PubTransformer

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Activities of Daily Living - Top 30 Publications

Do Exercise Interventions Improve Participation in Life Roles in Older Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The World Health Organization recognizes participation in meaningful life roles as a key component of health. However, the evidence base for interventions to improve participation remains inconclusive. In particular, whether exercise interventions improve participation in life roles is unclear.

Cross-Sectional Relationships of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transition between normal cognitive aging and dementia and may represent a critical time frame for promoting cognitive health through behavioral strategies. Current evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important for cognition. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI or whether the relationships of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differ by MCI status.

Using Rasch Analysis to Validate the Motor Activity Log and the Lower Functioning Motor Activity Log in Patients With Stroke.

The Motor Activity Log (MAL) and Lower-Functioning MAL (LF-MAL) are used to assess the amount of use of the more impaired arm and the quality of movement during activities in real-life situations for patients with stroke.

Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics.

Improving Life for Elders-At Home.

Sarah Szanton's CAPABLE program helps older adults 'age in place' and cuts health care costs.

For how many days and what types of group activities should older Japanese adults be involved in to maintain health? A 4-year longitudinal study.

Studies have suggested that frequent participation in social groups contributes to the well-being of older people. The primary aim of this study was to identify the number of days older adults should participate in the activities of social groups to maintain their health for 4 years. This study also aimed to examine whether the effective frequency differs by the type of social group activity.

Quality of Life, Functioning, and Depressive Symptom Severity in Older Adults With Major Depressive Disorder Treated With Citalopram in the STAR*D Study.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) can substantially worsen patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and functioning. Prior studies have examined the role of age in MDD by comparing depressive symptom severity or remission rates between younger and older adults. This study examines these outcomes before and after SSRI treatment. On the basis of prior research, we hypothesized that older adults would have worse treatment outcomes in QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity and that nonremitters would have worse outcomes.

Dose of physical activity, physical functioning and disability risk in mobility-limited older adults: Results from the LIFE study randomized trial.

Understanding the minimal dose of physical activity required to achieve improvement in physical functioning and reductions in disability risk is necessary to inform public health recommendations. To examine the effect of physical activity dose on changes in physical functioning and the onset of major mobility disability in The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study. We conducted a multicenter single masked randomized controlled trial that enrolled participants in 2010 and 2011 and followed them for an average of 2.6 years. 1,635 sedentary men and women aged 70-89 years who had functional limitations were randomized to a structured moderate intensity walking, resistance, and flexibility physical activity program or a health education program. Physical activity dose was assessed by 7-day accelerometry and self-report at baseline and 24 months. Outcomes included the 400 m walk gait speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months, and onset of major mobility disability (objectively defined by loss of ability to walk 400 m in 15 min). When the physical activity arm or the entire sample were stratified by change in physical activity from baseline to 24 months, there was a dose-dependent increase in the change in gait speed and SPPB from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, the magnitude of change in physical activity over 24 months was related to the reduction in the onset of major mobility disability (overall P < 0.001) (highest versus the lowest quartile of physical activity change HR 0.23 ((95% CI:0.10-0.52) P = 0.001) in the physical activity arm. We observed a dose-dependent effect of objectively monitored physical activity on physical functioning and onset of major mobility disability. Relatively small increases (> 48 minutes per week) in regular physical activity participation had significant and clinically meaningful effects on these outcomes.

Clinical and Community Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Falls in older adults are the result of several risk factors across biological and behavioral aspects of the person, along with environmental factors. Falls can trigger a downward spiral in activities of daily living, independence, and overall health outcomes. Clinicians who care for older adults should screen them annually for falls. A multifactorial comprehensive clinical fall assessment coupled with tailored interventions can result in a dramatic public health impact, while improving older adult quality of life. For community-dwelling older adults, effective fall prevention has the potential to reduce serious fall-related injuries, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, institutionalization, and functional decline.

Impaired Mobility and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Evidence to Facilitate a Practice Change.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services report nearly 55% of Medicare beneficiaries older than 85 experience impaired mobility and nearly 28% (n = 671,833) of these individuals have difficulty getting help. Impaired mobility is a precursor to disability, which has notable clinical significance and importance to older adults. Using case exemplars of older adults who have experienced a "serious" fall, along with evidence-based research, the physical, psychosocial, emotional, and clinical consequences are discussed, along with assessment parameters and interventions for maximizing function and early mobility.

E pluribus unum: Harmonization of physical functioning across intervention studies of middle-aged and older adults.

