A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

transient receptor potential melastatin 8 - Top 30 Publications

Characterization of prostate cancer cell progression in zebrafish xenograft model.

Early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is critical for the application of efficient treatment to PCa patients. However, the majority of PCas remains indolent from several months to several years before malignancy. Current diagnosis methods have limitations in their reliability and are inefficient in time cost. Thus, an efficient in vivo PCa cell xenograft model is highly desired for diagnostic studies in PCas. In the present study we present a standardized procedure to create a PCa cell xenograft model using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the host. PC3-CTR cells, a cell line from adenocarcinoma with stable expression of calcitonin receptor (CRT), were subcutaneously injected into zebrafish larvae at 48 h post fertilization. The nursing conditions for the larvae were optimized with stable survival rates of post hatch and post PC3-CTR cell injection. In this system, the progression of PC3-CTR cells in vivo was evaluated by migration and proliferation of the cells. Massive migrations of PC3 cells in vivo were observed at post injection day (PID)3. The injected PC3-CTR cells eventually invaded the whole larval zebrafish at PID5. Quantification of PC3-CTR cell proliferation was done using quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis targeting the expression profiles of two PCa housekeeping genes, TATA-binding protein (TBP) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) encoding genes. The excessive proliferation of PC3 cells in vivo was detected with both qPCR assays. Expression levels of one non‑coding gene, prostate cancer associated 3 gene (pca3), and two other genes encoding transient receptor potential ion channel Melastatin 8 (trpm8) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (psma), showed a significantly enhanced aggressiveness of PC3-CTR cells in vivo. The model established in the present study provides an improved in vivo model for the diagnosis of PCas efficiently. This PCa cell xenograft model can also serve as a tool for high throughput anti-PCa drug screening in therapeutic treatments.

The cooling compound icilin attenuates autoimmune neuroinflammation through modulation of the T-cell response.

The synthetic supercooling drug, icilin, and its primary receptor target, the cation channel transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin-8 (TRPM8), have been described as potent negative regulators of inflammation in the colon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the anti-inflammatory action of icilin could potentially be used to treat autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-a CD4(+) T cell-driven murine model of MS-we found that both wild-type (WT) and TRPM8-deficient EAE mice were protected from disease progression during icilin treatment, as evidenced by delays in clinical onset and reductions in neuroinflammation. In vitro, icilin potently inhibited the proliferation of murine and human CD4(+) T cells, with the peripheral expansion of autoantigen-restricted T cells similarly diminished by the administration of icilin in mice. Attenuation of both TRPM8(-/-) and TRP ankyrin-1(-/-) T-cell proliferation by icilin was consistent with the WT phenotype, which suggests a mechanism that is independent of these channels. In addition, icilin treatment altered the expressional profile of activated CD4(+) T cells to one that was indicative of restricted effector function and limited neuroinflammatory potential. These findings identify a potent anti-inflammatory role for icilin in lymphocyte-mediated neuroinflammation and highlight clear pleiotropic effects of the compound beyond classic TRP channel activation.-Ewanchuk, B. W., Allan, E. R. O., Warren, A. L., Ramachandran, R., Yates, R. M. The cooling compound icilin attenuates autoimmune neuroinflammation through modulation of the T-cell response.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 overexpression improves atrial electrical remodeling through TRPM7 signaling pathway.

Atrial electrical remodeling is an important factor in the development and persistence of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of atrial angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 overexpression on atrial electrical remodeling and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-eight male and female dogs were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: a sham-operation group, a control group, an adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) gene group and an Ad-ACE2 gene group. All dogs in the Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 groups were rhythmized at 450 bpm for 14 days. Two weeks later, all the dogs underwent thoracotomy and epicardial gene painting. On day 21 after gene transfer, all the animals were subjected to electrophysiological and molecular studies. AF induction rates and durations were significantly increased in the control and Ad-EGFP groups compared to the sham-operated and Ad-ACE2 groups. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) expression levels in the Ad-EGFP and control groups were significantly higher than those in the sham-operated and Ad-ACE2 groups. Basal [Mg(2+)]i was significantly decreased in siRNA transfected cells compared with control and non-silencing siRNA-transfected cells. Our results suggest that ACE2 overexpression suppresses atrial electrical remodeling and improves atrial function through the TRPM7 signaling pathway.

