A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Bacterial Infections and Mycoses - Top 30 Publications

Continuing risk of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in Africa: revised recommendations from a WHO expert consultation.

Brief Report: HIV/HBV Coinfection is a Significant Risk Factor for Liver Fibrosis in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Adults.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is unknown. We characterized liver disease using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 in patients with HIV, HBV, and HIV/HBV coinfection in Tanzania.

A 58-Year-Old Woman With Pneumonia and Gram-Negative Diplococci.

A 58-year-old woman with COPD, cor pulmonale, diabetes, and hypertension had a productive cough of greenish and purulent sputum, low-grade fever, and shortness of breath. Medications were metformin, losartan, cholecalciferol, folic acid, a multivitamin, fluticasone by inhalation, and, as needed, ipratropium by inhalation. She lived alone and worked as a physician, had received that year's seasonal influenza vaccine, was a heavy smoker, did not drink alcohol or use illicit drugs, and had no personal or family history of allergy and autoimmunity.

Epidemic hemorrhagic fever complicated with late pregnancy: A case report.

Hantaviruses cause two forms of diseases in humans, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infections can occur in pregnant women, and could influence the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding, even in endemic areas.

Cervical epidural analgesia complicated by epidural abscess: A case report and literature review.

Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon complication in clinical practice. If the abscess is large enough, the patient will rapidly develop neurologic signs of spinal injury, and urgent neurosurgical intervention may be required.

Bla-OXA48 gene microorganisms outbreak, in a tertiary Children's Hospital, Over 3 years (2012-2014): Case Report.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging problem in children. Nosocomial spread remains the principal risk factor for acquisition of these microorganisms.

Ophthalmic manifestations of bartonella infection.

The eye is commonly affected in disseminated cat scratch disease (CSD) caused by Bartonella species. This article reviews recently published data on epidemiology of CSD, clinical features of ocular involvement, diagnosis and treatment.

Summary of global update on preventive chemotherapy implementation in 2016: crossing the billion.

Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Households and the Community: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The individual- and population-level impact of household tuberculosis exposure on transmission is unclear but may have implications for the effectiveness and implementation of control interventions. We systematically searched for and included studies in which latent tuberculosis infection was assessed in 2 groups: children exposed and unexposed to a household member with tuberculosis. We also extracted data on the smear and culture status of index cases, the age and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination status of contacts, and study design characteristics. Of 6,176 citations identified from our search strategy, 26 studies (13,999 children with household exposure to tuberculosis and 174,097 children without) from 1929-2015 met inclusion criteria. Exposed children were 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.01, 4.78) times more likely to be infected than were their community counterparts. Metaregression demonstrated higher infection among children aged 0-4 years of age compared with children aged 10-14 years (ratio of odds ratios = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.43, 3.51) and among smear-positive versus smear-negative index cases (ratio of odds ratios = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.43, 8.64). At the population level, we estimated that a small proportion (<20%) of transmission was attributable to household exposure. Our results suggest that targeting tuberculosis prevention efforts to household contacts is highly effective. However, a large proportion of transmission at the population level may occur outside the household.

Brain MRI in Infants after Maternal Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy.

Effect of Post-Cesarean Delivery Oral Cephalexin and Metronidazole on Surgical Site Infection Among Obese Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown.

Effect of an Early Resuscitation Protocol on In-hospital Mortality Among Adults With Sepsis and Hypotension: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The effect of an early resuscitation protocol on sepsis outcomes in developing countries remains unknown.

Trying to Improve Sepsis Care in Low-Resource Settings.

Urinary Tract Infection.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in both inpatient and outpatient settings. This article provides an evidence-based, clinically relevant overview of management of UTIs, including screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Conditions covered include acute cystitis (both uncomplicated and complicated), catheter-associated UTI, and asymptomatic bacteriuria in both women and men.

The effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on incidence and microbiology associated with complicated acute otitis media.

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of complicated acute otitis media (cAOM) as well as the associated microbiology before and after introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-7 and -13), respectively. CAOM comprises "heavy" AOM (AOM demanding hospitalization), mastodismus (M) and acute mastoiditis (AM).

Tuberculosis of the spine with severe angular kyphosis: mean 34-year post-operative follow-up shows that prevention is better than salvage.

To address the natural history of severe post-tuberculous (TB) kyphosis, with focus upon the long-term neurological outcome, occurrence of restrictive lung disease, and the effect on life expectancy.

Antisepsis of the skin before spinal surgery with povidone iodine-alcohol followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol versus povidone iodine-alcohol applied twice for the prevention of contamination of the wound by bacteria: a randomised controlled trial.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the sequential application of povidone iodine-alcohol (PVI) followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol (CHG) would reduce surgical wound contamination to a greater extent than PVI applied twice in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia: Pathogenesis, etiologies, clinical presentations and treatment strategies.

