and 94 patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively. After eight weeks of treatment, the total RR in the experimental group (47.9%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (33.3%). Compared to the control group, significantly more patients in the experimental group had MMSE scores of 24-30. The lower NIHSS score in the experimental group showed that N-Butylphthalide had the effect of preservation and restoration of neurological function. No obvious drug toxicity or liver and kidney dysfunction was observed, and there was no significant change in the level of blood glucose and blood lipids. CONCLUSIONS These results indicated that the combined application of N-Butylphthalide and HBO could significantly improve the cognitive dysfunction of patients with DEACMP and have great clinical efficacy, which should be further studied.

Associations of Ischemic Lesion Volume With Functional Outcome in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 24-Hour Versus 1-Week Imaging.

Ischemic lesion volume (ILV) on noncontrast computed tomography at 1 week can be used as a secondary outcome measure in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-four-hour ILV on noncontrast computed tomography has greater availability and potentially allows earlier estimation of functional outcome. We aimed to assess lesion growth 24 hours after stroke onset and compare the associations of 24-hour and 1-week ILV with functional outcome.