Signaling Pathways Relevant to Nerve Growth Factor-induced Upregulation of Transient Receptor Potential M8 Expression.

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel that primarily detects the innocuous cold. In pathological conditions, TRPM8 plays a role in the development of cold hyperalgesia/allodynia. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important mediator involved in various pain disorders. In the present study, the NGF-TrkA pathway increased TRPM8 expression by stabilizing TRPM8 mRNA through the actions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 MAP kinase. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Src tyrosine kinase were identified as a positive and negative regulator of TRPM8 expression, respectively, via post-transcriptional mechanisms independent of mRNA stabilization. PTEN activity was found to increase protein TRPM8 expression. Calcium imaging confirmed that NGF induced TRPM8 functional upregulation. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopic analysis and a cell fractionation assay revealed that NGF promoted the trafficking of TRPM8 to the plasma membrane. In the presence of NGF, lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) was localized to TRPM8-positive dot-like and linear structures, the latter of which were observed in the periphery of the cytoplasm. It was inferred that LAMP-2 was involved in the vesicular transport of TRPM8. Pharmacological blockade of the proteasome with MG132 led to a further increase in NGF-induced TRPM8 expression, indicating that the proteasome system played a pivotal role in the degradation of TRPM8. Our findings provide novel insight into the signaling pathways involved in NGF-mediated TRPM8 upregulation and its reversion to the normal state.

Involvement of Opioid System, TRPM8, and ASIC Receptors in Antinociceptive Effect of Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC) Bureau.

Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC) Bureau is a medicinal plant found in Brazil. Known as "cipó-una", it is popularly used as a natural therapeutic agent against pain and inflammation. This study evaluated the chemical composition and antinociceptive activity of the dichloromethane fraction from the roots of A. brachypoda (DEAB) and its mechanism of action. The chemical composition was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography, and this fraction is composed only of dimeric flavonoids. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in formalin and hot plate tests after oral administration (10-100 mg/kg) in male Swiss mice. We also investigated the involvement of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin 1), TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8), and ASIC (acid-sensing ion channel), as well as the opioidergic, glutamatergic, and supraspinal pathways. Moreover, the nociceptive response was reduced (30 mg/kg) in the early and late phase of the formalin test. DEAB activity appears to involve the opioid system, TRPM8, and ASIC receptors, clearly showing that the DEAB alleviates acute pain in mice and suggesting the involvement of the TRPM8 and ASIC receptors and the opioid system in acute pain relief.

Dietary menthol-induced TRPM8 activation enhances WAT "browning" and ameliorates diet-induced obesity.

Beige adipocytes are a new type of recruitable brownish adipocytes, with highly mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein 1 expression and thermogenesis. Beige adipocytes were found among white adipocytes, especially in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Therefore, beige adipocytes may be involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and fat deposition. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. It has been reported that TRPM8 activation enhanced the thermogenic function of brown adiposytes. However, the involvement of TRPM8 in the thermogenic function of WAT remains unexplored. Our data revealed that TRPM8 was expressed in mouse white adipocytes at mRNA, protein and functional levels. The mRNA expression of Trpm8 was significantly increased in the differentiated white adipocytes than pre-adipocytes. Moreover, activation of TRPM8 by menthol enhanced the expression of thermogenic genes in cultured white aidpocytes. And menthol-induced increases of the thermogenic genes in white adipocytes was inhibited by either KT5720 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) or BAPTA-AM. In addition, high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice was significantly recovered by co-treatment with menthol. Dietary menthol enhanced WAT "browning" and improved glucose metabolism in HFD-induced obesity mice as well. Therefore, we concluded that TRPM8 might be involved in WAT "browning" by increasing the expression levels of genes related to thermogenesis and energy metabolism. And dietary menthol could be a novel approach for combating human obesity and related metabolic diseases.

Menthol evokes Ca(2+) signals and induces oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 (menthol) receptor in cancer cells.

