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stroke - Top 30 Publications

Metacognitive deficits in categorization tasks in a population with impaired inner speech.

This study examines the relation of language use to a person's ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or "inner speech") impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments of their performance on those tasks. The PWA showed no deficits in their ability to categorize objects for any of the three trial types (visual, thematic, and categorial). However, on the categorial trials, their metacognitive assessments of whether they had categorized correctly were less reliable than those of the control group. The categorial trials were distinguished from the others by the fact that the categorization could not be based on some immediately perceptible feature or on the objects' being found together in a type of scenario or setting. This result offers preliminary evidence for a link between covert language use and a specific form of metacognition.

Isolated aphasia in the emergency department: The likelihood of ischemia is low.

Aphasia is a common presentation of ischemic stroke, often diagnosed in the acute setting using tools such as the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Due to the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery, it is often accompanied by other symptoms such as weakness, sensory loss, or visual changes. Isolated aphasia due to ischemia is possible, but language problems mimicking aphasia syndromes can also be seen with other diagnoses such as metabolic abnormalities or dementia. In this study, we determine the incidence of aphasia-only strokes using the NIHSS, and factors associated with a higher likelihood of ischemia.

Morphological changes of the internal carotid artery: prevalence and characteristics. A clinic and ultrasonographic study in a series of 19,804 patients over 25 years old.

Morphological changes of the internal carotid arteries (McICA) are frequently found during cervical ultrasound studies. However, McICA's etiology remains controversial. During this study, the prevalence and demographic characteristics of McICA such as kinking, coiling or looping, identified by Doppler ultrasound, were analysed and its relationship with vascular risk factors and stroke was assessed.

No time to hesitate in acute in-hospital stroke!

The treatment options for acute ischemic stroke are rapidly improving, and there is high awareness for community-onset stroke, pre-hospital pathways and streamline in-hospital management. However, the management of in-hospital stroke is often less well established, and stringent procedures are frequently missing. Higher rates of in-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality were suggested among in-hospital stroke patients who had been treated with i.v. thrombolysis. This issue is addressed in a new propensity-matched analysis from the SITS-EAST registry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Distinct predictive role of collateral status on clinical outcome in variant stroke subtypes of acute large arterial occlusion.

Clinical trials have showed that robust collateral flow has a relationship with good clinical outcome, however, different stroke subtypes were lumped together. This study explored the relationship between baseline collaterals and the onset-to-imaging time (OIT), and the correlation between pre-treatment collateral status and clinical outcome among different subtypes.

A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique (ADAPT) for acute stroke therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

ADAPT (A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique), involving the first-line use of large-bore distal aspiration catheter, is a new strategy in the mechanical thrombectomy of acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. However, its impact on reperfusion rates, clinical outcomes, and complication rates is not fully examined.

Galectin-3: An emerging biomarker in stroke and cerebrovascular diseases.

The carbohydrate-binding molecule Galectin-3 has garnered significant attention recently as a biomarker for various conditions ranging from cardiac disease to obesity. Though there have been several recent studies investigating its role in stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases, awareness of this emerging biomarker in the wider neurology community is limited.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Identification of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a prerequisite for the appropriate management of their excess cardiovascular risk. It is currently unknown how many patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are affected by FH and whether systematic screening for FH is warranted in these patients.

Less is more: neural mechanisms underlying anomia treatment in chronic aphasic patients.

Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process. Before and directly after a 6-week anomia treatment programme, 18 chronic aphasic stroke patients completed our functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol-a picture naming task aided by three different types of phonemic cues (whole words, initial phonemes, final phonemes) and a noise-control condition. Patients completed a naming task based on the training materials, and a more general comprehensive battery of language tests both before and after the anomia treatment, to determine the effectiveness and specificity of the therapy. Our results demonstrate that the anomia treatment was effective and specific to speech production, significantly improving both patients' naming accuracy and reaction time immediately post-treatment (unstandardized effect size: 29% and 17%, respectively; Cohen's d: 3.45 and 1.83). Longer term gains in naming were maintained 3 months later. Functional imaging results showed that both immediate and long-term facilitation of naming involved a largely overlapping bilateral frontal network including the right anterior insula, inferior frontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices, and the left premotor cortex. These areas were associated with a neural priming effect (i.e. reduced blood oxygen level-dependent signal) during both immediate (phonemically-cued versus control-cue conditions), and long-term facilitation of naming (i.e. treated versus untreated items). Of note is that different brain regions were sensitive to different phonemic cue types. Processing of whole word cues was associated with increased activity in the right angular gyrus; whereas partial word cues (initial and final phonemes) recruited the left supplementary motor area, and right anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex, and basal ganglia. The recruitment of multiple and bilateral areas may help explain why phonemic cueing is such a successful behavioural facilitation tool for anomia treatment. Our results have important implications for optimizing current anomia treatment approaches, developing new treatments, and improving speech outcome for aphasic patients.