Common scales for physical functioning are not directly comparable without harmonization techniques, complicating attempts to pool data across studies. Our aim was to provide a standardized metric for physical functioning in adults based on basic and instrumental activities of daily living scaled to NIH PROMIS norms. We provide an item bank to compare the difficulty of various physical functioning activities. We used item response theory methods to place 232 basic and instrumental activities of daily living questions, administered across eight intervention studies of middle-aged and older adults (N = 2,556), on a common metric. We compared the scale's precision to an average z-score of items and evaluated criterion validity based on objective measures of physical functioning and Fried's frailty criteria. Model-estimated item thresholds were widely distributed across the range of physical functioning. From test information plots, the lowest precision in each dataset was 0.80. Using power calculations, the sample size needed to detect 25% physical functional decline with 80% power based on the physical functioning factor was less than half of what would be needed using an average z-score. The physical functioning factor correlated in expected directions with objective measurements from the Timed Up and Go task, tandem balance, gait speed, chair stands, grip strength, and frailty status. Item-level harmonization enables direct comparison of physical functioning measures across existing and potentially future studies and across levels of function using a nationally representative metric. We identified key thresholds of physical functioning items in an item bank to facilitate clinical and epidemiologic decision-making.

Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study.

Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken.

Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for headache pain: An evaluation of the long-term maintenance of effects.

This study aimed to examine the durability of gain patterns following an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for headache pain program.

Effect of a Community-Based Service Learning Experience in Geriatrics on Internal Medicine Residents and Community Participants.

Community-based service learning (CBSL) provides an opportunity to teach internal medicine residents the social context of aging and clinical concepts. The objectives of the current study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a CBSL program targeting internal medicine residents and to assess its effect on medical residents and community participants. internal medicine residents participated in a CBSL experience for half a day during ambulatory blocks from 2011 to 2014. Residents attended a senior housing unit or center, delivered a presentation about a geriatric health topic, toured the facility, and received information about local older adult resources. Residents evaluated the experience. Postgraduate Year 3 internal medicine residents (n = 71) delivered 64 sessions. Residents felt that the experience increased their ability to communicate effectively with older adults (mean 3.91 ± 0.73 on a Likert scale with 5 = strongly agree), increased their knowledge of resources (4.09 ± 1.01), expanded their knowledge of a health topic pertinent to aging (3.48 ± 1.09), and contributed to their capacity to evaluate and care for older adults (3.84 ± 0.67). Free-text responses demonstrated that residents thought that this program would change their practice. Of 815 older adults surveyed from 36 discrete teaching sessions, 461 (56%) thought that the medical residents delivered health information clearly (4.55 ± 0.88) and that the health topics were relevant (4.26 ± 0.92). Free-text responses showed that the program helped them understand their health concerns. This CBSL program is a feasible and effective tool for teaching internal medicine residents and older adults.

Activity limitations and subjective well-being after stroke.

As limitations in activities of daily living are major components of many stroke outcome scales, we examined how well activity limitations predicted subjective well-being among stroke survivors in a nationally representative survey.

A comparative study of patients' activities and interactions in a stroke unit before and after reconstruction-The significance of the built environment.

Early mobilization and rehabilitation, multidisciplinary stroke expertise and comprehensive therapies are fundamental in a stroke unit. To achieve effective and safe stroke care, the physical environment in modern stroke units should facilitate the delivery of evidence-based care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore patients' activities and interactions in a stroke unit before the reconstruction of the physical environment, while in a temporary location and after reconstruction. This case study examined a stroke unit as an integrated whole. The data were collected using a behavioral mapping technique at three different time points: in the original unit, in the temporary unit and in the new unit. A total of 59 patients were included. The analysis included field notes from observations of the physical environment and examples from planning and design documents. The findings indicated that in the new unit, the patients spent more time in their rooms, were less active, and had fewer interactions with staff and family than the patients in the original unit. The reconstruction involved a change from a primarily multi-bed room design to single-room accommodations. In the new unit, the patients' lounge was located in a far corner of the unit with a smaller entrance than the patients' lounge in the old unit, which was located at the end of a corridor with a noticeable entrance. Changes in the design of the stroke unit may have influenced the patients' activities and interactions. This study raises the question of how the physical environment should be designed in the future to facilitate the delivery of health care and improve outcomes for stroke patients. This research is based on a case study, and although the results should be interpreted with caution, we strongly recommend that environmental considerations be included in future stroke guidelines.

Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews.

While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA) brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old.

Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians.

To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).

Perspectives on the risks for older adults living independently.

Insight into risks concerning older adults living independently from their own perspective and their care provider's perspective is essential to address issues that may threaten their independent living. The most often mentioned perceived risks by older adults and their care providers in different regions in the Netherlands were: loneliness, falls, budget cuts in Dutch long-term care and not being able to call for help. The different perspectives of the respondents show a wide variety in risks, but also some similarities. The perspective of the frail older adults is required to gain insight into the priority of their perceived risks. An additional finding was the reluctance shown by the older adults to ask others in their social network for help. Results imply that possible preventive measures should not only focus on the medical or physical domain because older adults are likely to have other priorities to maintain self-reliance and live independently.

