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Advisory Committees - Top 30 Publications

Meeting of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication, June 2017.

Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index <25 kg/m(2)) and 3 ideal health factors (untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL). In addition, in relation to maintenance of cognitive health, we recommend following previously published guidance from the AHA/American Stroke Association, Institute of Medicine, and Alzheimer's Association that incorporates control of cardiovascular risks and suggest social engagement and other related strategies. We define optimal brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to cardiovascular health may drive cognitive health. Defining optimal brain health in adults and its maintenance is consistent with the AHA's Strategic Impact Goal to improve cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% and to reduce deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke by 20% by the year 2020. This work in defining optimal brain health in adults serves to provide the AHA/American Stroke Association with a foundation for a new strategic direction going forward in cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention.

The Role of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) in the Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine: Experience of the Indonesia and Uganda NITAGs.

National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are established by national authorities to provide them with independent, bias-free, objective, and evidence-based advice on vaccines and immunization challenges. As of December 2015, 125 countries have reported having set up an NITAG. The Health Policy and Institutional Development Center at the Agence de Médecine Préventive, a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Center for evidence-informed immunization, through its Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative project, provides assistance to low- and middle-income countries in the establishment and strengthening of their NITAGs. The Indonesian NITAG (ITAGI) was formed in December 2006 and Uganda's (UNITAG) was formed in November 2014. Both Uganda and Indonesia have introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of the Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (the Endgame plan). The authors reflect on the process and the role played by NITAGs in the introduction of IPV in the routine immunization program and the lessons learned.

Meeting of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, 7–8 June 2017.

Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes.

Screening for Obesity and Intervention for Weight Management in Children and Adolescents: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood.

Antiseptics and disinfectants: aiming at rational use. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Healthcare Associated Infections. Sociedad Chilena de Infectología.

Proper use of antiseptics and disinfectants, is an essential tool to prevent the spread of infectious agents and to control of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Given the increasing importance of environmental aspects, as well as several advances and updates in the field of its proper use at local and intemational level, the SOCHINF HAI Advisory Committee considers that it is necessary to develop a guide for the rational use of antiseptics and disinfectants, which it will provide consistent scientific basis with that purpose.

Announcement: Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation for Team-Based Care for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently posted new information on its website: "Diabetes Management: Team-Based Care for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes." The information is available at https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-management-team-based-care-patients-type-2-diabetes.

New ACMD regulations threaten UK's pharmaceutical discovery.

Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2017 – conclusions and recommendations.

Improving Retention in Care Among Pregnant Women and Mothers Living With HIV: Lessons From INSPIRE and Implications for Future WHO Guidance and Monitoring.

Identifying women living with HIV, initiating them on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART), and retaining them in care are among the important challenges facing this generation of health care managers and public health researchers. Implementation research attempts to solve a wide range of implementation problems by trying to understand and work within real-world conditions to find solutions that have a measureable impact on the outcomes of interest. Implementation research is distinct from clinical research in many ways yet demands similar standards of conceptual thinking and discipline to generate robust evidence that can be, to some extent, generalized to inform policy and service delivery. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO), with funding from Global Affairs Canada, began support to 6 implementation research projects in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. All focused on evaluating approaches for improving rates of retention in care among pregnant women and mothers living with HIV and ensuring their continuation of ART. This reflected the priority given by ministries of health, program implementers, and researchers in each country to the importance of women living with HIV returning to health facilities for routine care, adherence to ART, and improved health outcomes. Five of the studies were cluster randomized controlled trials, and 1 adopted a matched cohort design. Here, we summarize some of the main findings and key lessons learned. We also consider some of the broader implications, remaining knowledge gaps, and how implementation research is integral to, and essential for, global guideline development and to inform HIV/AIDS strategies.

Supporting Implementation Research to Improve Coverage and Uptake of HIV Related Interventions.

In 2015, Global Affairs Canada joined other members of the United Nations to establish the Sustainable Development Goals, which include the elimination of AIDS by 2030. Innovation is an important part of accelerating the response against HIV and ensuring success in eliminating AIDS by 2030. This is the reason Global Affairs Canada decided to partner with the World Health Organization, to support the INtegration and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE) initiative, to learn how HIV interventions can be successfully integrated with other essential health services for mothers and children, especially among the most vulnerable populations. Canada also believes that the empowerment of women and girls will be critical to eliminating AIDS. INSPIRE is the evidence that providing women with the knowledge and skills necessary to prevent, treat, and manage HIV enables them to become experts and agents of change in their families and communities. We know that when women are empowered with critical information regarding their health, there is greater retention in care which leads to improved treatment adherence and ultimately helps to reduce the rate of new infections. Global Affairs Canada is proud to have supported the World Health Organization in this effort.

