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Activities of Daily Living - Top 30 Publications

Qualitative analysis of the impact of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders on daily life activities.

To evaluate the impact of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD) on daily life activities.

Development and validation of a condition-specific diary to measure severity, bothersomeness and impact on daily activities for patients with acute urinary tract infection in primary care.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition in primary care. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are crucial in the evaluation of interventions to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of UTI. The aim of this study was to identify an existing condition-specific PROM to measure symptom severity, bothersomeness and impact on daily activities for adult patients with suspected urinary tract infection in primary care; or, in the absence of such a PROM, to test items identified from existing PROMs for coverage and relevance in single and group interviews and to psychometrically validate the resulting PROM.

Role of domiciliary and family carers in individualised nutrition support for older adults living in the community.

Protein-energy malnutrition is common amongst people aged 65 years and older, has a multifactorial aetiology, and numerous negative outcomes. Domiciliary carers (non-clinical paid carers) and family carers (including family, friends and neighbours) are required to support the increasing demand for in-home assistance with activities of daily living due to the ageing population. This review provides insight into the role of both domiciliary and family carers in providing individualised nutrition support for older, community-dwelling adults with malnutrition. Four electronic databases were searched for intervention studies from database inception to December 2016. Both domiciliary and family carers are well placed to monitor the dietary intake and nutritional status of older adults; to assist with many food-related tasks such as the sourcing and preparation of meals, and assisting with feeding when necessary; and to act as a conduit between the care recipient and formal nutrition professionals such as dietitians. There is moderate evidence to support the role of domiciliary carers in implementing nutrition screening and referral pathways, and emerging evidence suggests they may have a role in malnutrition interventions when supported by health professionals. Moderate evidence also supports the engagement of family carers as part of the nutrition care team for older adults with malnutrition. Interventions such as group education, skill-development workshops and telehealth demonstrate promise and have significantly improved outcomes in older adults with dementia. Further interventional and translational research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of engaging with domiciliary and family carers of older adults in the general community.

The prognostic value of preoperative participation in activities of daily living on postoperative outcomes following lumbar discectomy.

In other surgical fields, preoperative level of participation in activities of daily living (ADLs) has been found to be important in predicting outcomes. To date, postoperative ADL measurements have only been used to characterize outcomes following lumbar discectomy. The present study's goal was to determine if patients' preoperative ability to perform ADLs correlates with their postoperative outcomes after lumbar discectomy at 3 months and 1 year.

The OCarePlatform: A context-aware system to support independent living.

Currently, healthcare services, such as institutional care facilities, are burdened with an increasing number of elderly people and individuals with chronic illnesses and a decreasing number of competent caregivers.

Measurement properties of the EQ-5D across four major geriatric conditions: Findings from TOPICS-MDS.

As populations age, chronic geriatric conditions linked to progressive organ failure jeopardize health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Thus, this research assessed the validity and applicability of the EQ-5D (a common HRQoL instrument) across four major chronic geriatric conditions: hearing issues, joint damage, urinary incontinence, or dizziness with falls.

Improving activities of daily living ability in women with fibromyalgia: An exploratory, quasi-randomized, phase-two study, IMPROvE trial.

To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia.

Outcome Measures in Myasthenia Gravis: Incorporation Into Clinical Practice.

The development of validated assessment tools for evaluating disease status and response to interventions in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has been driven by clinical studies of emerging MG therapies. However, only a small proportion of MG-focused neurology practices have adopted these assessment tools for routine clinical use. This article reviews the suitability of 5 assessment instruments for incorporation into clinical practice, which should be driven by their ability to contribute to improved patient outcomes, and to be implemented within practice personnel and resource constraints. It is recommended that assessments based on both physician-evaluated and patient-reported outcomes be selected, to adequately evaluate both point-in-time symptom load and functional impact of MG symptoms over time. Provider resource allocation and reimbursement issues may be the most significant roadblocks to successful ongoing use of these tools; to that end, the addition of regular assessments to MG standards of care is recommended.

Gender differences in the incidence of and risk factors for hip fracture: A 16-year longitudinal study in a southern European population.

To analyze independently in men and women the incidence rate of and risk factors for hip fracture in a southern European population. Illiteracy, dementia, clinically significant depression and disability were factors to receive special emphasis.

