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stroke - Top 30 Publications

Reliability of lower limb transcranial magnetic stimulation outcomes in the ipsi- and contralesional hemispheres of adults with chronic stroke.

To investigate the ability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes in the chronic stroke population to (i) track individual plastic changes and (ii) detect differences between individuals. To this end, intrarater "test-retest" reliability (relative and absolute) was tested for the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres.

High hair cortisol concentrations predict worse cognitive outcome after stroke: Results from the TABASCO prospective cohort study.

The role of stress-related endocrine dysregulation in the development of cognitive changes following a stroke needs further elucidation. We explored this issue in a longitudinal study on stroke survivors using hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), a measure of integrated long-term cortisol levels.

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Active Gold Nanoparticles with Enzyme Mimicking Activities for Measuring Glucose and Lactate in Living Tissues.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with simultaneous plasmonic and biocatalytic properties provide a promising approach to developing versatile bioassays. However, the combination of AuNPs' intrinsic enzyme mimicking properties with their surface-enhanced Ra-man scattering (SERS) activities has yet to be explored. Here we designed a peroxidase mimicking nanozyme by in situ growing AuNPs into a highly porous and thermally stable metal-organic framework (MOF) called MIL-101. The obtained [email protected] nanozymes acted as the peroxidase mimics to oxidize Raman inactive reporter leucomalachite green (LMG) into the active malachite green (MG) with hydrogen peroxide, and simultaneously as the SERS substrates to enhance the Raman signals of the as-produced MG. We then assembled glucose oxidase (GOx) and lactate oxidase (LOx) onto [email protected] to form [email protected]@GOx and [email protected]@LOx integrative nanozymes for in vitro detection of glucose and lactate via SERS. More, the integrative nanozymes were further explored for monitoring the change of glucose and lactate in living brains, which are associated with ischemic stroke. The integrative nanozymes were then used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of po-tential drugs (such as astaxanthin for alleviating the cerebral ischemic injuries) in living rats. They were also employed to determine glucose and lactate metabolism in tumors. This study not only demonstrated the great promise of combining AuNPs' multiple functionalities for versatile bioassays but also provided an interesting approach to designing nanozymes for biomedical and catalytic applications.

Impact of resident and fellow changeovers on patient outcomes: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

Findings regarding the association of cohort changeovers with patient outcomes are mixed. We sought to examine the association of resident and fellow changeovers with a comprehensive set of indicators. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study including all French teaching and non-teaching hospitals. All-cause mortality and length of stay were assessed. Focused analysis for three medical conditions (myocardial infarction, intestinal hemorrhage, stroke) and three surgical procedures (colorectal, vascular and spine surgery) was performed regarding other quality and efficiency indicators (readmissions, intensive care unit admission, transfers). Overall, 34 330 716 patients were admitted in 2011 and 2012. Within the month following cohort changeovers, no increase in mortality was observed in teaching hospitals. Length of stay was longer in May and November in teaching hospitals ( P < 0.0001) whereas it was shorter in the private sector. When focusing on six selected causes of hospitalization, we observed significant differences associated with resident changeovers, suggesting a decreased efficiency. In particular, readmissions rates and lengths of stay were found to be significantly higher ( P < 0.0005) after intestinal hemorrhage and with a trend toward worse efficiency ( P < 0.005) after colorectal surgery and stroke in teaching hospitals. Our findings provide some reassurance regarding cohort changeover and mortality even if they suggest a loss of efficiency in some cases.

Thalamic alterations remote to infarct appear as focal iron accumulation and impact clinical outcome.