Sex-Specific Outcomes after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review of the Literature.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and effective therapy for aortic valve replacement in patients ineligible for or at high risk for surgery. However, outcomes after TAVR based on an individual's sex remain to be fully elucidated. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE using the keywords: 'transcatheter aortic valve replacement', 'transcatheter aortic valve implantation', 'sex differences', 'gender', 'sex characteristics' and collected information on baseline features, procedural characteristics and post-procedural outcomes in women. In/exclusion resulted in 25 publications. Women had less pre-existing comorbidities than men. Most studies reported better survival in women (range of HR [95%CI] = 0.27 [0.09-0.84] to 0.91 [0.75-1.10]). At 30 days, women also had more vascular complications (6-20% vs. 2-14%) and higher bleeding rates (10-44% vs. 8-25%). Stroke rates were similar at 30 days (women: 1-7%; men: 1-5%). This literature review showed better survival in women than men after TAVR. However, women had more vascular complications and bleeding; stroke rates were similar. These findings may partly be explained by fewer baseline comorbidities in women. These results should be interpreted with caution as most measures only include unadjusted percentages.

L-Carnitine and Potential Protective Effects Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Noncardiac Organs: From Experimental Data to Potential Clinical Applications.

The mechanism of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is complex and multifactorial. In this condition, systemic event results in morbidity and mortality in several pathologies, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, trauma, and circulatory arrest. Hypoxia over ischemia phase leads to energy imbalance and changes of cellular homeostasis and functional or structural alterations. In addition, during the reperfusion period, some events, including calcium influx, release of intracellular enzymes, and cell membrane integrity breakdown, cause cell death. L-carnitine (LC) and its derivatives have been suggested to improve tolerance against I/R injury in various tissues. The favorable effects of LC are possibly mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects or by other capability due to increase in the intracellular carnitine content. In this article, anti-ischemic properties of LC and its derivative in noncardiac organs are reviewed using relative animal and human research. Although most of the studies on noncardiac internal organs have shown protective effects of LC administration against I/R injury, more clinical trials are needed to clarify the clinical importance of LC as a treatment option for I/R-induced injury.

Dissociation of nNOS from PSD-95 promotes functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia in mice through reducing excessive tonic GABA release from reactive astrocytes.

Mechanisms underlying functional recovery after stroke are little known, and effective drug intervention during the delayed stage is desirable. One potential drug target, the protein-protein interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), is critical to acute ischaemic damage and neurogenesis. We show that nNOS-PSD-95 dissociation induced by microinjection of a recombinant fusion protein Tat-nNOS-N1-133 or systemic administration of a small molecule ZL006 from days 4 to 10 after photothrombotic ischaemia in mice reduced excessive tonic inhibition in the peri-infarct cortex and ameliorated motor functional outcome. We also demonstrated improved neuroplasticity including increased dendrite spine density and synaptogenesis after reducing excessive tonic inhibition by nNOS-PSD-95 dissociation. Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA transporter-3/4 (GAT-3/4) are increased in the reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct cortex. The GAT-3/4-selective antagonist SNAP-5114 reduced tonic inhibition and promoted function recovery, suggesting that increased tonic inhibition in the peri-infarct cortex was due to GABA release from reversed GAT-3/4 in reactive astrocytes. Treatments with Tat-nNOS-N1-133 or ZL006 after ischaemia inhibited astrocyte activation and GABA production, prevented the reversal of GAT-3/4, and consequently decreased excessive tonic inhibition and ameliorated functional outcome. The underlying molecular mechanisms were associated with epigenetic inhibition of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 and monoamine oxidase B expression through reduced NO production. The nNOS-PSD-95 interaction is thus a potential target for functional restoration after stroke and ZL006, a small molecule inhibitor of this interaction, is a promising pharmacological lead compound.

