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telemonitoring - Top 30 Publications

Patient perceptions of a comprehensive telemedicine intervention to address persistent poorly controlled diabetes.

We studied a telemedicine intervention for persistent poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (PPDM) that combined telemonitoring, self-management support, and medication management. The intervention was designed for practical delivery using existing Veterans Affairs (VA) telemedicine infrastructure. To refine the intervention and inform the delivery of the intervention in other settings, we examined participants' experiences.

An Intelligent Remote Monitoring System for Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients.

For the first six weeks following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a patient will attend an outpatient clinic typically seen twice weekly. Here, an exercise regime is performed and improvement assessed using a hand held goniometer that measures the maximum angle of knee flexion, an important metric of progress. Additionally a series of daily exercises is performed at home, recorded in a diary. This protocol has problems. Patients must attend the hospital with assistance since they are not permitted to drive for six weeks following the procedure; appointments are sometimes missed; there are occasionally not enough physiotherapy appointment available; furthermore, it is difficult to be sure that patients are compliant with their exercises at home. The economic and social costs are therefore significant both to the patient and the health service. We describe here an automatic system that performs the monitoring of knee flexion within a domestic environment rather than in a hospital setting. It comprises a master and slave sensor unit that attach using Velcro straps to the thigh and shin above and below the operation wound. The patient performs the prescribed knee exercises whilst wearing the device, during which time it measures and records the angles of knee flexion. The device utilises the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) infrastructure to transmit data through the Internet to a secure hospital-based server using an on-board GSM modem. The clinician is then able to view and interpret the information from any computer with internet access and the software. The system does not require the patient to possess a mobile telephone, a computer, or have internet access; the necessary communications technology is completely integrated into the device.

Assessing the reliability of self-reported weight for the management of heart failure: application of fraud detection methods to a randomised trial of telemonitoring.

Since clinical management of heart failure relies on weights that are self-reported by the patient, errors in reporting will negatively impact the ability of health care professionals to offer timely and effective preventive care. Errors might often result from rounding, or more generally from individual preferences for numbers ending in certain digits, such as 0 or 5. We apply fraud detection methods to assess preferences for numbers ending in these digits in order to inform medical decision making.

Telemedicine is the way forward for the management of Cystic Fibrosis - the case in favour: The debate: Telemedicine is the future for CF care.

Despite rapid changes in Information and Communication Technology, outpatient chronic disease management has changed very little in decades. However, the introduction of Telemedicine defined here as the use of remote patient-centred clinical services including the use of video and audio connections, telemonitoring and mobile applications provides us with an ideal opportunity to revolutionise care. Its appeal in cystic fibrosis (CF) care is clear offering better access to services, the opportunity of earlier intervention and improved monitoring and self management through virtual clinics and the use of real-time applications for adherence monitoring. It has the potential to reduce costs and has been shown to be effective in other chronic disease conditions. There is a lack of good quality data in CF and studies are needed to provide supportive evidence. Nonetheless, it would seem that telemedicine is the future of CF care.

Cost-effectiveness of home telemonitoring in chronic kidney disease patients at different stages by a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (eNephro): rationale and study design.

Home telemonitoring has developed considerably over recent years in chronic diseases in order to improve communication between healthcare professionals and patients and to promote early detection of deteriorating health status. In the nephrology setting, home telemonitoring has been evaluated in home dialysis patients but data are scarce concerning chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before and after renal replacement therapy. The eNephro study is designed to assess the cost effectiveness, clinical/biological impact, and patient perception of a home telemonitoring for CKD patients. Our purpose is to present the rationale, design and organisational aspects of this study.

Telemonitoring in IVF/ICSI.

Traditionally, ovarian stimulation for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection is performed by healthcare professionals, requiring the patient to make frequent visits to these centres. We describe the rationale, research findings and early clinical experience with home-based sonography for IVF patients.

The management of patients with chronic heart failure: the growing role of e-Health.

