A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Attitude to Health - Top 30 Publications

Alcohol consumption and awareness of its effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria.

Alcohol consumption among secondary school students is a major public health issue worldwide; however, the extent of consumption among secondary school students and their understanding of its effects on human health remain relatively unknown in many Nigerian States. This study aimed to determine the extent of alcohol consumption and of the awareness of its negative effects on human health among secondary school students.The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to representative sample (N = 1302) of secondary school students in the study area. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using means and t test.The results showed that male secondary school students moderately consumed beer (55.2%) and local cocktails (51.5%), whereas their female counterparts reported rare consumption of these 2 alcoholic drinks (44.8%; 48.5% respectively). The findings also indicated rare consumption of distilled spirits among both male and female students in the investigated area, whereas wine, liquor, local spirits, and palm wine were consumed moderately, regardless of gender. Finally, male and female secondary school students differed significantly in their awareness of the negative effects of alcohol consumption on health.There is a need to intensify efforts to further curtail the extent of alcohol consumption and increase awareness of the negative effects of alcohol use on human health among secondary school students.

Healthcare utilization and costs among patients with herpes zoster and solid tumor malignancy on chemotherapy: A retrospective cohort study.

Immunosuppressed patients with solid tumor malignancies (STMs) are particularly vulnerable to herpes zoster (HZ). This study estimated the incidence of HZ and evaluated healthcare resource utilization and costs for persons with STM receiving chemotherapy with and without incident HZ.We conducted a retrospective claims study of adults with STM receiving chemotherapy between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014. Patients were followed from their first chemotherapy date through development of HZ, health plan disenrollment, the study end date, or 24 months. HZ incidence was calculated and stratified by patient characteristics. Adjusted HZ incidence was estimated using Poisson regression. Healthcare resource utilization and costs were compared between patients with HZ (cases) and propensity score-matched controls without HZ during a variable follow-up period. Adjusted healthcare costs were estimated using Lin regression to control for informative censoring.Of 155,480 patients with STM receiving chemotherapy, 3100 (2.0%) developed HZ, yielding an adjusted HZ incidence rate of 13.8/1000 person-years (PY). HZ cases (n = 3004) had significantly higher healthcare resource utilization than matched controls (n = 15,020). Adjusted annual costs were $48,077 for cases vs $41,645 for matched controls, corresponding to a differential cost of $6432 annually.After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with STM receiving chemotherapy had an HZ incidence of 13.8/1000 PY; those who developed HZ used more healthcare resources and incurred higher costs than those who did not. These findings suggest that HZ prevention by vaccination could improve outcomes and reduce costs in this population.

Eliciting community perspectives on research with older adults living with HIV through focus groups.

Approximately half of all people living with HIV in the US are age 50 and older. Existing research highlights the health challenges of these individuals, but little work has focused on gathering input about concerns in participating in HIV and aging research. Prior to designing a prospective cohort study on HIV and aging, we elicited feedback from potential participants on general attitudes toward participation in a prospective HIV cohort study, and perspectives on important research topics relevant to older adults living with HIV.Three qualitative focus groups were formed.Three focus groups (5-7 participants each; N = 18) were held with older adults living with HIV. All discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis.Participants emphasized the importance of data confidentiality, shared concerns about study biases arising from sponsored research, and suggested that conflicts of interest should be independently assessed by "representative" boards made of community members. They urged researchers to be mindful of research "burnout," because many people with HIV participate in multiple research studies. A number of priority research areas emerged, including the gap in provision of end-of-life services.Many older adults with HIV are knowledgeable about the research process and offer valuable insights to researchers. Addressing participant concerns can facilitate inclusion and enhance HIV research success.

Attitudes of women after the age of 50 towards preventive screening.

Prevention is one of the major branches of the health sector. The National Health Programme encompasses main risk factors, elimination of which may lead to a reduced incidence of illnesses in the society. At the same time, the criteria of selecting people eligible for preventive screening are established according to risk groups determined by sex, as well as age in the population of women. The perimenopausal and menopausal period contributes to occurrence of numerous systemic diseases and to an increased risk of illnesses, especially cancers.