Orthopedic, ophthalmic, and psychiatric diseases primarily affect activity limitation for Japanese males and females: Based on the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions.

Healthy life expectancy (HLE) is used as one of the primary objectives of fundamental health promotion plans and social development plans. Activity limitation is used to calculate HLE, but little study has been done to identify determinants of activity limitation in order to extend HLE. The purpose of this study is to identify diseases and injuries that commonly lead to activity limitation to prioritize countermeasures against activity limitation.

Factor Structure and Construct Validity of Children Participation Assessment Scale in Activities Outside of School-Parent Version (CPAS-P).

The aim of this study was assess the factor structure, reliability and construct validity of the Children Participation Assessment Scale in Activities Outside of School-Parent Version (CPAS-P). The participants of this study were 700 parents of children aged 6-12 years. For data analysis, the confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were conducted. Convergent validity was calculated by correlation with the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. The results indicated the CPAS-P has good internal reliability. Overall, Cronbach's alpha for the participation measures ranged between 0.87 and 0.91, indicating good homogeneity, and Spearman correlations for convergent validity was acceptable. The temporal stability of the CPAS-P was supported with Intra-Class Correlations ranging from 0.79 to 0.94. Therefore, the CPAS-P, which evaluates all eight areas of occupation (i.e., activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, play, leisure, social participation, education, work, and sleep/rest) has demonstrated good psychometric properties; and can be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess children's participation at the age of 6-12 years.

Photographs of Daily Activities-Youth English: validating a targeted assessment of worry and anticipated pain.

PHODA is an electronic measure that individualizes and guides treatment for individuals with chronic pain. Implicit in its design is recognition that pain-related fear is a driving force that impedes treatment progress. With this tool, patients visually rate their expectations about the harmful consequences of specific movements. This study aimed to (1) develop and validate PHODA-Youth English (PHODA-YE) and (2) evaluate the potential impact of PHODA-YE assessment on treatment outcomes. Participants were 195 youth, age 8 to 20 years, who presented to an outpatient pain clinic for evaluation (n = 99), or enrolled at the Pediatric Pain Rehabilitation Center (PPRC) intensive program (PPRC; n = 96). All patients completed the PHODA-YE along with measures of emotional functioning and disability. Patients in the PPRC completed the measure at both admission and discharge. After eliminating infrequently endorsed and poorly loading items, factor analytic procedures yielded a 4-subscale, 50-item measure with strong internal consistency (from 0.92 to 0.97 across subscales). Fear, avoidance, and functional disability were strongly associated with PHODA-YE scores, supporting construct validity. Within the PPRC sample, PHODA-YE was sensitive to changes over time in relation to functional improvements. Across the PPRC sample, patients found it helpful to complete the PHODA and target feared activities. Altogether, the PHODA-YE is a valid and concrete assessment tool that rapidly identifies specific activities and movements that elicit fearful responses from patients.

An Evaluation of the Texas Functional Living Scale's Latent Structure and Subscales.

Performance-based functional assessment is a critical component of neuropsychological practice. The Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS) has promise given its brevity, nationally representative norms, and co-norming with Wechsler scales. However, its subscale structure has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the TFLS in a mixed clinical sample (n = 197).

Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits.

Focusing on Participation: A Commentary on "Current Rehabilitation Practices for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Focus and Gaps".

The first 6 weeks of recovery after primary total hip arthroplasty with fast track.

Background and purpose - Fast-track protocols have been introduced worldwide to improve the recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). These protocols have reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), and THA in an outpatient setting is also feasible. However, less is known regarding the first weeks after THA with fast track. We examined patients' experiences of the first 6 weeks after hospital discharge following inpatient and outpatient THA with fast track. Patients and methods - In a prospective cohort study, 100 consecutive patients who underwent THA surgery in a fast-track setting between February 2015 and October 2015 received a diary for 6 weeks. This diary contained various internationally validated questionnaires including HOOS-PS, OHS, EQ-5D, SF-12, and ICOAP. In addition, there were general questions regarding pain, the wound, physiotherapy, and thrombosis prophylaxis injections. Results - 94 patients completed the diary, 42 of whom were operated in an outpatient setting. Pain and use of pain medication had gradually decreased during the 6 weeks. Function and quality of life gradually improved. After 6 weeks, 91% of all patients reported better functioning and less pain than preoperatively. Interpretation - Fast track improves early functional outcome, and the PROMs reported during the first 6 weeks in this study showed continued improvement. They can be used as a baseline for future studies. The PROMs reported could also serve as a guide for staff and patients alike to modify expectations and therefore possibly improve patient satisfaction.

