A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Activities of Daily Living - Top 30 Publications

Outcome Measures in Myasthenia Gravis: Incorporation Into Clinical Practice.

The development of validated assessment tools for evaluating disease status and response to interventions in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has been driven by clinical studies of emerging MG therapies. However, only a small proportion of MG-focused neurology practices have adopted these assessment tools for routine clinical use. This article reviews the suitability of 5 assessment instruments for incorporation into clinical practice, which should be driven by their ability to contribute to improved patient outcomes, and to be implemented within practice personnel and resource constraints. It is recommended that assessments based on both physician-evaluated and patient-reported outcomes be selected, to adequately evaluate both point-in-time symptom load and functional impact of MG symptoms over time. Provider resource allocation and reimbursement issues may be the most significant roadblocks to successful ongoing use of these tools; to that end, the addition of regular assessments to MG standards of care is recommended.

Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions.

Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation.

Factor Structure and Construct Validity of Children Participation Assessment Scale in Activities Outside of School-Parent Version (CPAS-P).

The aim of this study was assess the factor structure, reliability and construct validity of the Children Participation Assessment Scale in Activities Outside of School-Parent Version (CPAS-P). The participants of this study were 700 parents of children aged 6-12 years. For data analysis, the confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were conducted. Convergent validity was calculated by correlation with the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. The results indicated the CPAS-P has good internal reliability. Overall, Cronbach's alpha for the participation measures ranged between 0.87 and 0.91, indicating good homogeneity, and Spearman correlations for convergent validity was acceptable. The temporal stability of the CPAS-P was supported with Intra-Class Correlations ranging from 0.79 to 0.94. Therefore, the CPAS-P, which evaluates all eight areas of occupation (i.e., activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, play, leisure, social participation, education, work, and sleep/rest) has demonstrated good psychometric properties; and can be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess children's participation at the age of 6-12 years.

An Evaluation of the Texas Functional Living Scale's Latent Structure and Subscales.

Performance-based functional assessment is a critical component of neuropsychological practice. The Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS) has promise given its brevity, nationally representative norms, and co-norming with Wechsler scales. However, its subscale structure has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the TFLS in a mixed clinical sample (n = 197).

Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits.

Childhood leukaemia survivors' experiences of long-term follow-ups in an endocrine clinic - A focus-group study.

The survival rate after childhood cancer has improved markedly and today more than 80% of patients will survive. Many childhood cancer survivors suffer from late complications due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL), treated with cranial radiotherapy, are at a particularly high risk of having endocrine complications.

Autism, Art, and Accessibility to Theater.

Art has the ability to entertain and educate about many vital aspects of the human experience. Recently, innovative endeavors are providing greater accessibility to theatrical productions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), prompting ethical questions about how accommodations to provide access to art and culture should be made, and for whom. This article uses an attributional model of stigma to explain potential differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward people with mental illness. This social cognitive model also provides clues about how to spur social change through translational education, familiarization, and advocacy to permit greater access to art for people with disabilities.

Professor Bengt Saltin Symposium - Environmental challenges to human performance.

This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment. The 1998 Danish High-Altitude Expedition to the Andes, in particular, resulted in many major contributions to the field of altitude physiology including, but not limited to, mechanisms of reductions in maximal oxygen uptake, the lactate paradox, acclimatization, muscle metabolism, gas exchange, cerebrovascular physiology, etc. Of note, many of these related studies were conducted in both Danish sojourners to altitude and Bolivian altitude natives of Aymara ancestry, thus providing some of the most mechanistic comparisons with high altitude natives to date. A framework of these physiological contributions in terrestrial extremes is provided in this review.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Caregiver Dependence among Older Adults in a Southeast Asian Population.

Currently very little is known about the prevalence or magnitude of caregiver dependence in Singapore and thus, there is a need to fill this gap in this multiethnic ageing population. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver dependence among older adults in Singapore.

Processes of developing 'community livability' in older age.

'Community livability' is a widely used term that is still under-conceptualized. The purpose of the project was to theorize key dynamics of livability for older adults who are aging in place in their homes and communities.

Oscillating in and out of place: Experiences of older adults residing in homeless shelters in Montreal, Quebec.