The increasing pandemic of heart failure is becoming a serious challenge for the health care system. The medical world is searching for solutions which could decrease its scale and improve patients' quality of life and prognosis. Telemanagement of heart failure patients is a new promising option. Technical and technological platforms to perform e-Health management in heart failure patients' homes have become available. This paper's aims are to present different forms of e-Health including telecare, home monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, remote monitoring of hemodynamic implantable devices and telerehabilitation in providing optimal long term management for heart failure patients. Areas covered: E-education and self-monitoring, structured telephone support and telemonitoring, remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronics devices and hemodynamic implantable electronic devices and telerehabilitation. Expert commentary: The data analyzed in the paper suggests that remote monitoring is capable of identifying life-threatening deterioration and helps heart failure patients avoid seeking medical assistance in hospitals and that home-based telerehabilitation is well accepted, safe, effective and has high adherence among HF patients.

Economic Evaluation of a Home-Based Age-Related Macular Degeneration Monitoring System.

Medicare recently approved coverage of home telemonitoring for early detection of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no economic evaluation has yet assessed its cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact.

Home Telehealth Interventions for Older Adults With Diabetes.

The purpose of this literature review was to explore home telemedicine interventions for the treatment of older adults with diabetes. Eight databases were searched for articles published between 2011 and 2016, in the English language, and in peer-reviewed journals, resulting in 1,274 relevant articles. Following review against inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were retained. Studies included participants with a mean age from 68 to 76.8 years and from three different countries, with either Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The articles reviewed suggest that case management, education, closed-loop feedback and communication, home telemonitoring devices or units, and motivational interviewing or coaching can effectively decrease admissions, costs per person per year, mortality, and cognitive decline in older adults with diabetes. The scarcity of high-quality studies is consistent with findings from previous systematic reviews, and highlights the need for additional investigation before applying the results in practice.

Parental evaluation of a telemonitoring service for children with Type 1 Diabetes.

Introduction In the past years, we developed a telemonitoring service for young patients affected by Type 1 Diabetes. That service provides data to the clinical staff and offers an important tool to the parents, that are able to oversee in real time their children. The aim of this work was to analyze the parents' perceived usefulness of the service. Methods The service was tested by the parents of 31 children enrolled in a seven-day clinical trial during a summer camp. To study the parents' perception we proposed and analyzed two questionnaires. A baseline questionnaire focused on the daily management and implications of their children's diabetes, while a post-study one measured the perceived benefits of telemonitoring. Questionnaires also included free text comment spaces. Results Analysis of the baseline questionnaires underlined the parents' suffering and fatigue: 51% of total responses showed a negative tendency and the mean value of the perceived quality of life was 64.13 in a 0-100 scale. In the post-study questionnaires about half of the parents believed in a possible improvement adopting telemonitoring. Moreover, the foreseen improvement in quality of life was significant, increasing from 64.13 to 78.39 ( p-value = 0.0001). The analysis of free text comments highlighted an improvement in mood, and parents' commitment was also proved by their willingness to pay for the service (median = 200 euro/year). Discussion A high number of parents appreciated the telemonitoring service and were confident that it could improve communication with physicians as well as the family's own peace of mind.

Practical Insight to Monitor Home NIV in COPD Patients.

Home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used in COPD patients with concomitant chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in order to correct nocturnal hypoventilation and improve sleep quality, quality of life, and survival. Monitoring of home NIV is needed to assess the effectiveness of ventilation and adherence to therapy, resolve potential adverse effects, reinforce patient knowledge, provide maintenance of the equipment, and readjust the ventilator settings according to the changing condition of the patient. Clinical monitoring is very informative. Anamnesis focuses on the improvement of nocturnal hypoventilation symptoms, sleep quality, and side effects of NIV. Side effects are major cause of intolerance. Screening side effects leads to modification of interface, gas humidification, or ventilator settings. Home care providers maintain ventilator and interface and educate patients for correct use. However, patient's education should be supervised by specialized clinicians. Blood gas measurement shows a significant decrease in PaCO2 when NIV is efficient. Analysis of ventilator data is very useful to assess daily use, unintentional leaks, upper airway obstruction, and patient ventilator synchrony. Nocturnal oximetry and capnography are additional monitoring tools to assess the impact of NIV on gas exchanges. In the near future, telemonitoring will reinforce and change the organization of home NIV for COPD patients.

