A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Algorithms - Top 30 Publications

Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

Early hybrid approach and enteral feeding algorithm could reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation.

The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure.

The Correlation-Base-Selection Algorithm for Diagnostic Schizophrenia Based on Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures.

Microarray analysis of gene expression is often used to diagnose different types of disease. Many studies report remarkable achievements in nervous system disease. Clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) still depends on doctors' experience, which is unreliable and needs to be more objective and quantified. To solve this problem, we collected whole blood gene expression data from four studies, including 152 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 138 normal controls in different regions. The correlation-based feature selection (CFS, one of the machine learning methods) algorithm was applied in this study, and 103 significantly differentially expressed genes between patients and controls, called "feature genes," were selected; then, a model for SCZ diagnosis was built. The samples were subdivided into 10 groups, and cross-validation showed that the model we constructed achieved nearly 100% classification accuracy. Mathematical evaluation of the datasets before and after data processing proved the effectiveness of our algorithm. Feature genes were enriched in Parkinson's disease, oxidative phosphorylation, and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which were previously reported to be associated with SCZ. These results suggest that the analysis of gene expression in whole blood by our model could be a useful tool for diagnosing SCZ.

A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction.

In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP) estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX). The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

Advanced Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Robot Manipulator.

In this paper, advanced interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode control (AIT2FSMC) for robot manipulator is proposed. The proposed AIT2FSMC is a combination of interval type-2 fuzzy system and sliding mode control. For resembling a feedback linearization (FL) control law, interval type-2 fuzzy system is designed. For compensating the approximation error between the FL control law and interval type-2 fuzzy system, sliding mode controller is designed, respectively. The tuning algorithms are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem. Two-link rigid robot manipulator with nonlinearity is used to test and the simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method that can control unknown system well.

Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing.

Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security.

Prosthetic joint infection development of an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm.

Increasing rates of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have presented challenges for general practitioners, orthopedic surgeons and the health care system in the recent years. The diagnosis of PJI is complex; multiple diagnostic tools are used in the attempt to correctly diagnose PJI. Evidence-based algorithms can help to identify PJI using standardized diagnostic steps.

Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Derived from a Canadian National Survey and Needs Assessment on Choices of Therapeutic Agents.

Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients' quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1) Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2) physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3) the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice. Methods. A 9-item questionnaire was sent to 350 Canadian specialists to evaluate their clinical practice for the management of CIC and IBS-C. Results. The response rate to the survey was 16% (n = 55). Almost all (96%) respondents followed a standard, stepwise approach for management while they believed that only 24% of referring physicians followed the same approach. Respondents found guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) agonist most satisfying when treating their patients. Among the 69% of respondents who were aware of published guidelines, only 50% found them helpful in prioritizing treatment choices and 69% of respondents indicated that a treatment algorithm, applicable to Canadian practice, would be valuable. Conclusion. Based on this needs assessment, a treatment algorithm was developed to provide clinical guidance in the management of IBS-C and CIC in Canada.

A Novel Multilevel-SVD Method to Improve Multistep Ahead Forecasting in Traffic Accidents Domain.

Here is proposed a novel method for decomposing a nonstationary time series in components of low and high frequency. The method is based on Multilevel Singular Value Decomposition (MSVD) of a Hankel matrix. The decomposition is used to improve the forecasting accuracy of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) linear and nonlinear models. Three time series coming from traffic accidents domain are used. They represent the number of persons with injuries in traffic accidents of Santiago, Chile. The data were continuously collected by the Chilean Police and were weekly sampled from 2000:1 to 2014:12. The performance of MSVD is compared with the decomposition in components of low and high frequency of a commonly accepted method based on Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). SWT in conjunction with the Autoregressive model (SWT + MIMO-AR) and SWT in conjunction with an Autoregressive Neural Network (SWT + MIMO-ANN) were evaluated. The empirical results have shown that the best accuracy was achieved by the forecasting model based on the proposed decomposition method MSVD, in comparison with the forecasting models based on SWT.

A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

A Theoretical Analysis of Why Hybrid Ensembles Work.

