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Animal Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place workers in these areas at increased risk for infection. It is important to educate workers with occupational animal exposure about the symptoms of enteric diseases and prevention measures. Targeting prevention strategies to high-risk workplaces and activities could help reduce disease.

Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases.

African swine fever in eastern Europe: the risk to the UK.

This article has been prepared by Helen Roberts of the Defra/APHA International Disease Monitoring team.

Disease surveillance in England and Wales, August 2017.

Current and emerging issues: psoroptic mange in cattleHighlights from the scanning surveillance networkUpdate on international disease threatsAfrican swine fever in eastern Europe and the risk to the UKThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for August 2017.

Zoonotic Chlamydia caviae Presenting as Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Conditional Müller Cell Ablation Leads to Retinal Iron Accumulation.

Retinal iron accumulation is observed in a wide range of retinal degenerative diseases, including AMD. Previous work suggests that Müller glial cells may be important mediators of retinal iron transport, distribution, and regulation. A transgenic model of Müller cell loss recently demonstrated that primary Müller cell ablation leads to blood-retinal barrier leakage and photoreceptor degeneration, and it recapitulates clinical features observed in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2), a rare human disease that features Müller cell loss. We used this mouse model to determine the effect of Müller cell loss on retinal iron homeostasis.

Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.

Modeling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in central Tunisia from 2009-2015: Forecasting models using climate variables as predictors.

Transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) depends on the presence, density and distribution of Leishmania major rodent reservoir and the development of these rodents is known to have a significant dependence on environmental and climate factors. ZCL in Tunisia is one of the most common forms of leishmaniasis. The aim of this paper was to build a regression model of ZCL cases to identify the relationship between ZCL occurrence and possible risk factors, and to develop a predicting model for ZCL's control and prevention purposes. Monthly reported ZCL cases, environmental and bioclimatic data were collected over 6 years (2009-2015). Three rural areas in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid were selected as the study area. Cross-correlation analysis was used to identify the relevant lagged effects of possible risk factors, associated with ZCL cases. Non-parametric modeling techniques known as generalized additive model (GAM) and generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) were applied in this work. These techniques have the ability to approximate the relationship between the predictors (inputs) and the response variable (output), and express the relationship mathematically. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by Generalized cross-validation (GCV) score and residual test. There were a total of 1019 notified ZCL cases from July 2009 to June 2015. The results showed seasonal distribution of reported ZCL cases from August to January. The model highlighted that rodent density, average temperature, cumulative rainfall and average relative humidity, with different time lags, all play role in sustaining and increasing the ZCL incidence. The GAMM model could be applied to predict the occurrence of ZCL in central Tunisia and could help for the establishment of an early warning system to control and prevent ZCL in central Tunisia.

A Macrophage Response to Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid Initiates Nerve Damage in Leprosy.

Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy and is unique among mycobacterial diseases in producing peripheral neuropathy. This debilitating morbidity is attributed to axon demyelination resulting from direct interaction of the M. leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) with myelinating glia and their subsequent infection. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae to visualize the earliest events of M. leprae-induced nerve damage. We find that demyelination and axonal damage are not directly initiated by M. leprae but by infected macrophages that patrol axons; demyelination occurs in areas of intimate contact. PGL-1 confers this neurotoxic response on macrophages: macrophages infected with M. marinum-expressing PGL-1 also damage axons. PGL-1 induces nitric oxide synthase in infected macrophages, and the resultant increase in reactive nitrogen species damages axons by injuring their mitochondria and inducing demyelination. Our findings implicate the response of innate macrophages to M. leprae PGL-1 in initiating nerve damage in leprosy.

Quantitative Characterization of Autoimmune Uveoretinitis in an Experimental Mouse Model.

To accurately evaluate the autoimmune inflammation, we aim to develop three quantitative measurements to monitor the inflammatory changes in the retina: retinal-choroidal thickness, major retinal vessel diameter, and electroretinography amplitudes.

Different engagement of TLR2 and TLR4 in Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. ligature-induced periodontal bone loss.