Thalamic alterations have been observed in infarcts initially sparing the thalamus but interrupting thalamo-cortical or cortico-thalamic projections. We aimed at extending this knowledge by demonstrating with in vivo imaging sensitive to iron accumulation, one marker of neurodegeneration, that (i) secondary thalamic alterations are focally located in specific thalamic nuclei depending on the initial infarct location; and (ii) such secondary alterations can contribute independently to the long-term outcome. To tackle this issue, 172 patients with an infarct initially sparing the thalamus were prospectively evaluated clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging to quantify iron through R2* map at 24-72 h and at 1-year follow-up. An asymmetry index was used to compare R2* within the thalamus ipsilateral versus contralateral to infarct and we focused on the 95th percentile of R2* as a metric of high iron content. Spatial distribution within the thalamus was analysed on an average R2* map from the entire cohort. The asymmetry index of the 95th percentile within individual nuclei (medio-dorsal, pulvinar, lateral group) were compared according to the initial infarct location in simple and multiple regression analyses and using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Associations between the asymmetry index of the 95th percentile and functional, cognitive and emotional outcome were calculated in multiple regression models. We showed that R2* was not modified at 24-72 h but showed heterogeneous increase at 1 year mainly within the medio-dorsal and pulvinar nuclei. The asymmetry index of the 95th percentile within the medio-dorsal nucleus was significantly associated with infarcts involving anterior areas (frontal P = 0.05, temporal P = 0.02, lenticular P = 0.01) while the asymmetry index of the 95th percentile within the pulvinar nucleus was significantly associated with infarcts involving posterior areas (parietal P = 0.046, temporal P < 0.001) independently of age, gender and infarct volume, which was confirmed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. The asymmetry index of the 95th percentile within the entire thalamus at 1 year was independently associated with poor functional outcome (P = 0.04), poor cognitive outcome (P = 0.03), post-stroke anxiety (P = 0.04) and post-stroke depression (P = 0.02). We have therefore identified that iron accumulates within the thalamus ipsilateral to infarct after a delay with a focal distribution that is strongly linked to the initial infarct location (in relation with the pattern of connectivity between thalamic nuclei and cortical areas or deep nuclei), which independently contributes to functional, cognitive and emotional outcome.

A Contemporary Approach to Reoperative Aortic Valve Surgery: When is Less, More?

Although the benefits of minimally invasive valvular surgery are well established, the applicability of extending these techniques to reoperative aortic valve surgery is unknown. We evaluated our experience with a minimally invasive approach to this patient population.

A Minimally Invasive Stand-alone Cox-Maze Procedure Is as Effective as Median Sternotomy Approach.

The Cox-Maze IV procedure has been shown to be an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation when performed concomitantly with other operations either via median sternotomy or right minithoracotomy. Few studies have compared these approaches in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. This study examined outcomes with sternotomy versus minithoracotomy in stand-alone Cox-Maze IV procedures at our institution.

Effect of Preoperative Diabetes Management on Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes after Elective Surgery.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative diabetes management can improve glycemic control and clinical outcomes after elective surgery.

Toward precision medicine: tailoring interventional strategies based on noninvasive brain stimulation for motor recovery after stroke.

To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed.

Improving the comfort of nurses caring for stroke patients at the end of life.

End-of-life care of stroke patients is an important aspect of stroke care. It has been previously reported that nurses express discomfort caring for patients at the end of life or caring for patients who have suffered severe strokes. Nurses at our centre expressed similar discomfort.

Evaluation of thermal optical analysis method of elemental carbon for marine fuel exhaust.

The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources. In our study we evaluated the suitability of elemental carbon (EC) analysis by thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method to marine exhausts and possible measures to overcome the analysis interferences related to the chemically complex emissions. The measures included drying with CaSO4, evaporation at 40-180°C, H2O treatment and variation of the sampling method (in-stack and diluted) and its parameters (e.g. dilution ratio, Dr). A re-evaluation of the nominal OC/EC split point was made. Measurement of residual carbon after solvent extraction (TC-CSOF) was used as a reference, and later also filter smoke number (FSN) measurement, which is dealt with in a forthcomingpaper by the authors. Exhaust sources used for collecting the particle sample were mainly 4-stroke marine engines operated with variable loads and marine fuels ranging from light to heavy fuel oils (LFO and HFO) with sulphur content range of <0.1-2.4% S. The results were found to be dependent on many factors, i.e. sampling, preparation and analysis method and fuel quality. It was found that the condensed H2SO4+H2O on the PM filter had an effect on the measured EC content, and also promoted the formation of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) from OC, affecting the accuracy of EC determination. Thus uncertainty remained regarding the EC results from HFO fuels. Implications The work boosts as one part decision making in black carbon (BC) determination methodology. If regulations regarding BC emissions from marine engines will be implemented in the future, a well-defined and at best unequivocal method of BC determination is required for coherent and comparable emission inventories and estimating BC effects. As the aerosol from marine emission sources may be very heterogeneous and low in BC, special attention of the effects of sampling conditions and sample pre-treatments on the validity of the results was paid in developing the thermal optical analysis methodology (TOT).