Possibilities of cavinton therapy regimen for infusions and cavinton comforte in acute and early recovery periods after ischemic stroke.

To study the efficacy of a current regimen of treatment with cavinton for infusions and cavinton comforte in patients with ischemic stroke in acute and early recovery periods and to evaluate an impact of treatment on erythrocyte deformity using atomic power microscopy.

Relationship between patient safety indicator events and comprehensive stroke center volume status in the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE The Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has defined Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) for assessments in quality of inpatient care. The hypothesis of this study is that, in the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs), PSI events are less likely to occur in hospitals meeting the volume thresholds defined by The Joint Commission for Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) certification. METHODS Using the 2002-2011 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, patients treated electively for a nonruptured cerebral aneurysm were selected. Patients were evaluated for PSI events (e.g., pressure ulcers, retained surgical item, perioperative hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, sepsis) defined by AHRQ-specified ICD-9 codes. Hospitals were categorized by treatment volume into CSC or non-CSC volume status based on The Joint Commission's annual volume thresholds of at least 20 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and performance of 15 or more endovascular coiling or surgical clipping procedures for aneurysms. RESULTS A total of 65,824 patients underwent treatment for an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. There were 4818 patients (7.3%) in whom at least 1 PSI event occurred. The overall inpatient mortality rate was 0.7%. In patients with a PSI event, this rate increased to 7% compared with 0.2% in patients without a PSI event (p < 0.0001). The overall rate of poor outcome was 3.8%. In patients with a PSI event, this rate increased to 23.3% compared with 2.3% in patients without a PSI event (p < 0.0001). There were significant differences in PSI event, poor outcome, and mortality rates between non-CSC and CSC volume-status hospitals (PSI event, 8.4% vs 7.2%; poor outcome, 5.1% vs 3.6%; and mortality, 1% vs 0.6%). In multivariate analysis, all patients treated at a non-CSC volume-status hospital were more likely to suffer a PSI event with an OR of 1.2 (1.1-1.3). In patients who underwent surgery, this relationship was more substantial, with an OR of 1.4 (1.2-1.6). The relationship was not significant in the endovascularly treated patients. CONCLUSIONS In the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms, PSI events occur relatively frequently and are associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality. In patients treated at institutions achieving the volume thresholds for CSC certification, the likelihood of having a PSI event, and therefore the likelihood of poor outcome and mortality, was significantly decreased. These improvements are being driven by the improved outcomes in surgical patients, whereas outcomes and mortality in patients treated endovascularly were not sensitive to the CSC volume status of the hospital and showed no significant relationship with treatment volumes.

Cardiovascular outcomes for patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease: A cohort study in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) in the UK.

Background Few data are available on risk factors and associations with outcomes in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) populations in primary care. We assessed characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and those without symptomatic peripheral artery disease in UK primary care, and quantified risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease. Methods Among patients in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) aged 50-89 years in 2000-2010, a symptomatic peripheral artery disease cohort ( n = 28,484) and a matched comparison cohort without peripheral artery disease ( n = 113,940) were identified using Read codes. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cardiovascular outcomes were calculated, adjusted for potential confounders. Results The incidence of all-cause death per 1000 person-years was 83.22 and 50.46 in the peripheral artery disease and non-peripheral artery disease cohort, respectively (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.68-1.43). The incidence of composite cardiovascular outcome (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or cardiovascular-related death) per 1000 person-years was 31.87 and 14.63 in the peripheral artery disease and non-peripheral artery disease cohort, respectively (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.65-1.77). Risk factors for composite cardiovascular outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease were older age (≥75 years vs. 50-64 years: HR 2.37; 95% CI 2.20-2.55), current smoking (1.26; 1.17-1.35), comorbid diabetes (1.42; 1.32-1.52), heart failure (1.31; 1.20-1.44), atrial fibrillation (1.32; 1.18-1.47, previous myocardial infarction (1.29; 1.20-1.39) and previous ischaemic stroke (1.77; 1.63-1.93). Conclusion Patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease in a clinical practice population have a high risk of death and cardiovascular-related outcomes. Minimising risk is important in the ongoing management of these patients.

Sudden death: Neurogenic causes, prediction and prevention.