Childhood leukaemia survivors' experiences of long-term follow-ups in an endocrine clinic - A focus-group study.

The survival rate after childhood cancer has improved markedly and today more than 80% of patients will survive. Many childhood cancer survivors suffer from late complications due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL), treated with cranial radiotherapy, are at a particularly high risk of having endocrine complications.

Autism, Art, and Accessibility to Theater.

Art has the ability to entertain and educate about many vital aspects of the human experience. Recently, innovative endeavors are providing greater accessibility to theatrical productions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), prompting ethical questions about how accommodations to provide access to art and culture should be made, and for whom. This article uses an attributional model of stigma to explain potential differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward people with mental illness. This social cognitive model also provides clues about how to spur social change through translational education, familiarization, and advocacy to permit greater access to art for people with disabilities.

Professor Bengt Saltin Symposium - Environmental challenges to human performance.

This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment. The 1998 Danish High-Altitude Expedition to the Andes, in particular, resulted in many major contributions to the field of altitude physiology including, but not limited to, mechanisms of reductions in maximal oxygen uptake, the lactate paradox, acclimatization, muscle metabolism, gas exchange, cerebrovascular physiology, etc. Of note, many of these related studies were conducted in both Danish sojourners to altitude and Bolivian altitude natives of Aymara ancestry, thus providing some of the most mechanistic comparisons with high altitude natives to date. A framework of these physiological contributions in terrestrial extremes is provided in this review.

Smart-home technologies were found to support some domains of independent living when ageing at home: Perspectives of older adult consumers', families, health professionals and service providers.

An adolescent with disabling abdominal pain.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Caregiver Dependence among Older Adults in a Southeast Asian Population.

Currently very little is known about the prevalence or magnitude of caregiver dependence in Singapore and thus, there is a need to fill this gap in this multiethnic ageing population. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver dependence among older adults in Singapore.

Processes of developing 'community livability' in older age.

'Community livability' is a widely used term that is still under-conceptualized. The purpose of the project was to theorize key dynamics of livability for older adults who are aging in place in their homes and communities.

Oscillating in and out of place: Experiences of older adults residing in homeless shelters in Montreal, Quebec.

Aging in place is desirable from the perspective of older adults and policy makers alike. However, the meaning of 'place' for adults experiencing homelessness has been largely overlooked. Addressing this gap, this constructivist grounded theory study discusses the meaning of place for 15 older adults residing in emergency homeless shelters in Montreal, Quebec. Findings revealed that four interrelated dimensions of place-that is, control, comfort, privacy, and security were instrumental in supporting participants' ability to feel in place across housed-homeless trajectories. Many felt out of place well before they lost their housing and some felt more in place during homelessness when shelter conditions and interpersonal relations supported these four dimensions. The empirically-driven model oscillating in and out of place extends and nuances existing understandings of aging in place and provides insights into policy and practice solutions for older adults who may not have a stable place to call home.

Is mid-life social participation associated with cognitive function at age 50? Results from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS).

Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics.

Hospitalization Deteriorates Performance of Activities of Daily Living by Super-Elderly Patients With Heart Failure.

If you know a lonely older person, try tea and empathy.

One third of people say they are aware of lonely older people in their communities and one in four are aware but do not know how to offer adequate help. These are two of the startling findings from our latest research.

Value of music.

Groups that engage residents in singing, dancing or music are becoming common in care homes, and are likely to have health and social benefits for many people.

What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers.

The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

The education influence on effects of rehabilitation in patients after stroke.

Patients after stroke face a new situation where some educational and pedagogical actions should be reinitiated. Stroke often causes a break away from the previous lifestyle. It the acute phase it excludes the possibility of employment or performance of household duties that were carried out before or indulging in previously preferred ways of spending free time. Patients often abandon the habits that they developed before stroke, inclusive of hygienic habits. Therefore, it is an important objective of rehabilitation to reinstate in stroke patients behaviours characteristic of their peers, which would mark the beginning of their own care for health. The pedagogic and educational activities should lead to a transformation in the patient. This could be one of the factors in facilitating the patient's return to previous forms of activity.