This study was conducted to investigate the roles of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)-induced and ligature-induced experimental periodontal bone resorption in mice. Wild-type (WT), TLR2 knockout (KO), TLR4KO, and TLR2&4 KO mice with C57/BL6 background were divided into three groups: control, P. gingivalis infection, and ligation. Live P. gingivalis or silk ligatures were placed in the sulcus around maxillary second molars over a 2-week period. Images were captured by digital stereomicroscopy, and the bone resorption area was measured with ImageJ software. The protein expression level of gingival RANKL was measured by ELISA. The gingival mRNA levels of RANKL, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that P. gingivalis induced significant periodontal bone resorption in WT mice and TLR2 KO mice but not in TLR4 KO mice or TLR2&4 KO mice. For all four types of mice, ligation induced significant bone loss compared with that in control groups, and this bone loss was significantly higher than that in the P. gingivalis infection group. RANKL protein expression was significantly increased in the ligation group compared with that in the control group for all four types of mice, and in the P. gingivalis infection group of WT, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice. Expression patterns of RANKL, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA were different in the P. gingivalis infection group and the ligation group in different types of mice. In summary, P. gingivalis-induced periodontal bone resorption is TLR4-dependent, whereas ligation-induced periodontal bone resorption is neither TLR2- nor TLR4-dependent.

Case Report: Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Tick Bite Site Samples for the Diagnosis of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis.

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.

Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).

Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.) are considered potential reservoirs of MPXV, as serosurveillance data in Central Africa has confirmed the circulation of the virus in these rodent species [1,2]. In order to understand the tissue tropism and clinical signs associated with infection with MPXV in these species, wild-caught rope squirrels were experimentally infected via intranasal and intradermal exposure with a recombinant MPXV strain from Central Africa engineered to express the luciferase gene. After infection, we monitored viral replication and shedding via in vivo bioluminescent imaging, viral culture and real time PCR. MPXV infection in African rope squirrels caused mortality and moderate to severe morbidity, with clinical signs including pox lesions in the skin, eyes, mouth and nose, dyspnea, and profuse nasal discharge. Both intranasal and intradermal exposures induced high levels of viremia, fast systemic spread, and long periods of viral shedding. Shedding and luminescence peaked at day 6 post infection and was still detectable after 15 days. Interestingly, one sentinel animal, housed in the same room but in a separate cage, also developed severe MPX disease and was euthanized. This study indicates that MPXV causes significant pathology in African rope squirrels and infected rope squirrels shed large quantities of virus, supporting their role as a potential source of MPXV transmission to humans and other animals in endemic MPX regions.

Magnetic Resonance Monitoring of Disease Progression in mdx Mice on Different Genetic Backgrounds.

Genetic modifiers alter disease progression in both preclinical models and subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, we compared the skeletal and cardiac muscles of two different dystrophic mouse models of DMD, which are on different genetic backgrounds, the C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx (B10-mdx) and D2.B10-Dmdmdx (D2-mdx). The proton transverse relaxation constant (T2) using both MR imaging and spectroscopy revealed significant age-related differences in dystrophic skeletal and cardiac muscles as compared with their age-matched controls. D2-mdx muscles demonstrated an earlier and accelerated decrease in muscle T2 compared with age-matched B10-mdx muscles. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging indicated differences in the underlying muscle structure between the mouse strains. The fractional anisotropy, mean diffusion, and radial diffusion of water varied significantly between the two dystrophic strains. Muscle structural differences were confirmed by histological analyses of the gastrocnemius, revealing a decreased muscle fiber size and increased fibrosis in skeletal muscle fibers of D2-mdx mice compared with B10-mdx and control. Cardiac involvement was also detected in D2-mdx myocardium based on both decreased function and myocardial T2. These data indicate that MR parameters may be used as sensitive biomarkers to detect fibrotic tissue deposition and fiber atrophy in dystrophic strains.

Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2.

Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine.

Schmallenberg virus infection in Scottish cattle.

Schmallenberg virus infection on cattle farms in southern ScotlandOutbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitisSalmonella Bovismorbificans infection in cattle and sheepGastric ulceration in pigsTrichomonosis in a sparrowhawk and a hen harrierThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for April 2017 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

Threonine deficiency decreased intestinal immunity and aggravated inflammation associated with NF-κB and target of rapamycin signalling pathways in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.

Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health.

Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between "Malta fever" and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity.

Physiological and Optical Alterations Precede the Appearance of Cataracts in Cx46fs380 Mice.

Cx46fs380 mice model a human autosomal-dominant cataract caused by a mutant lens connexin46, Cx46. Lenses from Cx46fs380 mice develop cataracts that are first observed at ∼2 months in homozygotes and at ≥4 months in heterozygotes. The present studies were conducted to determine whether Cx46fs380 mouse lenses exhibited abnormalities before there are detectable cataracts.