Effectiveness of home blood pressure telemonitoring: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies.

To summarise evidence about the effectiveness of home blood pressure telemonitoring (HBPT) and identify the key components of intervention. We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies. The authors were contacted for additional information. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. 46 randomised controlled trials including a total of 13 875 cases were identified. Compared with usual care, HBPT improved office systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP by 3.99 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.06-2.93; P<0.001) and 1.99 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.60 to -1.39; P<0.001), respectively. A larger proportion of patients achieved BP normalisation in the intervention group (relative risk (RR): 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08-1.25; P<0.001). For HBPT plus additional support (including counselling, education, behavioural management, medication management with decision, adherence contracts and so on) versus HBPT alone (or plus less intense additional support), the mean changes in systolic and diastolic BP were 2.44 mm Hg (95% Cl, 4.88 to 0.00 mm Hg; P=0.05) and 1.12 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.34 to 0.1 mm Hg; P=0.07), respectively. For those surrogate outcomes, low-strength evidence failed to show difference. In subgroup analysis, high strength evidence supported a lower BP with HBPT that lasted for 6 or 12 months and was accompanied with counselling support from study personnel. HBPT can improve BP control in the hypertensive patients. It may be more efficacious when a proactive additional support is provided during the intervention process.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 23 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.99.

Continuity of Care to Prevent Readmissions for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Readmissions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to hospitals cast a heavy burden to health care systems. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the efficacy of continuity of care as interventions, which reduced readmission and mortality rates of such patients. PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase were searched for articles published before July 2015. A total of 31 reports with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were finally included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that health education reduced all-cause readmission at 3 months. In addition, health education, comprehensive nursing intervention (CNI) and telemonitoring reduced all-cause readmissions over 6-12 months, and the effect of CNI was best because CNI also reduced COPD-specific readmissions. Home visits also reduced COPD-specific readmissions (the quality more than moderate), but it did not reduce the risk for all-cause readmissions (risk ratios (RRs), 0.92 [95% CI, 0.82-1.04]; moderate quality). There was no statistically significant difference in reducing mortality and quality of life (QOL) among various continued cares. In conclusion, CNI, telemonitoring, health education and home visits should receive more consideration than other interventions by caregivers seeking to implement continued care interventions for patients with COPD.

Impact of telemonitoring approaches on integrated HIV and TB diagnosis and treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review.

Background: This paper explores telemonitoring/mhealth approaches as a promising real time and contextual strategy in overhauling HIV and TB interventions quality access and uptake, retention,adherence and coverage impact in endemic and prone-epidemic prevention and control in sub-Sahara Africa. Methods: The scoping review method was applied in acknowledged journals indexing platforms including Medline, Embase, Global Health, PubMed, MeSH PsycInfo, Scopus and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles pertaining to telemonitoring as a proxy surrogate method in reinforcing sustainability of HIV/TB prevention/treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Full papers were assessed and those selected that fosters evidence on telemonitoring/mhealth diagnosis, treatment approaches and strategies in HIV and TB prevention and control were synthesized and analyzed. Results: We found telemonitoring/mhealth approach as a more efficient and sustained proxy in HIV and TB risk reduction strategies for early diagnosis and prompt quality clinical outcomes. It can significantly contribute to decreasing health systems/patients cost, long waiting time in clinics, hospital visits, travels and time off/on from work. Improved integrated HIV and TB telemonitoring systems sustainability hold great promise in health systems strengthening including patient centered early diagnosis and care delivery systems, uptake and retention to medications/services and improving patients' survival and quality of life. Conclusion: Telemonitoring/mhealth (electronic phone text/video/materials messaging)acceptability, access and uptake are crucial in monitoring and improving uptake, retention,adherence and coverage in both local and national integrated HIV and TB programs and interventions. Moreover, telemonitoring is crucial in patient-providers-health professional partnership, real-time quality care and service delivery, antiretroviral and anti-tuberculous drugs improvement, susceptibility monitoring and prescription choice, reinforcing cost effective HIV and TB integrated therapy model and survival rate.

Advances in heart failure: a review of biomarkers, emerging pharmacological therapies, durable mechanical support and telemonitoring.