Inspired by the group decision making process, ensembles or combinations of classifiers have been found favorable in a wide variety of application domains. Some researchers propose to use the mixture of two different types of classification algorithms to create a hybrid ensemble. Why does such an ensemble work? The question remains. Following the concept of diversity, which is one of the fundamental elements of the success of ensembles, we conduct a theoretical analysis of why hybrid ensembles work, connecting using different algorithms to accuracy gain. We also conduct experiments on classification performance of hybrid ensembles of classifiers created by decision tree and naïve Bayes classification algorithms, each of which is a top data mining algorithm and often used to create non-hybrid ensembles. Therefore, through this paper, we provide a complement to the theoretical foundation of creating and using hybrid ensembles.

Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study.

Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

Prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the integration of multiple classifiers.

Phosphorylation is an important part of post-translational modifications of proteins, and is essential for many biological activities. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can regulate signal transduction, gene expression, and cell cycle regulation in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is extremely important for both basic research and drug discovery to rapidly and correctly identify the attributes of a new protein phosphorylation sites. Moreover, abnormal phosphorylation can be used as a key medical feature related to a disease in some cases. The using of computational methods could improve the accuracy of detection of phosphorylation sites, which can provide predictive guidance for the prevention of the occurrence and/or the best course of treatment for certain diseases. Furthermore, this approach can effectively reduce the costs of biological experiments. In this study, a flexible neural tree (FNT), particle swarm optimization, and support vector machine algorithms were used to classify data with secondary encoding according to the physical and chemical properties of amino acids for feature extraction. Comparison of the classification results obtained from the three classifiers showed that the classification of the FNT was the best. The three classifiers were then integrated in the form of a minority subordinate to the majority vote to obtain the results. The performance of the integrated model showed improvement in sensitivity (87.41%), specificity (87.60%), and accuracy (87.50%).

ArmAssist Robotic System versus Matched Conventional Therapy for Poststroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the, ID: NCT02729649.

Histograms of Oriented 3D Gradients for Fully Automated Fetal Brain Localization and Robust Motion Correction in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Images.

Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly emerging diagnostic imaging tool. However, automated fetal brain localization is one of the biggest obstacles in expediting and fully automating large-scale fetal MRI processing. We propose a method for automatic localization of fetal brain in 3 T MRI when the images are acquired as a stack of 2D slices that are misaligned due to fetal motion. First, the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature descriptor is extended from 2D to 3D images. Then, a sliding window is used to assign a score to all possible windows in an image, depending on the likelihood of it containing a brain, and the window with the highest score is selected. In our evaluation experiments using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy, we achieved 96% of complete brain localization using a database of 104 MRI scans at gestational ages between 34 and 38 weeks. We carried out comparisons against template matching and random forest based regression methods and the proposed method showed superior performance. We also showed the application of the proposed method in the optimization of fetal motion correction and how it is essential for the reconstruction process. The method is robust and does not rely on any prior knowledge of fetal brain development.

Predictive Behavior of a Computational Foot/Ankle Model through Artificial Neural Networks.

Computational models are useful tools to study the biomechanics of human joints. Their predictive performance is heavily dependent on bony anatomy and soft tissue properties. Imaging data provides anatomical requirements while approximate tissue properties are implemented from literature data, when available. We sought to improve the predictive capability of a computational foot/ankle model by optimizing its ligament stiffness inputs using feedforward and radial basis function neural networks. While the former demonstrated better performance than the latter per mean square error, both networks provided reasonable stiffness predictions for implementation into the computational model.

A Novel Ensemble Method for Imbalanced Data Learning: Bagging of Extrapolation-SMOTE SVM.