Sudden death is a major health problem all over the world. The most common causes of sudden death are cardiac but there are also other causes such as neurological conditions (stroke, epileptic attacks and brain trauma), drugs, catecholamine toxicity, etc. A common feature of all these diverse pathologies underlying sudden death is the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system control of the cardiovascular system. This paper reviews different pathologies underlying sudden death with emphasis on the autonomic nervous system contribution, possibilities of early diagnosis and prognosis of sudden death using various clinical markers including autonomic markers (heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity), present possibilities of management and promising prevention by electrical neuromodulation.

Enlarged perivascular spaces are associated with health-related quality of life in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

This study explored the association between enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Susceptibility-weighted Imaging in Thrombolytic Therapy of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

To provide a comprehensive and latest overview of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in the application of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, and to update the decision-making effect and clinical value of SWI on identifying stroke patients suitable for thrombolytic therapy and possible benefits and risks followed.

Validity and reliability of a Nigerian-Yoruba version of the stroke-specific quality of life scale 2.0.

Psychometric evidence is necessary to establish scientific integrity and clinical usefulness of translations and cultural adaptations of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QoL) scale. However, the limited evidence on psychometrics of Yoruba version of SS-QoL 2.0 (SS-QoL(Y)) is a significant shortcoming. This study assessed the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent, divergent, discriminant and known-group validity of the SS-QoL(Y).

High overall cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and diabetes: A nationwide report.

To describe nationwide complication patterns in patients with atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus.

Anticoagulation prescribing patterns in patients with cancer.

Cancer is a known hypercoagulable state that leads to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Low molecular weight heparin remains the preferred anticoagulant for VTE in patients with cancer over vitamin K antagonist. However, the preferred anticoagulant in prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with cancer has yet to be determined. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly being utilized; however their role in cancer has only recently been investigated. The objective of this retrospective cohort was to describe real-world anticoagulation prescribing patterns in cancer patients at a large academic medical center between January 1, 2013 and October 31, 2016. We sought to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of DOACs in patients with cancer for either VTE and/or AF. Patient demographic, clinical characteristics, as well as bleeding and thrombotic events were collected. There were 214 patients in our analysis, of which 71 patients (33%) received a DOAC [apixaban (n = 22), dabigatran (n = 17), and rivaroxaban (n = 32)]. There were fewer bleeding events and/or discontinuations in the DOAC group compared to enoxaparin (13 vs. 27, p = 0.022). There was no difference in major or minor bleeds or thromboembolic events in comparing DOAC to enoxaparin or DOAC to warfarin. This was a retrospective, single-institution study assessing the safety and efficacy of DOACs compared to warfarin or enoxaparin in patients with cancer. DOACs may represent an alternative to warfarin or enoxaparin in patients with cancer for VTE and/or stroke reduction in AF.

Beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver.

Measurement of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver is the basis for a highly informative autonomic function test. Whereas in the past this measurement required intra-arterial cannulation, the development of finger cuff devices that acquire arterial pressure waveforms indistinguishable from those recorded intra-arterially has made it possible to obtain accurate measurements noninvasively. In a patient with orthostatic hypotension, the pattern of blood pressure responses during and after the release of the maneuver can identify a neurogenic basis: sympathetic neurocirculatory failure. The quantifiable change in cardiac interbeat interval per unit change in systolic pressure during the maneuver can identify baroreflex-cardiovagal failure.

Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.

This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache is important for mother and fetus life. It is especially important to identify "red flag symptoms" suggesting that headache is a symptom of a serious disease. In order to exclude a secondary headache additional studies can be necessary: electroencephalography, ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all the benefits and possible risks.

Diffusion-Weighted MRI Stroke Volume Following Recanalization Treatment is Threshold-Dependent.

Infarct lesion segmentation has been problematic as there are a wide range of relative and absolute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds that have been used for this purpose. We examined differences of stroke lesion volume and evolution evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the immediate post-treatment phase (<5 h) and at 24 h.

Bilateral Divergent Shoulder's Fracture Dislocation Case in an Ischemic Stroke Patient.

The literature review revealed that nowadays only about 15 cases of bilateral shoulder dislocation associated with the fracture of the upper end of the humerus have been published. The triad of lesional mechanism designated by the triple syndrome E composed of epilepsy, electrocution, and external trauma was the circumstances noted in which these fractures dislocations occur with migration of the two humeral heads either forward or backward.