Menthol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol possessing remarkable biological properties including antipruritic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and cooling effects. Here, we examined the menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of menthol (50-500µM) was predicted to be mediated by the transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8). However, the intensity of menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals did not correlate with the expression levels of TRPM8 in breast and prostate cancer cells indicating a TRPM8-independent signaling pathway. Menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals were analyzed in detail in Du 145 prostate cancer cells, as well as in CRISPR/Cas9 TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells. Menthol (500µM) induced Ca(2+) oscillations in both cell lines, thus independent of TRPM8, which were however dependent on the production of inositol trisphosphate. Results based on pharmacological tools point to an involvement of the purinergic pathway in menthol-evoked Ca(2+) responses. Finally, menthol (50-500µM) decreased cell viability and induced oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 channels, despite that temperature-evoked TRPM8-mediated inward currents were significantly decreased in TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells compared to wild type Du 145 cells.

TRPM8 activation improves energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and exercise endurance in mice.

Skeletal muscle serving as the major organ is responsible for energy expenditure and exercise endurance, which directly influence cardiometabolic risk factors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. It has been reported that TRPM8 activation enhanced the energy metabolism of adipocytes. However, the involvement of TRPM8 in the energy metabolism of skeletal muscle remains unexplored. Our data revealed that TRPM8 was expressed in cultured C2C12 myocytes. Menthol treatment increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through TRPM8 activation. Moreover, dietary menthol upregulated the expression of UCP1 and PGC1α in skeletal muscle of mice. In addition, dietary menthol enhanced exercise endurance and reduced blood lactic acid and triglycerides through TRPM8 activation. It is concluded that dietary menthol improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by increasing UCP1 and PGC1α in skeletal muscles, suggesting dietary menthol might be a novel therapeutic approach for cardiometabolic diseases management and prevention.

The anthelminthic drug praziquantel is a selective agonist of the sensory transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 channel.

Praziquantel is the most effective anthelminthic drug for the treatment of schistosomiasis, an infectious disease caused by the platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. While praziquantel is known to trigger calcium influx into schisostomes, followed by spastic paralysis of the worms and tegumental disruption, the mechanism of action of the drug is not completely understood. Although relatively well tolerated, praziquantel has been reported to cause mild adverse effects, including nausea, abdominal pain and headaches. As a number of putative Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel genes have recently been predicted in S. mansoni, we sought to investigate the effect of praziquantel on three mammalian TRP channels, TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8), TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1). Using calcium microfluorimetry and the patch clamp technique, we recorded the effect of praziquantel on HEK293T cells expressing recombinant TRPM8, TRPV1 or TRPA1, as well as on cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild type and TRPM8 null mutant mice. We discovered that praziquantel is a relatively potent and selective partial agonist of the mammalian and avian cold and menthol receptor TRPM8. The activation of cultured DRG neurons by clinically relevant concentrations of praziquantel is predominantly mediated by TRPM8. Our results may provide clues to a better understanding of praziquantel's mechanism of action and its adverse effects.

Activation of Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) by Calcium-Rich Particulate Materials and Effects on Human Lung Cells.

To better understand how adverse health effects are caused by exposure to particulate materials, and to develop preventative measures, it is important to identify the properties of particles and molecular targets that link exposure with specific biologic outcomes. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a by-product of coal combustion that can affect human health. We report that human transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) and an N-terminally truncated TRPM8 variant (TRPM8-Δ801) are activated by CFA and calcium-rich nanoparticles and/or soluble salts within CFA. TRPM8 activation by CFA was potentiated by cold temperature involving the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding residue (L1008), but was independent of the icilin and menthol binding site residue Y745 and, essentially, the N-terminal amino acids 1-800. CFA, calcium nanoparticles, and calcium salts also activated transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), but not TRPV4. CFA treatment induced CXCL1 and interleukin-8 mRNA in BEAS-2B and primary human bronchial epithelial cells through activation of both TRPM8 and TRPV1. However, neither mouse nor rat TRPM8 was activated by these materials, and Trpm8 knockout had no effect on cytokine induction in the lungs of CFA-instilled mice. Amino acids S921 and S927 in mouse Trpm8 were identified as important for the lack of response to CFA. These results imply that TRPM8, in conjunction with TRPV1 and TRPA1, might sense selected forms of inhaled particulate materials in human airways, shaping cellular responses to these materials, and improving our understanding of how and why certain particulate materials elicit different responses in biologic systems, affecting human health.

Menthol-Induced Cutaneous Vasodilation Is Preserved in Essential Hypertensive Men and Women.