Comparison of a rapid albuterol pathway with a standard pathway for the treatment of children with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation in the emergency department.

The objective of this study was to determine if a rapid albuterol delivery pathway with a breath-enhanced nebulizer can reduce emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), while maintaining admission rates and side effects, when compared to a traditional asthma pathway with a standard jet nebulizer.

Effect of treatment modality on in-hospital outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a nationwide study in Japan (J-ASPECT Study).

OBJECTIVE Although heterogeneity in patient outcomes following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been observed across different centers, the relative merits of clipping and coiling for SAH remain unknown. The authors sought to compare the patient outcomes between these therapeutic modalities using a large nationwide discharge database encompassing hospitals with different comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities. METHODS They analyzed data from 5214 patients with SAH (clipping 3624, coiling 1590) who had been urgently hospitalized at 393 institutions in Japan in the period from April 2012 to March 2013. In-hospital mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, cerebral infarction, complications, hospital length of stay, and medical costs were compared between the clipping and coiling groups after adjustment for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics by using mixed-model analysis. RESULTS Patients who had undergone coiling had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (12.4% vs 8.7%, OR 1.3) and a shorter median hospital stay (32.0 vs 37.0 days, p < 0.001) than those who had undergone clipping. The respective proportions of patients discharged with mRS scores of 3-6 (46.4% and 42.9%) and median medical costs (thousands US$, 35.7 and 36.7) were not significantly different between the groups. These results remained robust after further adjustment for CSC capabilities as a hospital-related covariate. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increasing use of coiling, clipping remains the mainstay treatment for SAH. Regardless of CSC capabilities, clipping was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality, similar unfavorable functional outcomes and medical costs, and a longer hospital stay as compared with coiling in 2012 in Japan. Further study is required to determine the influence of unmeasured confounders.

Is cold blood cardioplegia absolutely superior to cold crystalloid cardioplegia in aortic valve surgery?

Experimental evidence suggests that blood cardioplegia (BCP) may be superior to cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) for myocardial protection. However, robust clinical data are lacking. We compared post-operative outcome of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) using cold anterograde-retrograde intermittent BCP versus anterograde (CCP).

Design and synthesis of Atglistatin derivatives as adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitors.

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that mobilizes fatty acids from cellular triglyceride stores. Metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of abnormalities that occur together and increase the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, type-2 diabetes, and cachexia, can be treated using ATGL-specific inhibitors. Atglistatin (1) is the first small-molecule inhibitor of ATGL. In this study, we designed and synthesized 29 Atglistatin derivatives and evaluated their inhibition of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as an indicator of their potential to inhibit ATGL in adipose tissues. Among all the tested Atglistatin analogs, we previously found that the thiourea compound 9e showed potent ATGL inhibitory activity in vitro, which was much stronger than that of Atglistatin, and its inhibitory activity in vivo was similar to that of Atglistatin. This tool compound could be used to study the pathophysiology and druggability of ATGL in animal models of metabolic disease and cachexia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat increases doublecortin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, the present study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX. HI was elicited at P7 in Sprague-Dawley rat neonates, and CSF was collected serially from the cisterna magna at P5 and P10, or at P10 and P15. A sandwich immunoassay was used to measure CSF-DCX. Brains from P10 neonates were analyzed immunohistochemically for neurogenesis and cell death markers. Mean CSF-DCX was significantly higher in HI- than in sham-exposed animals, at both P10 and P15. In the HI group at P10, CSF-DCX and stroke severity correlated positively. DCX immunoreactivity was increased in the ipsilateral neurogenic niches from the P10 HI brains in comparison to that of shams. The number of proliferative DCX-positive cells was higher in the ipsilateral hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) than in the HI contralateral or sham SGZ. Thus, neonatal HI brain injury disrupts the developmental time-course of DCX levels in the CSF. Our data suggest that the increased concentration of DCX in the CSF after neonatal HI is the result of both cellular injury and increased neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Cannabis Smoking and Cardiovascular Health: It's Complicated.

Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

Endovascular treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (pathological enlargement of the aorta) is a condition that can occur as a person ages. It is most commonly seen in men older than 65 years of age. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture and massive internal bleeding, which is fatal unless timely repair can be achieved. Despite improvements in perioperative care, mortality remains high (approximately 50%) after conventional open surgical repair. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), a minimally invasive technique, has been shown to reduce early morbidity and mortality as compared to conventional open surgery for planned AAA repair. More recently emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) has been used successfully to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), proving that it is feasible in select patients; however, it is unclear if eEVAR will lead to significant improvements in outcomes for these patients or if indeed it can replace conventional open repair as the preferred treatment for this lethal condition. This is an update of the review first published in 2006.

Clinician's Commentary on Choi et al.(1).

Videofluoroscopic assessment of the pathophysiology of chronic poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia.

Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major complaint following stroke, associated with poor clinical outcome and high mortality rates. We aimed at characterizing the kinematics of swallow response associated with unsafe swallowing in chronic poststroke patients with OD.

Mesiotemporal atrophy and hippocampal diffusivity distinguish amnestic from non-amnestic vascular cognitive impairment.

The role of clinical factors, cerebral infarcts and hippocampal damage in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes remains unclear.

New approaches towards the understanding of integral membrane proteins - A structural perspective on G protein-coupled receptors.

Three-dimensional structure determination of integral membrane proteins has advanced in unprecedented detail our understanding of mechanistic events of how ion channels, transporters, receptors and enzymes function. This exciting progress required a tremendous amount of methods development, as exemplified here with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): Optimizing the production of GPCRs in recombinant hosts; increasing the probability of crystal formation using high-affinity ligands, nanobodies, and minimal G proteins for co-crystallization, thus stabilizing receptors into one conformation; using the T4 lysozyme technology and other fusion partners to promote crystal contacts; advancing crystallization methods including the development of novel detergents, and miniaturization and automation of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization method; the concept of conformational thermostabilization of GPCRs; and developing microfocus X-ray synchrotron technologies to analyze small GPCR crystals. However, despite immense progress to explain how GPCRs function, many receptors pose intractable hurdles to structure determination at this time. Three emerging methods, serial femtosecond crystallography, micro electron diffraction, and single particle electron cryo-microscopy, hold promise to overcome current limitations in structural membrane biology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Stroke Induces Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration to Infarcted Brain Areas Via CXCR4 and C-Met Signaling.

Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats. Compared to the fetal bovine serum group, the stroke serum group but not the normal serum group showed significantly greater migration toward the infarcted brain area in the in vitro and in vivo models (p < 0.05). Both C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 and c-Met expression levels significantly increased in the stroke serum group than the others. The enhanced mesenchymal stem cells migration of the stroke serum group was abolished by inhibition of signaling. Serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase, and growth factors were higher in stroke serum than in normal serum. Behavioral tests showed a significant improvement in the recovery after stroke in the stroke serum group than the others. Stroke induces mesenchymal stem cells migration to the infarcted brain area via C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 and c-Met signaling. Culture expansion using the serum from stroke patients could constitute a novel preconditioning method to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells.

Prognostic Value of EEG Microstates in Acute Stroke.

Given the importance of neuronal plasticity in recovery from a stroke and the huge variability of recovery abilities in patients, we investigated neuronal activity in the acute phase to enhance information about the prognosis of recovery in the stabilized phase. We investigated the microstates in 47 patients who suffered a first-ever mono-lesional ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and in 20 healthy control volunteers. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at rest with eyes closed was acquired between 2 and 10 days (T0) after ischemic attack. Objective criteria allowed for the selection of an optimal number of microstates. Clinical condition was quantified by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) both in acute (T0) and stabilized (T1, 5.4 ± 1.7 months) phases and Effective Recovery (ER) was calculated as (NIHSS(T1)-NIHSS(T0))/NIHSS(T0). The microstates A, B, C and D emerged as the most stable. In patients with a left lesion inducing a language impairment, microstate C topography differed from controls. Microstate D topography was different in patients with a right lesion inducing neglect symptoms. In patients, the C vs D microstate duration differed after both a left and a right lesion with respect to controls (C lower than D in left and D lower than C in right lesion). A preserved microstate B in acute phase correlated with a better effective recovery. A regression model indicated that the microstate B duration explained the 11% of ER variance. This first ever study of EEG microstates in acute stroke opens an interesting path to identify neuronal impairments with prognostic relevance, to develop enriched compensatory treatments to drive a better individual recovery.