Predictors of Independent Aging and Survival: A 16-Year Follow-Up Report in Octogenarian Men.

To examine the longitudinal associations between aging with preserved functionality, i.e. independent aging and survival, and lifestyle variables, dietary pattern and cardiovascular risk factors.

Development of responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in fibromyalgia.

There is a need to identify individual treatment success in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who received non-pharmacological treatment. The present study described responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in FM, and estimated and compared their sensitivity and specificity.

Validation of accuracy of SVM-based fall detection system using real-world fall and non-fall datasets.

Falls are a major cause of injuries and deaths in older adults. Even when no injury occurs, about half of all older adults who fall are unable to get up without assistance. The extended period of lying on the floor often leads to medical complications, including muscle damage, dehydration, anxiety and fear of falling. Wearable sensor systems incorporating accelerometers and/or gyroscopes are designed to prevent long lies by automatically detecting and alerting care providers to the occurrence of a fall. Research groups have reported up to 100% accuracy in detecting falls in experimental settings. However, there is a lack of studies examining accuracy in the real-world setting. In this study, we examined the accuracy of a fall detection system based on real-world fall and non-fall data sets. Five young adults and 19 older adults went about their daily activities while wearing tri-axial accelerometers. Older adults experienced 10 unanticipated falls during the data collection. Approximately 400 hours of activities of daily living were recorded. We employed a machine learning algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, to identify falls and non-fall events. We found that our system was able to detect 8 out of the 10 falls in older adults using signals from a single accelerometer (waist or sternum). Furthermore, our system did not report any false alarm during approximately 28.5 hours of recorded data from young adults. However, with older adults, the false positive rate among individuals ranged from 0 to 0.3 false alarms per hour. While our system showed higher fall detection and substantially lower false positive rate than the existing fall detection systems, there is a need for continuous efforts to collect real-world data within the target population to perform fall validation studies for fall detection systems on bigger real-world fall and non-fall datasets.

A 12-week intervention with protein-enriched foods and drinks improved protein intake but not physical performance of older patients during the first 6 months after hospital release: a randomised controlled trial.

During and after hospitalisation, older adults are recommended to consume 1·2-1·5 g of protein/kg body weight per d (g/kg per d) to improve recovery. This randomised controlled trial studied the effectiveness of a 12-week intervention with protein-enriched foods and drinks by following-up seventy-five older patients (mean age: 76·8 (sd 6·9) years) during their first 6 months after hospital discharge. Primary outcomes were protein intake and physical performance (measured with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)). Secondary outcomes for physical recovery were gait speed, chair-rise time, leg-extension strength, hand-grip strength, body weight, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment), independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and physical activity. The intervention group consumed more protein during the 12-week intervention period compared with the control group (P<0·01): 112 (sd 34) g/d (1·5 (sd 0·6) g/kg per d) v. 78 (sd 18) g/d (1·0 (sd 0·4) g/kg per d). SPPB total score, gait speed, chair-rise time, body weight and nutritional status improved at week 12 compared with baseline (time effect P<0·05), but were not different between groups. Leg-extension strength, hand-grip strength and independence in ADL did not change. In conclusion, protein-enriched products enabled older adults to increase their protein intake to levels that are higher than their required intake. In these older adults with already adequate protein intakes and limited physical activity, protein enrichment did not enhance physical recovery in the first 6 months after hospital discharge.

Fear and Risk of Falling, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality of Life: Assessment When Older Adults Receive Emergency Department Care.

Falls tend to create fear and concern in older adults who also seek care in emergency departments (EDs) at high rates.

Determinants of generic and specific health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments may reflect different aspects of lives in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and thus be associated with different determinants. We used the same cluster of predictors for the generic and disease-specific HRQoL instruments to examine and compare the determinants of HRQoL.

Polypharmacy and Gait Performance in Community-dwelling Older Adults.

To examine the relationship between polypharmacy and gait performance during simple (normal walk (NW)) and complex (walking while talking (WWT)) locomotion.

Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke.

Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain.

Functional Impairment: An Unmeasured Marker of Medicare Costs for Postacute Care of Older Adults.

To assess the effects of preadmission functional impairment on Medicare costs of postacute care up to 365 days after hospital discharge.

The Association Between Activity Limitation Stages and Admission to Facilities Providing Long-term Care Among Older Medicare Beneficiaries.

This study aimed to examine whether activity limitation stages are associated with admission to facilities providing long-term care (LTC).