Menthol is a selective transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel agonist that induces cutaneous vasodilation in young, normotensive men and women through nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-, and sensory nerve-mediated mechanisms. Microvascular dysfunction is present in essential hypertension and whether menthol induces vasodilation is men and women with essential hypertension is equivocal.

Stimulation of transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) channels increases interleukin-8 gene promoter activity involving AP-1 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase.

Stimulation of Ca(2+) permeable TRPM3 (transient receptor potential melastatin-3) channels with the steroid ligand pregnenolone sulfate activates stimulus-responsive transcription factors, including the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1). As part of a search for AP-1-regulated target genes we analyzed the gene encoding interleukin-8 (IL-8) in HEK293 cells expressing TRPM3 channels. Here, we show that stimulation of TRPM3 channels activated transcription of an IL-8 promoter-controlled reporter gene that was embedded into the chromatin of the cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter revealed that the AP-1 binding site of the IL-8 promoter was essential to connect TRPM3 stimulation with the transcription of the IL-8 gene. Genetic experiments revealed that the basic region leucine zipper proteins c-Jun and ATF2 and the ternary complex factor Elk-1 are essential to couple TRPM3 channel stimulation with the IL-8 gene. Moreover, we identified extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) as signal transducer connecting TRPM3 stimulation with enhanced transcription of the IL-8 gene. Furthermore, we show that stimulation of TRPC6 (transient receptor potential canonical-6) channels with its ligand hyperforin also increased IL-8 promoter activity, involving the AP-1 binding site within the IL-8 gene, suggesting that activation of IL-8 gene transcription may be a common theme following TRP channel stimulation.

Pilot evaluation of the antipruritic efficacy of a topical transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 8 (TRPM8) agonist in dogs with atopic dermatitis and pedal pruritus.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) requires a multimodal therapy and there is a need for effective adjunctive interventions. TRPM8 agonists are known to alleviate pruritus by inducing cooling.

TRP Channels as Potential Drug Targets.

The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of channels comprises a diverse group of cation channels. Four TRP channel subunits coassemble to form functional homo- or heterotetramers that pass sodium, calcium, or both in the inward direction. Modulating TRP channel activity provides an important way to impact cellular function by regulating both membrane excitability and intracellular calcium levels. The import of these channels is underscored by the number of genetic diseases caused when they are mutated: Skeletal, skin, sensory, ocular, cardiac, and neuronal disturbances all arise from aberrant TRP function. Not surprisingly, there has been significant pharmaceutical interest in targeting these fascinating channels. Compounds that modulate TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3, TRPV4, TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) have all entered clinical trials. The goal of this review is to familiarize the readers with the rationale behind the pursuit of these channels in drug discovery and the status of those efforts. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

Dynamic Sensitivity of Corneal TRPM8 Receptors to Menthol Instillation in Dry Eye Versus Normal Subjects.

To assess the sensitivity of corneal cold receptors to a known transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist, menthol, in dry eye and normals, and to determine whether factors such as disease duration or age affect responses.

Quantitative Analysis of Mouse Dural Afferent Neurons Expressing TRPM8, VGLUT3, and NF200.

To quantify the abundance of dural afferent neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in adult mice.

Effects of menthol and its interaction with nicotine-conditioned cue on nicotine-seeking behavior in rats.

Increasing clinical evidence suggests that menthol, a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products, may contribute to smoking and nicotine dependence. Relapse to smoking behavior presents a formidable challenge for the treatment of tobacco addiction. An unresolved issue is whether the mentholation of tobacco products precipitates relapse to tobacco use in abstinent smokers.

Novel selective, potent naphthyl TRPM8 antagonists identified through a combined ligand- and structure-based virtual screening approach.

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a nonselective cation channel, is the predominant mammalian cold temperature thermosensor and it is activated by cold temperatures and cooling compounds, such as menthol and icilin. Because of its role in cold allodynia, cold hyperalgesia and painful syndromes TRPM8 antagonists are currently being pursued as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of pain hypersensitivity. Recently TRPM8 has been found in subsets of bladder sensory nerve fibres, providing an opportunity to understand and treat chronic hypersensitivity. However, most of the known TRPM8 inhibitors lack selectivity, and only three selective compounds have reached clinical trials to date. Here, we applied two virtual screening strategies to find new, clinics suitable, TRPM8 inhibitors. This strategy enabled us to identify naphthyl derivatives as a novel class of potent and selective TRPM8 inhibitors. Further characterization of the pharmacologic properties of the most potent compound identified, compound 1, confirmed that it is a selective, competitive antagonist inhibitor of TRPM8. Compound 1 also proved itself active in a overreactive bladder model in vivo. Thus, the novel naphthyl derivative compound identified here could be optimized for clinical treatment of pain hypersensitivity in bladder disorders but also in different other pathologies.