Effects of the combined treatment of bone marrow stromal cells with mild exercise and thyroid hormone on brain damage and apoptosis in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model.

This study examined whether post-stroke bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) therapy combined with exercise (EX) and/or thyroid hormone (TH) could reduce brain damage in an experimental ischemic stroke in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced under Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) guide by 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 7 days of reperfusion in albino mice. BMSCs were injected into the right cerebral ventricle 24 h after MCAO, followed by daily injection of T3 (20 μg/100 g weight S.C) and 6 days of running on a treadmill. Infarct size, neurobehavioral test, TUNEL and BrdU positive cells were evaluated at 7 days after MCAO. Treatment with BMSCs and mild EX alone significantly reduced the infarct volume by 23% and 44%, respectively (both, p < 0.001). The BMSCs + TH, BMSCs + EX, and BMSCs + EX + TH combination therapies significantly reduced the infarct volume by 26%, 51%, and 70%, respectively (all, p < 0.001). A significant improvement in the neurobehavioral functioning was observed in the EX, BMSCs + EX, and BMSCs + EX+ TH groups (p < 0.001). The number of TUNEL-positive cells (a marker of apoptosis) was significantly reduced in the EX, BMSCs, BMSCs + EX, BMSCs + TH, and BMSCs + EX + TH groups (all, p < 0.001). Moreover, the combination therapy considerably increased BrdU-labeled cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) (p < 0.01). Our findings indicated that the combined treatment of BMSCs with mild EX and TH more efficiently reduces the cerebral infarct size after stroke. More likely, these effects mediate via enchaining generation of new neuronal cells and the attenuation of apoptosis in ischemia stroke in young mice.

OCULAR ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS AND CAROTID ARTERY DISEASE.

To compare prevalence of carotid artery disease and its various types of lesions in different types of ocular arterial occlusive disorders.

Bronchiectasis and increased risk of ischemic stroke: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Bronchiectasis is characterized by permanent dilatation of the bronchial tree caused by recurrent airway infection and inflammation. The association of atherosclerosis and inflammation is well established. However, studies on the relationship between bronchiectasis and stroke are scant.

Regulation of c-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase (JNK) Pathway in Apoptosis of Endothelial Outgrowth Cells Induced by Asymmetric Dimethylarginine.

BACKGROUND Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) are terminal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been identified as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the effect of regulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) on EOCs apoptosis and to explore the underlining mechanisms of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway in the process. MATERIAL AND METHODS EOCs were harvested from umbilical cord blood and obtained by using density gradient centrifugation and adhesive culture methods. Endothelial characteristics were identified by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining. EOCs were treated with different concentrations of ADMA and detected by flow cytometry. After JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) was added, EOCs apoptosis protein expressions were measured by Western blot analysis. Proliferation, migration, and vascularization were detected by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay, and tube-like formation assay, respectively. RESULTS EOCs were successfully extracted from umbilical cord blood and different concentrations of ADMA aggravated EOCs apoptosis. ADMA distinctly activates the phosphorylation activity of JNK. Supplementation of JNK-specific inhibitor (SP600125) decreased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3/9, and alleviated ADMA-induced apoptosis. SP600125 also promoted angiogenesis viability. CONCLUSIONS The JNK pathway participates in the apoptosis-promoting process of EOCs, and targeted inhibition of the JNK pathway can alleviate ADMA-induced injury, which I s the potential underlying mechanism of vascular endothelium injury in ischemic stroke.

Redox Stress Defines the Small Artery Vasculopathy of Hypertension: How Do We Bridge the Bench-to-Bedside Gap?

MicroRNA-15a/16-1 Antagomir Ameliorates Ischemic Brain Injury in Experimental Stroke.

Dysregulation of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in plasma has been reported in patients with stroke as a potential biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic use. However, the essential role and therapeutic potential of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic stroke are poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the regulatory role of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic brain injury and insight mechanisms.