Eptifibatide is associated with significant cost savings and similar clinical outcomes to abciximab when used during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: An observational cohort study of 3863 patients.

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are recommended by guidelines in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. There are few studies directly comparing these agents. The aim of this study was to assess whether eptifibatide is a safe and cost-effective alternative to abciximab in the treatment of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Age-Related Frontal Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities and miR-92a-3p Are Associated with Early-Onset Post-Stroke Depression.

Objective: To explore the correlationship among white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), miR-92a-3p and early-onset post-stroke depression (PSD). Methods: We recruited consecutively 238 patients with acute cerebral infarction and MRI examination in the Department of neurology, Ruijin hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. The diagnosis of early-onset PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression in 2 weeks after stroke. Clinical information and assessments of stroke severity were recorded on admission. The analysis of plasma miR-92a-3p was performed using quantitative PCR at the same time. WMHs were evaluated by the Fazekas and Scheltens visual rating scales. The relationship among WMHs, miR-92a-3p and PSD were analyzed by SPSS 22.0 software. Results: Logistic regression demonstrated that periventricular WMHs (PVWMHs) in frontal caps was an independent risk factor with early-onset PSD (OR = 1.579, 95% CI: 1.040-2.397, p = 0.032). The age and numbers of lacunes were related to frontal PVWMHs. Plasma miR-92a-3p in the PSD group was higher compared with the non-depressed group. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that miR-92a-3p could predict early-onset PSD with 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The higher miR-92a-3p trended toward association with greater frontal PVWMHs. Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke patients with frontal PVWMHs or a high plasma miR-92a-3p at baseline were more likely to develop early-onset PSD. MiR-92a-3p might be involved in the white matter impairment and post-stroke depression.

Exacerbation of Brain Injury by Post-Stroke Exercise Is Contingent Upon Exercise Initiation Timing.

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups. Exercise was initiated after 6 h, 24 h and 3 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after completion of exercise (and at corresponding time points in non-exercise controls), infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were examined. Early brain oxidative metabolism was quantified by examining ROS, ATP and NADH levels 0.5 h after completion of exercise. Furthermore, protein expressions of angiogenic growth factors were measured in order to determine whether post-stroke angiogenesis played a role in rehabilitation. As expected, ischemic stroke resulted in brain infarction, apoptotic cell death and ROS generation, and diminished NADH and ATP production. Infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were enhanced (p < 0.05) by exercise that was initiated after 6 h of reperfusion, but decreased by late exercise (24 h, 3 days). This exacerbated brain injury at 6 h was associated with increased ROS levels (p < 0.05), and decreased (p < 0.05) NADH and ATP levels. In conclusion, very early exercise aggravated brain damage, and early exercise-induced energy failure with ROS generation may underlie the exacerbation of brain injury. These results shed light on the manner in which exercise initiation timing may affect post-stroke rehabilitation.

Facilitating motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke patients using passive movement.

Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) has been proposed as a rehabilitation tool to facilitate motor recovery in stroke. However, the calibration of a BCI system is a time-consuming and fatiguing process for stroke patients, which leaves reduced time for actual therapeutic interaction. Studies have shown that passive movement (PM) (i.e., the execution of a movement by an external agency without any voluntary motions) and motor imagery (MI) (i.e., the mental rehearsal of a movement without any activation of the muscles) induce similar EEG patterns over the motor cortex. Since performing PM is less fatiguing for the patients, this paper investigates the effectiveness of calibrating MI-BCIs from PM for stroke subjects in terms of classification accuracy. For this purpose, a new adaptive algorithm called filter bank data space adaptation (FB-DSA) is proposed. The FB-DSA algorithm linearly transforms the band-pass-filtered MI data such that the distribution difference between the MI and PM data is minimized. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by an offline study on data collected from 16 healthy subjects and 6 stroke patients. The results show that the proposed FB-DSA algorithm significantly improved the classification accuracies of the PM and MI calibrated models (p < 0.05). According to the obtained classification accuracies, the PM calibrated models that were adapted using the proposed FB-DSA algorithm outperformed the MI calibrated models by an average of 2.3 and 4.5 % for the healthy and stroke subjects respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the disparity between MI and PM could be stronger in the stroke patients compared to the healthy subjects, and there would be thus an increased need to use the proposed FB-DSA algorithm in BCI-based stroke rehabilitation calibrated from PM.

Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area.

Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period.