Synthesis, high-throughput screening and pharmacological characterization of β-lactam derivatives as TRPM8 antagonists.

The mammalian transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8), highly expressed in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, mediates the cooling sensation and plays an important role in the cold hypersensitivity characteristic of some types of neuropathic pain, as well as in cancer. Consequently, the identification of selective and potent ligands for TRPM8 is of great interest. Here, a series of compounds, having a β-lactam central scaffold, were prepared to explore the pharmacophore requirements for TRPM8 modulation. Structure-activity studies indicate that the minimal requirements for potent β-lactam-based TRPM8 blockers are hydrophobic groups (benzyl preferentially or (t) Bu) on R(1), R(2), R(3) and R(5) and a short N-alkyl chain (≤3 carbons). The best compounds in the focused library (41 and 45) showed IC50 values of 46 nM and 83 nM, respectively, in electrophysiology assays. These compounds selectively blocked all modalities of TRPM8 activation, i.e. menthol, voltage, and temperature. Molecular modelling studies using a homology model of TRPM8 identified two putative binding sites, involving networks of hydrophobic interactions, and suggesting a negative allosteric modulation through the stabilization of the closed state. Thus, these β-lactams provide a novel pharmacophore scaffold to evolve TRPM8 allosteric modulators to treat TRPM8 channel dysfunction.

Downregulations of TRPM8 expression and membrane trafficking in dorsal root ganglion mediate the attenuation of cold hyperalgesia in CCI rats induced by GFRα3 knockdown.

Cold hyperalgesia is an intractable sensory abnormality commonly seen in peripheral neuropathies. Although glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFRα3) is required for the formation of pathological cold pain has been revealed, potential transduction mechanism is poorly elucidated. We have previously demonstrated the contribution of enhanced activity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) to cold hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Recently, the enhancement of TRPM8 activity is attributed to the increased TRPM8 plasma membrane trafficking. In addition, TRPM8 can be sensitized by the activation of GFRα3, leading to increased cold responses in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GFRα3 could influence cold hyperalgesia of CCI rats via modulating TRPM8 expression and plasma membrane trafficking in dorsal root ganglion (DRG).

3-Iodothyronamine, a Novel Endogenous Modulator of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8?

The decarboxylated and deiodinated thyroid hormone (TH) derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM), is suggested to be involved in energy metabolism and thermoregulation. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as the main targets for 3-T1AM; however, transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) were also recently identified as new targets of 3-T1AM. This article reviews the current knowledge of a putative novel role of 3-T1AM in the modulation of TRPs. Specifically, the TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) was identified as a target of 3-T1AM in different cell types including neoplastic cells, whereby 3-T1AM significantly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) through TRPM8 activation. Similarly, the β-adrenergic receptor is involved in 3-T1AM-induced Ca(2+) influx. Therefore, it has been suggested that 3-T1AM-induced Ca(2+) mobilization might be due to β-adrenergic receptor/TRPM8 channel interaction, which adds to the complexity of GPCR regulation by TRPs. It has been revealed that TRPM8 activation leads to a decline in TRPV1 activity, which may be of therapeutic benefit in clinical circumstances such as treatment of TRPV1-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia, colitis, and dry eye syndrome. This review also summarizes the inverse association between changes in TRPM8 and TRPV1 activity after 3-T1AM stimulation. This finding prompted further detailed investigations of the interplay between 3-T1AM and the GPCR/TRPM8 axis and indicated the probability of additional GPCR/TRP constellations that are modulated by this TH derivative.

N-glycosylation of the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channel is altered in pancreatic cancer cells.