Swallowing a Spy - The Potential Uses of Digital Adherence Monitoring.

The Public Face of Transplantation: The Potential of Education to Expand the Face Donor Pool.

Despite the growing success of facial transplantation, organ donor shortages remain challenging. Educational health campaigns can effectively inform the general public and institute behavioral modifications. A brief educational introduction to facial transplantation may positively influence the public's position on facial donation.


Research undertaken in mainstream Australian studies show that the overall rate of medication non-adherence has been reported to be high, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia leading to adverse and critical health outcomes (AIHW 2010).

Patients' perceptions of service quality in China: An investigation using the SERVQUAL model.

The doctor-patient relationship has been a major focus of society. Hospitals' efforts to improve the quality of their medical services have been to reduce the probability of doctor-patient conflicts. In this study, we aimed to determine the gap between expectations and perceptions of service quality according to patients to provide reference data for creating strategies to improve health care quality.

Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to be more compliant than older groups. Three studies also found compliance to be better in the early stages of treatment. Integration between quantitative and qualitative studies was not possible.ConclusionsCompliance with removable orthodontic appliances is suboptimal. Patients wear appliances for considerably less time than stipulated and self-reported. Compliance may be increased when patients are aware of monitoring; however, further research is required to identify effective interventions and possible barriers in order to improve removable orthodontic appliance compliance.

Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria.

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria. The knowledge questions, which the participants answered without consulting literature and colleagues, covered epidemiological One Health aspects as well as clinical interspecialty aspects of T. gondii infections. Altogether 522 medical doctors from four tertiary hospitals completed the questionnaire. The mean number of correct answers in the knowledge questions was 7.5, and 8.4% of the participants selected at least 12 of the 17 correct answers. The proportion of medical doctors scoring such a high score was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis may involve the central nervous system, while only 37% answered that it can involve the eyes. Our results suggested knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed in Continuous Medical Education. The identified gaps included both intersectoral One Health aspects and interspecialty aspects: For prevention and management of toxoplasmosis, knowing the main transmission routes and that the parasite can affect several organs is relevant.

Do experiences and perceptions about quality of care differ among social groups in Nepal? : A study of maternal healthcare experiences of women with and without disabilities, and Dalit and non-Dalit women.

Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women's socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from both non-Dalit and Dalit communities.


On 11 October 2016 the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) released a position statement on 'Nurses, midwives and vaccination' (www.nursingmidwiferyboard.



The Health Complaints Act 2016 (Vic) commenced on 1 February 2017, bringing into operation a new office of the Health Complaints Commissioner (HCC). This article outlines the changes nurses and midwives are likely to see under the new Act.

Knowledge of postnatal mothers on essential newborn care practices at the Kenyatta National Hospital: a cross sectional study.

Of the 130 million babies born yearly, nearly 4 million die in the neonatal period. Kenya Demographic Health Survey (KDHS) 2014 places neonatal mortality rate at 22 deaths per 1,000 live births, well above the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 that aims to reduce these mortalities to at least 12 deaths per 1000 live births by 2030. The aim of the study was to assess maternal knowledge on selected components of essential newborn care: breastfeeding, cord care, immunisation, eye care and thermoregulation.

Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon.

The incidence of breast cancer (BCa) in Cameroon is on the rise and accounts for a leading cause of mortality. An understanding of the knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) among teachers are important first steps which will guide the designing of interventions aimed at raising awareness across the general population.

Seroprevalence and factors associated with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among children in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Despite proposals for screening infants or preschool children for HIV infection, the proportion of children who grow or die with unknown HIV status is high in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence during a voluntary screening and to identify factors associated with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV in the paediatric population of non-HIV infected or non-HIV exposed infants and children in Lubumbashi, DRC.

Assessing the ownership, usage and knowledge of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) in Malaria Prevention in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana.