Aging in place is desirable from the perspective of older adults and policy makers alike. However, the meaning of 'place' for adults experiencing homelessness has been largely overlooked. Addressing this gap, this constructivist grounded theory study discusses the meaning of place for 15 older adults residing in emergency homeless shelters in Montreal, Quebec. Findings revealed that four interrelated dimensions of place-that is, control, comfort, privacy, and security were instrumental in supporting participants' ability to feel in place across housed-homeless trajectories. Many felt out of place well before they lost their housing and some felt more in place during homelessness when shelter conditions and interpersonal relations supported these four dimensions. The empirically-driven model oscillating in and out of place extends and nuances existing understandings of aging in place and provides insights into policy and practice solutions for older adults who may not have a stable place to call home.

Is mid-life social participation associated with cognitive function at age 50? Results from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS).

Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics.

Hospitalization Deteriorates Performance of Activities of Daily Living by Super-Elderly Patients With Heart Failure.

If you know a lonely older person, try tea and empathy.

One third of people say they are aware of lonely older people in their communities and one in four are aware but do not know how to offer adequate help. These are two of the startling findings from our latest research.

Value of music.

Groups that engage residents in singing, dancing or music are becoming common in care homes, and are likely to have health and social benefits for many people.

What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers.

The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

The education influence on effects of rehabilitation in patients after stroke.

Patients after stroke face a new situation where some educational and pedagogical actions should be reinitiated. Stroke often causes a break away from the previous lifestyle. It the acute phase it excludes the possibility of employment or performance of household duties that were carried out before or indulging in previously preferred ways of spending free time. Patients often abandon the habits that they developed before stroke, inclusive of hygienic habits. Therefore, it is an important objective of rehabilitation to reinstate in stroke patients behaviours characteristic of their peers, which would mark the beginning of their own care for health. The pedagogic and educational activities should lead to a transformation in the patient. This could be one of the factors in facilitating the patient's return to previous forms of activity.

Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years.

Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years.

Repetitive task training for improving functional ability after stroke.

Repetitive task training (RTT) involves the active practice of task-specific motor activities and is a component of current therapy approaches in stroke rehabilitation.

Strength and ability to implement the activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas.

To examine the association between muscle strength and the ability to perform basic and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas of Jequie, Brazil.

Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders: disability, pain intensity and fear of movement.

The objective was to compare and correlate disability, pain intensity, the impact of headache on daily life and the fear of movement between subgroups of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD).

Meanings of balance for people with long-term illnesses.

The aim of this study was to elucidate meanings of balance in everyday life for people with long-term illnesses living at home. People living with long-term illnesses are in need of help and support to manage their daily lives. Twelve adults with extensive needs for help and support were interviewed. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation was used to analyse the interview texts. The findings show that balance in everyday life for people with long-term illnesses means striving for independence through care and support in their surroundings. It was also important to be able to choose how their lives would be and to be with others who listened and understood them for who they are. By building a relationship with patients at an early stage of their illnesses, nursing staff have an opportunity to understand what people who are living at home with long-term illnesses need in order to achieve balance in their everyday lives.

Associations between heart failure and physical function in US adults.

There is a paucity of nationally representative data in the area of heart failure (HF) and physical function (PF).

Time-limited home-care reablement services for maintaining and improving the functional independence of older adults.

Reablement, also known as restorative care, is one possible approach to home-care services for older adults at risk of functional decline. Unlike traditional home-care services, reablement is frequently time-limited (usually six to 12 weeks) and aims to maximise independence by offering an intensive multidisciplinary, person-centred and goal-directed intervention.

Reliability and validity of the function in sitting test in nonambulatory individuals with multiple sclerosis.

Poor seated balance negatively impacts the performance of activities of daily living in nonambulatory individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is frequently a target of rehabilitation interventions. However, there is a lack of clinical measures of seated balance in nonambulatory individuals with MS, thus limiting evaluation of rehabilitation treatments. The aim of this investigation is to determine the reliability and concurrent validity of the Function in Sitting Test (FIST) as a measure of sitting balance in nonambulatory individuals with MS. Twenty nonambulatory individuals with MS [mean age±SD=56.8±10.9 years, women n=15 (75%), mean MS duration±SD=17.8±9.2 years, mean wheelchair usage duration±SD=5.9±4.7 years] underwent a FIST and posturography assessment. The FIST is a 14-item clinical functional assessment of sitting balance validated in adults with acute stroke. The seated posturography assessment involved participants sitting on a force platform without support for 30 s. On the basis of the center of pressure trajectory obtained from the force platform software, two force platform outcomes were quantified: sway area (mm) of the center of pressure and virtual time to contact to the functional boundary (seconds). Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's coefficient-α. The test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Concurrent validity of the FIST was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Cronbach's-α as an index of internal consistency of the FIST was 0.91. The test-retest reliability was found to be excellent (ICC=0.92). The FIST was significantly correlated with virtual time to contact to the functional boundary (ρ=0.487, P=0.02), but not with sway area (ρ=-0.267, P=0.25). The observations provide evidence that the FIST is a reliable and valid tool to assess seated postural control in nonambulatory individuals with MS.