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Specifically, this review is divided into three sections. The first section will address biomarkers. The discovery of biomarkers has allowed further understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and provides insight into potential therapeutic targets. This review will focus on novel applications of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in clinical trials. Next, emerging biomarkers of HF, such as ST2, galectin-3 and copeptin, will be discussed. The second section aims to highlight HF therapies, including novel drugs and durable devices. The last section will review home haemodynamic monitoring and mobile health. We aim to provide context for the understanding of novel diagnostic and therapeutic advances in HF that are still in phase II or III trials, and have yet to become widely available.

Remote Monitoring in Heart Failure: the Current State.

The treatment of congestive heart failure is an expensive undertaking with much of this cost occurring as a result of hospitalization. It is not surprising that many remote monitoring strategies have been developed to help patients maintain clinical stability by avoiding congestion. Most of these have failed. It seems very unlikely that these failures were the result of any one underlying false assumption but rather from the fact that heart failure is a progressive, deadly disease and that human behavior is hard to modify. One lesson that does stand out from the myriad of methods to detect congestion is that surrogates of congestion, such as weight and impedance, are not reliable or actionable enough to influence outcomes. Too many factors influence these surrogates to successfully and confidently use them to affect HF hospitalization. Surrogates are often attractive because they can be inexpensively measured and followed. They are, however, indirect estimations of congestion, and due to the lack specificity, the time and expense expended affecting the surrogate do not provide enough benefit to warrant its use. We know that high filling pressures cause transudation of fluid into tissues and that pulmonary edema and peripheral edema drive patients to seek medical assistance. Direct measurement of these filling pressures appears to be the sole remote monitoring modality that shows a benefit in altering the course of the disease in these patients. Congestive heart failure is such a serious problem and the consequences of hospitalization so onerous in terms of patient well-being and costs to society that actual hemodynamic monitoring, despite its costs, is beneficial in carefully selected high-risk patients. Those patients who benefit are ones with a prior hospitalization and ongoing New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III symptoms. Patients with NYHA class I and II symptoms do not require hemodynamic monitoring because they largely have normal hemodynamics. Those with NYHA class IV symptoms do not benefit because their hemodynamics are so deranged that they cannot be substantially altered except by mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation. Finally, hemodynamic monitoring offers substantial hope to those patients with normal ejection fraction (EF) heart failure, a large group for whom medical therapy has largely been a failure. These patients have not benefited from the neurohormonal revolution that improved the lives of their brothers and sisters with reduced ejection fractions. Hemodynamic stabilization improves the condition of both but more so of the normal EF cohort. This is an important observation that will help us design future trials for the 50% of heart failure patients with normal systolic function.

The effects of short-term omission of daily medication on the pathophysiology of heart failure.

Pharmacological therapies for heart failure (HF) aim to improve congestion, symptoms, and prognosis. Failing to take medication is a potential cause of worsening HF. Characterizing the effects of short-term medication omission could inform the development of better technologies and strategies to detect and interpret the reasons for worsening HF. We examined the effect of planned HF medication omission for 48 h on weight, echocardiograms, transthoracic bio-impedance, and plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP.

Wearable Pulse Oximetry Measurements on the Torso, Arms, and Legs: A Proof of Concept.

For decades pulse oximeters designed for use on the head, hands, or feet have provided invaluable estimates of oxygen saturation to medical personal attending to combat casualties. However, traditional placement sites are not ideal for the relatively new paradigm of continuous battlefield telemonitoring. To assess the feasibility of oximetry on nontraditional body sites, 42 healthy volunteers were enrolled, consented, and underwent an industry standard induced-hypoxia study. During the study volunteers used prototype wearable oximeters, designed for the torso, arms, and legs. Subsets (size n) of the volunteers had the wearables placed at the following body sites, and achieved accuracies (ARMS, root-mean-square difference) of the following: calf 1.7% (n = 26); bicep 3.1% (n = 12); forearm 3.4% (n = 11); pectoral 2.9% (n = 42); sternum 2.9% (n = 13). In keeping with regulatory guidance calibrations with an ARMS of less than 3.5% are acceptable for potential future development. Additionally, a new method was developed to enable accurate reporting of respiration rate from the pectoral oximeter, ARMS of 1.1 breaths per minute (n = 10). This study demonstrates the feasibility of monitoring oxygen saturation and respiration rate from nontraditional sites via a wearable pulse oximeter.

Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring: Rationale for Use, Required Elements, and Barriers to Implementation in Canada.

Contemporary hypertension guidelines strongly endorse the use of home blood pressure (BP) monitoring for hypertension diagnosis and management. However, barriers exist that prevent optimal use of home BP measurements. Patients might not follow the recommended home BP measurement protocol, might not take the required number of readings, and/or might report only selected readings to their providers. Providers might not calculate the mean (used for clinical decision-making) and/or incorporate home BP measurements into the medical record. Use of home BP telemonitoring, defined as the process by which home BP readings are securely teletransmitted and summarized within a health care portal or electronic medical record for provider use, might overcome these barriers. Telemonitoring, especially when combined with protocolized case management, leads to statistically significant and clinically important BP reductions, and improvements in overall BP control. Despite evidence supporting its use, home BP telemonitoring is not widely used in Canada. Barriers to adoption can be classified as structural and financial. Although technological advancements have made telemonitoring highly feasible, infrastructure is lacking, and implementation remains a challenge; this is especially true with respect to creating simple and cost-effective systems that are user-friendly and acceptable to patients as well as to providers. Ensuring data security is crucial to successful implementation, as is developing appropriate reimbursement models for providers. If these barriers can be overcome, home BP telemonitoring has the potential to make care provision easier and more convenient for patients and providers, while improving BP control in Canadians with hypertension.

Mobile Device-Based Electronic Data Capture System Used in a Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial: Advantages and Challenges.

Electronic data capture (EDC) systems have been widely used in clinical research, but mobile device-based electronic data capture (mEDC) system has not been well evaluated.

Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Identification and Prediction Using a Digital Health System.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic respiratory disease with a significant socioeconomic burden. Exacerbations, the sudden and sustained worsening of symptoms, can lead to hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Major limitations of previous telemonitoring interventions for COPD include low compliance, lack of consensus on what constitutes an exacerbation, limited numbers of patients, and short monitoring periods. We developed a telemonitoring system based on a digital health platform that was used to collect data from the 1-year EDGE (Self Management and Support Programme) COPD clinical trial aiming at daily monitoring in a heterogeneous group of patients with moderate to severe COPD.

Detection of different types of noise in lung sounds.

Lung sound signal processing has proven to be a great improvement to the traditional acoustic interpretation of lung sounds. However, that analysis can be seriously hindered by the presence of different types of noise originated in the acquisition environment or caused by physiological processes. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary diseases can be severely affected, especially if the implementation of telemonitoring systems is considered. The present study is focused on the implementation of an algorithm able to identify noisy periods, either voluntarily (vocalizations, chest movement and background voices) or involuntarily produced during acquisitions of lung sounds. The developed approach also had to deal with the presence of simulated cough events, that carry important diagnostic information regarding several pulmonary diseases. Features such as Katz fractal dimension, Teager-Kaiser energy operator and normalized mutual information, were extracted from the time domain of healthy and a pathological lung signals. Noise detection was the result of a good discrimination between uncontaminated lung sounds and both cough and noise episodes and a slightly worse classification of cough events. In fact, detection of cough periods carrying diagnostic information was influenced by the presence of two other types of noise having similar signal characteristics.

Efficient compressive sensing of ECG segments based on machine learning for QRS-based arrhythmia detection.

A novel method for efficient telemonitoring of arrhythmia based on using QRS complexes is proposed. Two features, namely, sum of absolute differences (SAD) and maximum of absolute differences (MAD) are efficiently computed for each ECG segment in the bio-sensor. The computed features can be transmitted from the bio-sensor using wireless channel, and they can be used in the receiver for determining the absence of QRS complex in the segment. By avoiding computationally expensive signal reconstruction for the ECG segments without QRS complex, it is shown, using simulation results, that computation time can be reduced by approximately 7.4% for long-term telemonitoring of QRS-based arrhythmia. Detection of the absence of QRS complex can be carried out in around 7 milliseconds in a standard laptop computer with 2.2GHz processor and 8GB RAM.

e-Health prototype system for cardiac telemonitoring.