Viral Retinopathy in Experimental Models of Zika Infection.

Emerging evidence has shown that both congenital and adult Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause eye diseases. The goals of the current study were to explore mechanisms and pathophysiology of ZIKV-induced eye defects.

Sema3A Reduces Sprouting of Adult Rod Photoreceptors In Vitro.

Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors.

Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so.

Veterinary student competence in equine lameness recognition and assessment: a mixed methods study.

The development of perceptual skills is an important aspect of veterinary education. The authors investigated veterinary student competency in lameness evaluation at two stages, before (third year) and during (fourth/fifth year) clinical rotations. Students evaluated horses in videos, where horses were presented during trot on a straight line and in circles. Eye-tracking data were recorded during assessment on the straight line to follow student gaze. On completing the task, students filled in a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the experienced students outperformed inexperienced students, although even experienced students may classify one in four horses incorrectly. Mistakes largely arose from classifying an incorrect limb as lame. The correct detection of sound horses was at chance level. While the experienced student cohort primarily looked at upper body movement (head and sacrum) during lameness assessment, the inexperienced cohort focused on limb movement. Student self-assessment of performance was realistic, and task difficulty was most commonly rated between 3 and 4 out of 5. The inexperienced students named a considerably greater number of visual lameness features than the experienced students. Future dedicated training based on the findings presented here may help students to develop more reliable lameness assessment skills.

Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is shared with humans. This argues for the strong potential of dogs as reservoirs for zoonotic transmission of S. stercoralis to humans and suggests that in order to reduce the exposure of humans to infective S. stercoralis larvae, dogs should be treated for the infection along with their owners.

Evaluation of the BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica.

Conventional laboratory detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites are time consuming, require considerable technical expertise and may suffer from poor analytical sensitivity. This study sought to evaluate the automated BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis.Methodolgy. A total of 104 known positive samples (43 Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and 61 G. duodenalis), 15 simulated samples (E. histolytica and other Entamoeba species) and 745 patient stool samples, submitted for enteric pathogen culture and microscopy, were inoculated into BD MAX EPP sample buffer tubes (SBTs). All specimens were blinded and tested within 7 days of SBT inoculation using the BD MAX EPP assay with results compared to those generated by microscopy.Results/Key findings. Combining the results from the known positive samples and anonymously tested patient samples, the sensitivity of the BD MAX EPP assay was 100 % for both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Specificities of 99.7 and 98.9 % were calculated for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis respectively. Insufficient clinical specimen data was available to determine the performance of the assay for E. histolytica detection.

In vivo effects of curcumin and deferoxamine in experimental endometriosis.

Endometriosis is one of the most common chronic gynecological diseases.

Widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection in government working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border: Discordant serology, parasite genotyping and associated vectors.

Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border.

High prevalence of clonally diverse spa type t026 Staphylococcus aureus contaminating rural eggshells.

The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in poultry and poultry products, including eggs, increases its potential to enter the food chain, resulting in foodborne diseases. In this context, eggshell colonization by staphylococci may represent a risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the contamination of rural eggshell by S. aureus and to characterize the key features of the isolated strains.

Characterization of the Genetic Program Linked to the Development of Atrial Fibrillation in CREM-IbΔC-X Mice.

Reduced expression of genes regulated by the transcription factors CREB/CREM (cAMP response element-binding protein/modulator) is linked to atrial fibrillation (AF) susceptibility in patients. Cardiomyocyte-directed expression of the inhibitory CREM isoform CREM-IbΔC-X in transgenic mice (TG) leads to spontaneous-onset AF preceded by atrial dilatation and conduction abnormalities. Here, we characterized the altered gene program linked to atrial remodeling and development of AF in CREM-TG mice.

Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection.

Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice. For dissemination studies, bacterial burden in organs was determined at various time-points post-challenge. Indian rhesus macaques were infected with one ST19 and one ST313 strain. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and bacterial burden and pathology were determined. The LD50 values for ST19 and ST313 infected mice were not significantly different. However, ST313-infected BALB/c mice had significantly higher bacterial numbers in blood at 24 h than ST19-infected mice. ST19-infected rhesus macaques exhibited moderate-to-severe diarrhea while ST313-infected monkeys showed no-to-mild diarrhea. ST19-infected monkeys had higher bacterial burden and increased inflammation in tissues. Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea.