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traveller - Top 30 Publications

A stitch in time: unrecognized retained foreign bodies after a needlefish injury.

We present a case report of a traveller injured by a needlefish in the Caribbean. The needlefish leapt from the ocean and struck the traveller's face at high speed, causing a seemingly superficial puncture wound on his nose. Later, it became apparent that multiple fish bones had broken off and lodged in his nasal cavity, very narrowly missing his cribriform plate. Some bones were discharged spontaneously through his nose over the next 3 months, and one required surgical removal. Our report highlights the importance of urgent radiological examination in patients injured by needlefish, even if the external wound appears insignificant.

Repatriation of human remains following death in international travellers.

Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies.

Travellers' diarrhoea-a survey of practice.

Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is a common problem, affecting millions of tourists each year and creating a large economic burden. Risk factors for TD are known and guidelines exist to assist practitioners in advising travellers on how to prevent and treat TD. However, data are lacking regarding actual prescribing practices or approaches used in TD management. This study aims to establish a baseline which identifies uniformities and diversities in practice.

Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: a retrospective audit.

Vaccination is a safe and effective public health intervention that not only protects individual travellers from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but prevents them from becoming a source of disease in their destination and on their return. Obtaining an accurate vaccination history from travellers during a pre-travel review can be difficult; serology may be used to identify patients who are non-immune to specific diseases in order to guide vaccination requirements. Clinically relevant data about the usefulness of serology in this setting are lacking. We performed a retrospective audit of pre-travel VPD serology requested by practitioners of a busy community-based travel clinic.

Zika and Chikungunya virus co-infection in a traveller returning from Colombia, 2016: virus isolation and genetic analysis.

Zikavirus (ZIKV) and Chikungunyavirus (CHIKV) can share the same mosquito vector, and co-infections by these viruses can occur in humans. While infections with these viruses share commonalities, CHIKV is unique in causing arthritis and arthralgias that may persist for a year or more. These infections are commonly diagnosed by RT-PCR-based methods during the acute phase of infection. Even with the high specificity and sensitivity characteristic of PCR, false negatives can occur, highlighting the need for additional diagnostic methods for confirmation.

Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.

A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country.

Needles, Jabs and Jags: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to child and adult immunisation uptake among Gypsies, Travellers and Roma.

Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, it is necessary to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. This study had two aims. 1. Investigate the views of Travellers in the UK on the barriers and facilitators to acceptability and uptake of immunisations and explore their ideas for improving immunisation uptake; 2. Examine whether and how these responses vary across and within communities, and for different vaccines (childhood and adult).

Factors influencing uptake of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization in site-dwelling Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) communities: a qualitative study of G&T parents' beliefs and experiences.

Increasing immunization in the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) community is a key priority for improving health outcomes in this community. This study aimed to explore G&T parents: (1) beliefs about childhood immunization; (2) beliefs about the risks of immunization and non-immunization; (3) perceived obstacles to, and facilitators of, immunization and (4) views on increasing immunization levels.

Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point.

Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point.

Genomic insights into the population structure and history of the Irish Travellers.

The Irish Travellers are a population with a history of nomadism; consanguineous unions are common and they are socially isolated from the surrounding, 'settled' Irish people. Low-resolution genetic analysis suggests a common Irish origin between the settled and the Traveller populations. What is not known, however, is the extent of population structure within the Irish Travellers, the time of divergence from the general Irish population, or the extent of autozygosity. Using a sample of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or world-wide individuals, we demonstrate evidence for population substructure within the Irish Traveller population, and estimate a time of divergence before the Great Famine of 1845-1852. We quantify the high levels of autozygosity, which are comparable to levels previously described in Orcadian 1(st)/2(nd) cousin offspring, and finally show the Irish Traveller population has no particular genetic links to the European Roma. The levels of autozygosity and distinct Irish origins have implications for disease mapping within Ireland, while the population structure and divergence inform on social history.

Fluoroquinolone antibiotic users select fluoroquinolone-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) - Data of prospective traveller study.

One third of travellers to the poor regions of the (sub)tropics become colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). Co-resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics complicates the treatment of potential ESBL-PE infections.

Peritoneal and genital coccidioidomycosis in an otherwise healthy Danish female: a case report.

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark.

Facilitators for travelling with local public transport among people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke.

Previous research of how people with stroke manage public transport has mainly focused on barriers due to physical limitations whereas the influence of cognitive limitations is scarce. There is also a lack of knowledge of facilitators that can help to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to describe facilitators for travelling with public transport, e.g. local buses, among people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke.

A severe case of visceral leishmaniasis and liposomal amphotericin B treatment failure in an immunosuppressed patient 15 years after exposure.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for 200.000-400.000 yearly infections worldwide. If left untreated, the fatality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 years. 90% of cases occur in just six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. It is thus a disease rarely seen by physicians in Europe or North America. We report on the fatal case of VL in an 80-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with a latency of over 15 years after having visited an endemic region. This is the first report showing such extreme latency of VL in a European traveller. This case is furthermore unusual because it suggests primary treatment failure to liposomal amphotericin B.

Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention.

Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings.

Splenomegaly in the returning traveller: a diagnostic workup.

Isolated splenomegaly is an unusual condition encompassing a broad range of diagnoses. We report a case of a 38-year-old Asian man who presented with insidious abdominal discomfort and night sweats following recent travel to India. Massive splenomegaly was the only prominent feature on clinical examination and on subsequent imaging. Extensive investigations were performed, ultimately resulting in transfer to a tertiary centre for definitive diagnosis via a splenic biopsy. A fine-needle aspiration was performed, and revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Consequently, he was successfully treated with a course of chemotherapy.

Long-term kinetics of Zika virus RNA and antibodies in body fluids of a vasectomized traveller returning from Martinique: a case report.

The magnitude of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO. Findings of viable viral particles in semen for several weeks are corroborating reports of sexual transmission of ZIKV. Serious consequences of a positive diagnostic result particularly in the pregnant patient are calling for precise diagnostic tools also at later time points after infection. Currently, recommendations suggest a diagnostic period of direct viral detection of 5 to 7 days after onset of symptoms in serum or plasma, and up to 3 weeks in urine samples.

An unexpected waterborne traveller.

Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016.

Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT > 1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa.

Incidental non-functional ectopic thyroid in a returning traveller.

Indoor development of Aedes aegypti in Germany, 2016.

In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the 'Mueckenatlas' project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany.

Do alcohol-based hand rubs reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea during military deployments? A prospective randomized trial.

Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions.

Community engagement to enhance trust between Gypsy/Travellers, and maternity, early years' and child dental health services: protocol for a multi-method exploratory study.

Gypsy/Travellers have poor health and experience discrimination alongside structural and cultural barriers when accessing health services and consequently may mistrust those services. Our study aims to investigate which approaches to community engagement are most likely to be effective at enhancing trust between Gypsy/Travellers and mainstream health services.

Zika virus-induced itching rash in a returning traveller from Brazil.

Failure of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a traveller coming from Ethiopia.

Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is used worldwide as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Despite the success of ACT in reducing the global burden of malaria, the emerging of resistance to artemisinin threatens its use.

Refusal of recommended travel-related vaccines among U.S. international travellers in Global TravEpiNet.

International travellers are at risk of travel-related, vaccine-preventable diseases. More data are needed on the proportion of travellers who refuse vaccines during a pre-travel health consultation and their reasons for refusing vaccines.

Gnathostomiasis in Brazil: an emerging disease with a challenging diagnosis.

This case report describes the second reported case of gnathostomiasis acquired in Brazil. The French traveller returned from a sport fishing trip from Tocantins where he was repeatedly consuming raw freshwater fish marinated with lemon juice. Gnathostoma infection was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, dietary record and by detection of specific antibodies in the blood.

How low an effect of a preventive measure against diarrhoea are travellers willing to pay for?: A survey of Norwegian travellers.

Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious problem for travellers, and we lack effective ways of preventing it, apart from antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aims to quantify the risk reduction of a hypothetic TD vaccine Norwegian travellers are willing to pay for.

A closer look at travellers' infections abroad: Finnish nationwide data with incidences, 2010 to 2012.

Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce.

Zika virus maculopapular exanthema in traveller returning from Martinique to Mainland France.