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a membrane ion channel, is activated by thermal and chemical stimuli. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, TRPM8 is required for cell migration, proliferation, and senescence and is associated with tumor size and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma stages. Although the underlying mechanisms of these processes have yet to be described, this cation-permeable channel has been proposed as an oncological target. In this study, the glycosylation status of the TRPM8 channel was shown to affect cell proliferation, cell migration, and calcium uptake. TRPM8 expressed in the membrane of the Panc-1 pancreatic tumoral cell line is non-glycosylated, whereas human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human TRPM8 overexpress a glycosylated protein. Moreover, our data suggest that Ca(2+) uptake is modulated by the glycosylation status of the protein, thus affecting cell proliferation.

Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Subtype 8 Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension Through Ameliorating Vascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Environmental cold-induced hypertension is common, but how to treat cold-induced hypertension remains an obstacle. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a mild cold-sensing nonselective cation channel that is activated by menthol. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation by menthol on mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and the vascular function in cold-induced hypertension.

The identification of the TRPM8 channel on primary culture of human nasal epithelial cells and its response to cooling.

It has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing TRP channel. However, its presence and its role in the nasal cavity have not yet been fully studied.

Identification of a Novel TRPM8 Agonist from Nutmeg: A Promising Cooling Compound.

The transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channel is the primary receptor for innocuous cold stimuli (<28 °C) in humans. TRPM8 agonists such as l-(-)-menthol are widely used as flavors and additives to impart briskness, in addition to medicinal uses for inflammation and pain. Though various natural and synthetic agonists have been explored, only few natural compounds are known. We report herein the identification and characterization of the novel neolignan agonist erythro- and threo-Δ(8')-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (1) with an EC50 of 0.332 μM, which was isolated from a well-known spice, nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Structure activity relationships are also disclosed, showing that the 7-d-menthoxy derivative is the most potent agonist (EC50 = 11 nM). The combination of 1 and l-(-)-menthol has an additive effect, suggesting that neolignan compounds interact with TRPM8 at different sites from those of l-(-)-menthol.

Mechanisms of the analgesic effect of calcitonin on chronic pain by alteration of receptor or channel expression.

The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is well known clinically for its ability to relieve osteoporotic back pain and neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Because the analgesic effects of calcitonin have a broad range, the underlying mechanisms of pain relief by calcitonin are largely unknown. However, recent studies using several types of chronic pain models combined with various methods have been gradually clarifying the mechanism. Here, we review the mechanisms of the analgesic action of calcitonin on ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic and neuropathic pain. The analgesic action of calcitonin may be mediated by restoration of serotonin receptors that control selective glutamate release from C-afferent fibers in ovariectomized rats and by normalization of sodium channel expression in damaged peripheral nerves. Serotonin receptors are reduced or eliminated by the relatively rapid reduction in estrogen during the postmenopausal period, and damaged nerves exhibit hyperexcitability due to abnormal expression of Na(+) channel subtypes. In addition, in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, inhibition of signals related to transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 and melastatin-8 is proposed to participate in the anti-allodynic action of calcitonin. Further, an unknown calcitonin-dependent signal appears to be present in peripheral nervous tissues and may be activated by nerve injury, resulting in regulation of the excitability of primary afferents by control of sodium channel transcription in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The calcitonin signal in normal conditions may be non-functional because no target is present, and ovariectomy or nerve injury may induce a target. Moreover, it has been reported that calcitonin reduces serotonin transporter but increases serotonin receptor expression in the thalamus in ovariectomized rats. These data suggest that calcitonin could alleviate lower back pain in patients with osteoporosis or neuropathic pain by the alteration in receptor or channel expression.