Announcement: Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation for Family-Based Interventions to Increase Physical Activity.

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently posted new information on its website: "Physical Activity: Family-Based Interventions." This information is available at https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/physical-activity-family-based-interventions.

Announcement: Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation for Built Environment Interventions to Increase Physical Activity.

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently posted new information on its website: "Physical Activity: Built Environment Approaches Combining Transportation System Interventions with Land Use and Environmental Design." This information is available at https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/physical-activity-built-environment-approaches.

Conflict of Interest in Practice Guidelines Panels.

Alimentary education.

Comparison of Recommended Eligibility for Primary Prevention Statin Therapy Based on the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations vs the ACC/AHA Guidelines.

There are important differences among guideline recommendations for using statin therapy in primary prevention. New recommendations from the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasize therapy based on the presence of 1 or more cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and a 10-year global CVD risk of 10% or greater.

Immunization and Vaccine-related Implementation Research Advisory Committee (IVIR-AC): summary of conclusions and recommendations, 1–2 February 2017 meeting.

The US Preventive Services Task Force 2017 Draft Recommendation Statement on Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Invitation to Review and Comment.

Current guidelines for the evaluation and management of atopic dermatitis: A comparison of the Joint Task Force Practice Parameter and American Academy of Dermatology guidelines.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory disease that commonly presents in the pediatric population. Although definitions and diagnosis of AD have largely been agreed upon, allergists and dermatologists have similar and divergent approaches to the management of AD. This review facilitated integration of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology/American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Joint Task Force 2012 AD Practice Parameter and the 2014 American Academy of Dermatology guidelines to highlight the basic principles of AD management and discuss therapies and management of AD from the distinct perspectives of the allergist and dermatologist.

Brexit must preserve advisory networks.

Screening for Celiac Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response in persons who are genetically susceptible to dietary gluten, a protein complex found in wheat, rye, and barley. Ingestion of gluten by persons with celiac disease causes immune-mediated inflammatory damage to the small intestine.

Screening for Celiac Disease: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Silent or subclinical celiac disease may result in potentially avoidable adverse health consequences.

Screening for Celiac Disease.

The US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation on Screening for Asymptomatic Celiac Disease: A Dearth of Evidence.

Evaluating helicopter emergency medical missions: a reliability study of the HEMS benefit and NACA scores.

The benefits of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and dispatch accuracy are continuously debated, and a widely accepted score to measure the benefits of the mission is lacking. The HEMS Benefit Score (HBS) has been used in Finnish helicopter emergency medical services, but studies are lacking. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) score is widely used to measure the severity of illness or injury in the pre-hospital setting, but it has many critics due to its subjectivity. We investigated the inter-rater and rater-against-reference reliability of these scores.

Guidance on the limits to the number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion.

Based on American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology data available through 2014, ASRM's guidelines for the limits on the number of embryos to be transferred in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles have been further refined in continuing efforts to promote singleton gestation and reduce the number of multiple pregnancies. This version replaces the document titled Criteria for number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion that was published most recently in August of 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;99:44-6).

ASRM standard embryo transfer protocol template: a committee opinion.

Standardization improves performance and safety. A template for standardizing the embryo transfer procedure is presented here with 12 basic steps supported by published scientific literature and a survey of common practice of SART programs; it can be used by ART practices to model their own standard protocol.

Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope.

Developing Recommendations for Evidence-Based Clinical Preventive Services for Diverse Populations: Methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) summarizes the principles and considerations that guide development of its recommendations for diverse U.S. populations. It uses these principles through each step in the evidence-based guideline process: developing the research plan, conducting the evidence review, developing the recommendation, and communicating to guideline users. Three recent recommendations provide examples of how the USPSTF has used these principles: the 2015 recommendation on screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes; the 2016 recommendation on screening for breast cancer; and the recommendation on screening for prostate cancer, which is currently in progress. A more comprehensive list of recommendations that includes considerations for specific populations is also provided.