This paper presents the approach of an e-health system for cardiac telemonitoring which uses the development board LinkIt ONE as a monitoring system. Such board was adapted to measure the cardiac pulse, analyze it and determine whether a person is having a cardiac arrhythmia or not. When an arrhythmia appears, the prototype activates an alarm in order to report the patient's condition and its location to a caregiver or a close healthcare center. The data of the cardiac pulse is originated in an e-health sensor platform connected to an Arduino. Location data comes from a GPS module in the aforementioned board which is connected by WiFi with the virtual platform UBIDOTS. It provides visual information about the variables measured, the patient's location and the alarms; keeping the patient's caregiver or the healthcare center constantly informed.

A telemonitoring platform for the investigation of blood pressure profiles in pacemaker patients.

Rate responsive pacemakers (PM) use different strategies to adapt the patient paced rate, with the aim of having the best hemodynamic performance in response to internal or external conditions. Closed-loop stimulation (CLS) uses intracardiac impedance as a sensor principle. The evaluation of impact of different pacing modalities and technologies on the blood pressure (BP) profiles is mainly investigated in short-term laboratory settings, mainly due to the need of reliable daily-based BP values. The impact of CLS pacing on systemic blood pressure (BP) has been studied on short term basis, but data on long term effects are scarse. This study present a telemedicine platform designed for evaluating the effect of the rate responsive technology on daily systolic and diastolic BP data. BP and pacemaker data were collected daily from fourteen patients during a 3 month period. The total number of monitoring days was 1277 (91 day/patient), for a total number of 4455 BP measures. On average 3.5 measure/day/patient were received). The analysis of the BP data showed that CLS pacing results in diastolic pressure closer to the normal values than accelerometer-based pacing, which were associated to lower diastolic pressures.

Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Heart Failure Readmissions.

The current ability to predict readmissions in patients with heart failure is modest at best. It is unclear whether machine learning techniques that address higher dimensional, nonlinear relationships among variables would enhance prediction. We sought to compare the effectiveness of several machine learning algorithms for predicting readmissions.

Effectiveness of mHealth interventions for patients with diabetes: An overview of systematic reviews.

Diabetes is a common chronic disease that places an unprecedented strain on health care systems worldwide. Mobile health technologies such as smartphones, mobile applications, and wearable devices, known as mHealth, offer significant and innovative opportunities for improving patient to provider communication and self-management of diabetes.

Effects of hybrid comprehensive cardiac telerehabilitation conducted under the pension prevention program of the Social Insurance Institution.

The Polish Social Insurance Institution (SII), under its pension prevention initiative, has taken measures to support the patients return to work and thus developed a new model of hybrid, comprehensive, cardiac telerehabilitation (HCCT). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of HCCT in terms of its acceptance, adherence to and influence on patients' physical capacity and ability to return to work.

Comparative effectiveness of transitional care services in patients discharged from the hospital with heart failure: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

To compare the effectiveness of transitional care services in decreasing all-cause death and all-cause readmissions following hospitalization for heart failure (HF).

Positionpaper on Telemonitoring in Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.

The use of telemonitoring in the care of patients with Sleep-related Breathing Disorders (SBD) can enhance medical support significantly. Telemonitoring aims at helping physicians to detect therapy problems early and thus improve patients' therapy adherence. Diagnostics and therapy decisions in the telemonitoring process nevertheless remain the responsibility of sleep specialists. The selection of data monitored, their evaluation and resulting consequences fall to the physician, who makes decisions and prescribes therapy in consultation with the patient. In light of professional legal and ethical requirements, it must be ensured that the extensive changes to the process flow in sleep medicine are designed in a way to guarantee high-quality patient care. In this position paper, the German Sleep Society, the German Respiratory Society, the Association of Pneumological Hospitals and the Federal Association of German Pneumologists comment on important aspects for implementation of telemonitoring for SRBD and describe the basic conditions required for its use.