Malaria remains one of the top five killer diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its burden is skewed towards pregnant women and children under five. Insecticide Treated Bed-Net (ITN) usage is considered one of the most cost-effective, preventive interventions against malaria. This study sought to assess ownership, usage, effectiveness, knowledge, access and availability of ITNs among mothers with children under five in the Hohoe municipality.

Determinants for adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is an efficacious treatment for patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there are only few data on long-term adherence. The aim of this study is to quantify the extent of non-adherence and describe the clinical characteristics.

Predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected patients in northern Tanzania.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality amongst those living with HIV and reduce transmission of the virus to those who are yet to be infected. However, these outcomes depend on maximum ART adherence, and HIV programs around the world make efforts to ensure optimal adherence. Predictors of ART non-adherence vary considerably across populations and settings with respect to demographic, psychological, behavioral and economic factors. The objective of this study is to investigate risk factors that predict non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment among HIV-infected individuals in northern Tanzania.


Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with detrimental health and social consequences, yet this modifiable and preventable risk factor for serious non-communicable diseases remains an unmet challenge (Spanagel et al. 2013; WHO, 2014, 2016).


There are many assumptions when it comes to how men view and seek treatment for their own mental health. This article highlights some of the assumptions and proposes how healthcare providers can address them.

Effectiveness of a Pediatric Primary Care Intervention to Increase Maternal Folate Use: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

To assess the impact of provision of folate vitamins and a preconception health intervention on folate use among mothers bringing infants to pediatric primary care.

Parent Recommendations to Enhance Enrollment in Multidisciplinary Clinical Care for Pediatric Weight Management.

To explore parents' recommendations to enhance enrollment in multidisciplinary clinical care for managing pediatric obesity.

A (Latent) Class of Their Own: Response Patterns in Trading Off Quantity and Quality of Life in Time Trade-Off Exercises.

Conflicting results regarding associations of time trade-off (TTO) valuations with respondent characteristics have been reported, mostly on the basis of regression analyses. Alternative approaches, such as the latent class analysis (LCA), may add to the further understanding of variations in TTO responses.

Patient Preferences for Device-Aided Treatments Indicated for Advanced Parkinson Disease.

Effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD) uncontrolled with oral medication includes device-aided therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and continuous levodopa-carbidopa infusion to the duodenum via a portable pump.

An Exploratory Study on Using Principal-Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Identify Bolt-On Dimensions: The EQ-5D Case Study.

Generic preference-based measures such as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) are used in economic evaluation, but may not be appropriate for all conditions. When this happens, a possible solution is adding bolt-ons to expand their descriptive systems. Using review-based methods, studies published to date claimed the relevance of bolt-ons in the presence of poor psychometric results. This approach does not identify the specific dimensions missing from the Generic preference-based measure core descriptive system, and is inappropriate for identifying dimensions that might improve the measure generically. This study explores the use of principal-component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for bolt-on identification in the EQ-5D.

The Less-Is-More Crusade - Are We Overmedicalizing or Oversimplifying?

Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of Older Adults Seeking Care in Ambulatory Urgent Care Clinics.

To determine the most common clinical conditions associated with older adults visiting Urgent care centers (UCCs) and the potential need for further resource use.

From Servicescape to Loyalty in the Medical Tourism Industry: A Medical Clinic's Service Perspective.

Medical tourism organizations have increasingly recognized that loyalty makes a medical clinic a marketing success. To increase understanding of the importance of medical clinics, this study examined the roles of servicescapes, emotions, and satisfaction in the development of customer loyalty toward medical clinics and destination. Data were collected among international medical tourists visiting Korea. Results identified that dimensions of medical clinics' servicescape (ie, medical clinic environment, medical treatment, staff, and doctor) influenced emotions and satisfaction among international medical tourists. Also, positive emotions and the 2 dimensions of satisfaction with a medical clinic and doctor mediate the influence of medical clinics' servicescapes on 2 types of loyalty (the medical clinic and Korea for medical care). Overall, these findings indicate that the interrelationship of servicescapes, positive emotion, and satisfaction is essential in influencing international medical tourists' loyalty to a medical clinic.