Roles of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 in Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), characterized by symptoms of paresthesia, dysesthesia, numbness, and pain, is a common adverse effect of several chemotherapeutic agents, including platinum-based agents, taxanes, and vinca alkaloids. However, no effective prevention or treatment strategies exist for CIPN because the mechanisms underpinning this neuropathy are poorly understood. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that some transient receptor potential (TRP) channels functioning as nociceptors in primary sensory neurons are responsible for CIPN. In this review, we focus on the specific roles of redox-sensitive TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which was first reported to be a cold nociceptor, in acute cold hypersensitivity induced by oxaliplatin, a platinum-based agent, because it induces a peculiar cold-triggered CIPN during or within hours after its infusion. Oxaliplatin-induced rapid-onset cold hypersensitivity is ameliorated by TRPA1 blockade or deficiency in mice. Consistent with this, oxaliplatin enhances the responsiveness of TRPA1 stimulation, but not of TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), in mice and cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. These responses are mimicked by an oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate. In human TRPA1 (hTRPA1)-expressing cells, oxaliplatin or oxalate causes TRPA1 sensitization to reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Inhibition of PHD-mediated hydroxylation of a proline residue within the N-terminal ankyrin repeat of hTRPA1 endows TRPA1 with cold sensitivity by its sensing of cold-evoked ROS. This review discusses these findings and summarizes the evidence demonstrating that oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity is caused by TRPA1 sensitization to ROS via PHD inhibition, which enables TRPA1 to convert ROS signaling into cold sensitivity.

Cough and airway disease: The role of ion channels.

Cough is the most common reason for patients to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. It can be idiopathic in nature but can also be a troublesome symptom across chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chronic cough affects up to 12% of the population and yet there are no safe and effective therapies. The cough reflex is regulated by vagal, sensory afferent nerves which innervate the airway. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels are expressed on sensory nerve terminals, and when activated can evoke cough. This review focuses on the role of 4 TRP channels; TRP Vannilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), TRP Vannilloid 4 (TRPV4) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and the purinergic P2X3 receptor and their possible role in chronic cough. We conclude that these ion channels, given their expression profile and their role in the activation of sensory afferents and the cough reflex, may represent excellent therapeutic targets for the treatment of respiratory symptoms in chronic lung disease.

Lidocaine suppresses glioma cell proliferation by inhibiting TRPM7 channels.

Malignant glioma is the most common brain cancer with devastating prognosis. Recurrence of malignant glioma following surgery is very common with few preventive and therapeutic options. Novel targets and therapeutic agents are constantly sought for better outcome. Our previous study established that inhibition of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels resulted in significant decrease of human glioma cell growth and proliferation. As local anesthetic lidocaine has been shown to inhibit TRPM7 currents, we hypothesize that lidocaine may suppress glioma cell proliferation through TRPM7 channel inhibition.

Inflammatory Effects of Menthol vs. Non-menthol Cigarette Smoke Extract on Human Lung Epithelial Cells: A Double-Hit on TRPM8 by Reactive Oxygen Species and Menthol.

Clinical studies suggest that smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who use menthol cigarettes may display more severe lung inflammation than those who smoke non-menthol cigarette. However, the mechanisms for this difference remain unclear. Menthol is a ligand of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8), a Ca(2+)-permeant channel sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We previously reported that exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) to non-menthol cigarette smoke extract (Non-M-CSE) triggers a cascade of inflammatory signaling leading to IL-8 induction. In this study, we used this in vitro model to compare the inflammatory effects of menthol cigarette smoke extract (M-CSE) and Non-M-CSE and delineate the mechanisms underlying the differences in their impacts. Compared with Non-M-CSE, M-CSE initially increased a similar level of extracellular ROS, suggesting the equivalent oxidant potency. However, M-CSE subsequently produced more remarkable elevations in intracellular Ca(2+), activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, and IL-8 induction. The extracellular ROS responses to both CSE types were totally inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger). The intracellular Ca(2+) responses to both CSE types were also totally prevented by NAC, AMTB (a TRPM8 antagonist), or EGTA (an extracellular Ca(2+) chelator). The activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling and induction of IL-8 to both CSE types were suppressed to similar levels by NAC, AMTB, or EGTA. These results suggest that, in addition to ROS generated by both CSE types, the menthol in M-CSE may act as another stimulus to further activate TRPM8 and induce the observed responses. We also found that menthol combined with Non-M-CSE induced greater responses of intracellular Ca(2+) and IL-8 compared with Non-M-CSE alone. Moreover, we confirmed the essential role of TRPM8 in these responses to Non-M-CSE or M-CSE and the difference in these responses between the both CSE types using HBECs with TRPM8 knockdown and TRPM8 knockout, and using HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPM8. Thus, compared with exposure to Non-M-CSE, exposure to M-CSE induced greater TRPM8-mediated inflammatory responses in HBECs. These augmented effects may be due to a double-hit on lung epithelial TRPM8 by ROS generated from CSE and the menthol in M-CSE.