Class imbalance ubiquitously exists in real life, which has attracted much interest from various domains. Direct learning from imbalanced dataset may pose unsatisfying results overfocusing on the accuracy of identification and deriving a suboptimal model. Various methodologies have been developed in tackling this problem including sampling, cost-sensitive, and other hybrid ones. However, the samples near the decision boundary which contain more discriminative information should be valued and the skew of the boundary would be corrected by constructing synthetic samples. Inspired by the truth and sense of geometry, we designed a new synthetic minority oversampling technique to incorporate the borderline information. What is more, ensemble model always tends to capture more complicated and robust decision boundary in practice. Taking these factors into considerations, a novel ensemble method, called Bagging of Extrapolation Borderline-SMOTE SVM (BEBS), has been proposed in dealing with imbalanced data learning (IDL) problems. Experiments on open access datasets showed significant superior performance using our model and a persuasive and intuitive explanation behind the method was illustrated. As far as we know, this is the first model combining ensemble of SVMs with borderline information for solving such condition.

Statistical Modeling and Prediction for Tourism Economy Using Dendritic Neural Network.

With the impact of global internationalization, tourism economy has also been a rapid development. The increasing interest aroused by more advanced forecasting methods leads us to innovate forecasting methods. In this paper, the seasonal trend autoregressive integrated moving averages with dendritic neural network model (SA-D model) is proposed to perform the tourism demand forecasting. First, we use the seasonal trend autoregressive integrated moving averages model (SARIMA model) to exclude the long-term linear trend and then train the residual data by the dendritic neural network model and make a short-term prediction. As the result showed in this paper, the SA-D model can achieve considerably better predictive performances. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SA-D model, we also use the data that other authors used in the other models and compare the results. It also proved that the SA-D model achieved good predictive performances in terms of the normalized mean square error, absolute percentage of error, and correlation coefficient.

MapReduce Algorithms for Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks from Time-Series Microarray Data Using an Information-Theoretic Approach.

Gene regulation is a series of processes that control gene expression and its extent. The connections among genes and their regulatory molecules, usually transcription factors, and a descriptive model of such connections are known as gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Elucidating GRNs is crucial to understand the inner workings of the cell and the complexity of gene interactions. To date, numerous algorithms have been developed to infer gene regulatory networks. However, as the number of identified genes increases and the complexity of their interactions is uncovered, networks and their regulatory mechanisms become cumbersome to test. Furthermore, prodding through experimental results requires an enormous amount of computation, resulting in slow data processing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to expeditiously analyze copious amounts of experimental data resulting from cellular GRNs. To meet this need, cloud computing is promising as reported in the literature. Here, we propose new MapReduce algorithms for inferring gene regulatory networks on a Hadoop cluster in a cloud environment. These algorithms employ an information-theoretic approach to infer GRNs using time-series microarray data. Experimental results show that our MapReduce program is much faster than an existing tool while achieving slightly better prediction accuracy than the existing tool.

Real time QRS complex detection using DFA and regular grammar.

The sequence of Q, R, and S peaks (QRS) complex detection is a crucial procedure in electrocardiogram (ECG) processing and analysis. We propose a novel approach for QRS complex detection based on the deterministic finite automata with the addition of some constraints. This paper confirms that regular grammar is useful for extracting QRS complexes and interpreting normalized ECG signals. A QRS is assimilated to a pair of adjacent peaks which meet certain criteria of standard deviation and duration.

Development of a novel individualized warfarin dose algorithm based on a population pharmacokinetic model with improved prediction accuracy for Chinese patients after heart valve replacement.

The gene-guided dosing strategy of warfarin generally leads to over-dose in patients at doses lower than 2 mg/kg, and only 50% of individual variability in daily stable doses can be explained. In this study, we developed a novel population pharmacokinetic (PK) model based on a warfarin dose algorithm for Han Chinese patients with valve replacement for improving the dose prediction accuracy, especially in patients with low doses. The individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter - apparent clearance of S- and R-warfarin (CLs) was obtained after establishing and validating the population PK model from 296 recruited patients with valve replacement. Then, the individual estimation of CLs, VKORC1 genotypes, the steady-state international normalized ratio (INR) values and age were used to describe the maintenance doses by multiple linear regression for 144 steady-state patients. The newly established dosing algorithm was then validated in an independent group of 42 patients and was compared with other dosing algorithms for the accuracy and precision of prediction. The final regression model developed was as follows: Dose=-0.023×AGE+1.834×VKORC1+0.952×INR+2.156×CLs (the target INR value ranges from 1.8 to 2.5). The validation of the algorithm in another group of 42 patients showed that the individual variation rate (71.6%) was higher than in the gene-guided dosing models. The over-estimation rate in patients with low doses (<2 mg/kg) was lower than the other dosing methods. This novel dosing algorithm based on a population PK model improves the predictive performance of the maintenance dose of warfarin, especially for low dose (<2 mg/d) patients.

Segmentation of organs-at-risks in head and neck CT images using convolutional neural networks.

Accurate segmentation of organs-at-risks (OARs) is the key step for efficient planning of radiation therapy for head and neck (HaN) cancer treatment. In the work, we proposed the first deep learning-based algorithm, for segmentation of OARs in HaN CT images, and compared its performance against state-of-the-art automated segmentation algorithms, commercial software, and interobserver variability.

Review article including treatment algorithm: endoscopic treatment of luminal complications after bariatric surgery.

The worldwide number of performed bariatric surgeries is increasing continuously, whereas laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are conducted most frequently. Alongside with the usual post-operative and metabolic complications, luminal complications such as anastomotic bleeding, ulceration, leakage, fistula formation, enlargement and stenosis of the anastomosis may occur. Evolution of interventional endoscopy frequently allows endoscopic management of complications, avoiding surgical interventions in most cases. Here, we review the various luminal complications after bariatric surgery with a focus on their endoscopic management.

Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations.

Patient-Centered Robot-Aided Passive Neurorehabilitation Exercise Based on Safety-Motion Decision-Making Mechanism.

Safety is one of the crucial issues for robot-aided neurorehabilitation exercise. When it comes to the passive rehabilitation training for stroke patients, the existing control strategies are usually just based on position control to carry out the training, and the patient is out of the controller. However, to some extent, the patient should be taken as a "cooperator" of the training activity, and the movement speed and range of the training movement should be dynamically regulated according to the internal or external state of the subject, just as what the therapist does in clinical therapy. This research presents a novel motion control strategy for patient-centered robot-aided passive neurorehabilitation exercise from the point of the safety. The safety-motion decision-making mechanism is developed to online observe and assess the physical state of training impaired-limb and motion performances and regulate the training parameters (motion speed and training rage), ensuring the safety of the supplied rehabilitation exercise. Meanwhile, position-based impedance control is employed to realize the trajectory tracking motion with interactive compliance. Functional experiments and clinical experiments are investigated with a healthy adult and four recruited stroke patients, respectively. The two types of experimental results demonstrate that the suggested control strategy not only serves with safety-motion training but also presents rehabilitation efficacy.

Construction of Multilevel Structure for Avian Influenza Virus System Based on Granular Computing.

Exploring the genetic structure of influenza viruses attracts the attention in the field of molecular ecology and medical genetics, whose epidemics cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rapid variations in RNA strand and changes of protein structure of the virus result in low-accuracy subtyping identification and make it difficult to develop effective drugs and vaccine. This paper constructs the evolutionary structure of avian influenza virus system considering both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase protein fragments. An optimization model was established to determine the rational granularity of the virus system for exploring the intrinsic relationship among the subtypes based on the fuzzy hierarchical evaluation index. Thus, an algorithm was presented to extract the rational structure. Furthermore, to reduce the systematic and computational complexity, the granular signatures of virus system were identified based on the coarse-grained idea and then its performance was evaluated through a designed classifier. The results showed that the obtained virus signatures could approximate and reflect the whole avian influenza virus system, indicating that the proposed method could identify the effective virus signatures. Once a new molecular virus is detected, it is efficient to identify the homologous virus hierarchically.

Three-Class Mammogram Classification Based on Descriptive CNN Features.