A longitudinal ICF-CY-based evaluation of functioning and disability of children born with very low birth weight.

This paper aims to describe the longitudinal changes in disability, defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health - Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) biopsychosocial model, and developmental outcomes in a cohort of 56 very low birth weight children over 14-20 months. We used a neurofunctional assessment, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Revised: 2-8 years (Griffiths 2-8) to evaluate psychomotor development and the ICF-CY questionnaire for ages 0-3 and 3-6 to address children's disability. Extension indexes on the basis of ICF-CY categories were computed, and longitudinal change was tested. Complete follow-up was available for 55 children (mean age 36.7 months, SD 6.7). Considering the sample as a whole, neurofunctional assessment, Griffiths score and disability were basically stable. When the subsample of children with the higher baseline functioning was taken into account, some degree of worsening, in terms of an increase in the number of impairments and limitations, was found. Our results show that disability profiles, neurofunctional assessment and global development were basically stable, except for the subgroup of children who were in the intermediate/high-functioning cluster at baseline. The increased disability among these children might be because of the possibility to observe a wider set of age-specific problems, such as emotional, regulation and social abilities that are not detectable at an early stage of development and that might lead to reduced participation in social activities.

Activities of daily living and quality of life during treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and after surgery in patients with esophageal cancer.

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by esophagectomy is a treatment with curative intent for resectable esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to measure activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL), and to examine correlates of changes in ADL and QoL.

How does a woman with Alzheimer's disease make sense of becoming cared for?

This case study explores the meaning one woman with Alzheimer's disease (AD) gives to receiving assistance with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) from her spouse. Improving the care of people living with AD is widely accepted as an important outcome in dementia services. Understanding how it feels for the person with AD to receive that care is essential to enhance their quality of life. Experiences identified using interpretative phenomenological analysis focus on a connection to past self and maintaining identity whilst also accepting change. The experience of 'Sameness and Change' identifies her feelings of discontinuity whilst 'Goodness' depicts her continued emotional expression of care presented in an attempt to remain someone of value within her family. These findings offer new insight and understanding to assist a woman's transition from carer to becoming cared for.

A Crosswalk Between UCLA and Lower Extremity Activity Scales.

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale and the Lower Extremity Activity Scale (LEAS) are the two most-widely used and rigorously developed scales for assessing activity level in patients having joint replacement. However, the two scales are not convertible, and the level of correlation between the two is not clear. Creating a crosswalk between these scales; that is, a concordance table to convert scores from one scale to the other and vice versa, will help compare results from existing studies using either scale, and pool those results for meta-analyses. It also will facilitate pooling data from multiple registries and data sources.

Association between oral health status and central obesity among Brazilian independent-living elderly.

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between oral health status and central obesity (CO) in Brazilian independent-living elderly. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 489 elderly, who were participants of the Study on Aging and Longevity, in Londrina, state of Parana. The number of natural teeth and use of prostheses were evaluated according to the World Health Organization criteria. The presence of CO was assessed using measures of waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Information concerning sociodemographic profile and some systemic conditions was also collected. Data were analyzed using stepwise logistic regression, α=5%. According to WC and WHR measures, the prevalence of central obesity was 79.3% and 76.1%, respectively. CO according to WC was not associated with oral status. Considering the WHR measure, the following oral conditions were associated to CO: having fewer natural teeth (OR = 2.61; 95%CI = 1.17-5.80), being edentulous and wearing both upper and lower complete dentures (OR = 2.34; 95%CI = 1.11-4.93), and being edentulous wearing only the upper complete denture (OR = 2.64; 95%CI = 1.01-6.95). Traditional risk factors for CO such as gender, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes were associated with both measures. A poor oral health due to extensive tooth loss, whether partial or complete, even if rehabilitated by removable prostheses, may be considered a good predictor of CO in Brazilian independent-living elderly.