In this paper, a novel classification technique for large data set of mammograms using a deep learning method is proposed. The proposed model targets a three-class classification study (normal, malignant, and benign cases). In our model we have presented two methods, namely, convolutional neural network-discrete wavelet (CNN-DW) and convolutional neural network-curvelet transform (CNN-CT). An augmented data set is generated by using mammogram patches. To enhance the contrast of mammogram images, the data set is filtered by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). In the CNN-DW method, enhanced mammogram images are decomposed as its four subbands by means of two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), while in the second method discrete curvelet transform (DCT) is used. In both methods, dense scale invariant feature (DSIFT) for all subbands is extracted. Input data matrix containing these subband features of all the mammogram patches is created that is processed as input to convolutional neural network (CNN). Softmax layer and support vector machine (SVM) layer are used to train CNN for classification. Proposed methods have been compared with existing methods in terms of accuracy rate, error rate, and various validation assessment measures. CNN-DW and CNN-CT have achieved accuracy rate of 81.83% and 83.74%, respectively. Simulation results clearly validate the significance and impact of our proposed model as compared to other well-known existing techniques.

Deep Recurrent Neural Network-Based Autoencoders for Acoustic Novelty Detection.

In the emerging field of acoustic novelty detection, most research efforts are devoted to probabilistic approaches such as mixture models or state-space models. Only recent studies introduced (pseudo-)generative models for acoustic novelty detection with recurrent neural networks in the form of an autoencoder. In these approaches, auditory spectral features of the next short term frame are predicted from the previous frames by means of Long-Short Term Memory recurrent denoising autoencoders. The reconstruction error between the input and the output of the autoencoder is used as activation signal to detect novel events. There is no evidence of studies focused on comparing previous efforts to automatically recognize novel events from audio signals and giving a broad and in depth evaluation of recurrent neural network-based autoencoders. The present contribution aims to consistently evaluate our recent novel approaches to fill this white spot in the literature and provide insight by extensive evaluations carried out on three databases: A3Novelty, PASCAL CHiME, and PROMETHEUS. Besides providing an extensive analysis of novel and state-of-the-art methods, the article shows how RNN-based autoencoders outperform statistical approaches up to an absolute improvement of 16.4% average F-measure over the three databases.

An artificial neural network prediction model of congenital heart disease based on risk factors: A hospital-based case-control study.

An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women.This hospital-based case-control study involved 119 CHD cases and 239 controls all recruited from birth defect surveillance hospitals in Hunan Province between July 2013 and June 2014. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face to fill in a questionnaire that covered 36 CHD-related variables. The 358 subjects were randomly divided into a training set and a testing set at the ratio of 85:15. The training set was used to identify the significant predictors of CHD by univariate logistic regression analyses and develop a standard feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model for the prediction of CHD. The testing set was used to test and evaluate the performance of the ANN model. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed on SPSS 18.0. The ANN models were developed on Matlab 7.1.The univariate logistic regression identified 15 predictors that were significantly associated with CHD, including education level (odds ratio  = 0.55), gravidity (1.95), parity (2.01), history of abnormal reproduction (2.49), family history of CHD (5.23), maternal chronic disease (4.19), maternal upper respiratory tract infection (2.08), environmental pollution around maternal dwelling place (3.63), maternal exposure to occupational hazards (3.53), maternal mental stress (2.48), paternal chronic disease (4.87), paternal exposure to occupational hazards (2.51), intake of vegetable/fruit (0.45), intake of fish/shrimp/meat/egg (0.59), and intake of milk/soymilk (0.55). After many trials, we selected a 3-layer BPNN model with 15, 12, and 1 neuron in the input, hidden, and output layers, respectively, as the best prediction model. The prediction model has accuracies of 0.91 and 0.86 on the training and testing sets, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and Yuden Index on the testing set (training set) are 0.78 (0.83), 0.90 (0.95), and 0.68 (0.78), respectively. The areas under the receiver operating curve on the testing and training sets are 0.87 and 0.97, respectively.This study suggests that the BPNN model could be used to predict the risk of CHD in individuals. This model should be further improved by large-sample-size research.

Robotic pancreas transplantation in a type 1 diabetic patient with morbid obesity: A case report.

Obesity is considered a relative contraindication to pancreas transplantation due to increased risks of wound-related complications. Robotic surgeries have never been applied for pancreas transplantation in obese recipients though robotic kidney transplantation did and already proved its value in reducing wound-related complications in obese recipients.