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare condition characterized by an unexplained deficit of circulating CD4 T cells leading to increased risk of serious opportunistic infections. The pathogenesis, etiology, clinical presentation, and best treatment options remain unclear.

Differences in the Management of Perforated Appendicitis in Children by Race and Insurance Status.

This study was conducted to assess whether race and socioeconomic status influence the management method used to treat pediatric perforated appendicitis. Nonelective pediatric admissions with a primary diagnosis of appendicitis were analyzed using data from the 2001-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between race, insurance status, median household income, rural/metropolitan location, and the risk adjusted odds of undergoing surgery, laparoscopic appendectomy, percutaneous drainage, or neither surgery nor percutaneous drainage. A total of 46,211 admissions of perforated appendicitis were identified. Surgery was performed in 90.5 per cent of them. Black children were less likely to have surgery [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.53] and more likely to be managed nonsurgically with percutaneous drainage (AOR = 1.79). Self-pay patients were less likely to have laparoscopic surgery (AOR = 0.80). Children from rural counties were more likely to undergo surgery than those from larger metropolitan areas (AOR = 1.30). Higher estimated household income did not predict the method of treatment. Although previous studies have attributed racial disparities in outcomes for appendicitis to different rates of perforation and access to care, these findings demonstrate significantly dissimilar management strategies for patients presenting with a similar disease process.

An Analysis of Factors that Predict Hospital Readmission after Surgery for Perforated Appendicitis.

We performed this study to develop an understanding of why patients were readmitted after appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. Patients who required surgery for perforated appendicitis during a recent five-year period were identified. We recorded the demographic data, length of symptoms, length of stay, vital signs, laboratory findings, surgical approach, length of surgery, time to readmission, length of readmission, and intervention required after readmission. We divided the cohort into two groups depending on whether the patient was readmitted. We used chi-squared analysis and t test to determine differences between the two groups. We identified 86 patients, with 14 (16.3%) requiring readmission. The only factors that predicted readmission were longer appendectomy surgery (P = 0.03) and open surgery (P = 0.04). After readmission, one patient required reoperation, and two required percutaneous abscess drainage. The remaining 11 patients were readmitted for a median of two days, received intravenous fluids, and required no additional clinically significant management. Patients requiring longer and open surgery are at an increased risk for hospital readmission after resection of a perforated appendix. Efforts to reduce readmission will likely be most successful if hydration and brief periods of clinical observation can be arranged when necessary for patients after discharge from surgery.

The Nurse's Management of Shock and Hemorrhage.

: Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the September 1908 issue, describes the nursing management of shock and hemorrhage. Hospital nurses are instructed to employ measures that today would be described as prehospital first aid. The author (a "Graduate of Bellevue Hospital, New York") directs the nurse to "work quickly and quietly, dismiss every one from the room who cannot be of intelligent assistance, and… in no way impart to the patient the serious nature of his or her condition." More than a century later, nursing interventions for shock are considerably more intense and complex, as illustrated in the feature article in this issue, "Assessing Patients During Septic Shock Resuscitation."

Risk factors of serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab in the French Registry REGATE.

Observational studies have already reported the risk of serious infections in RA treated with tocilizumab, but in limited samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive risk factors for serious infections in the largest European registry of patients treated with tocilizumab for RA.

HIV and tuberculosis co-infection among migrants in Europe: A systematic review on the prevalence, incidence and mortality.

International human migration has been rapidly growing. Migrants coming from low and middle income countries continue to be considerably vulnerable and at higher risk for infectious diseases, namely HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and tuberculosis (TB). In Europe, the number of patients with HIV-TB co-infection has been increasing and migration could be one of the potential driving forces.

Drivers of antibiotic prescribing in children and adolescents with febrile lower respiratory tract infections.

Knowledge of key drivers for antibiotic prescribing in pediatric lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could support rational antibiotic use. Thus, we aimed to determine the impact of clinical and laboratory factors on antibiotic prescribing in children and adolescents with febrile LRTI.

Efficacy and safety of sequential versus quadruple therapy as second-line treatment for helicobacter pylori infection-A randomized controlled trial.

Quadruple therapy is recommended as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. However, high cost, multiple side effects, and low adherence rates are major drawbacks to its routine use. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of sequential versus quadruple regimens as second line treatment for persistent Helicobacter pylori infection.

Body habitus in patients with and without bronchiectasis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

Female gender, tall stature, presence of bronchiectasis are associated with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections. The biologic relationship between the body habitus and NTM infection is not well defined and the body habitus profile of the patients with NTM and concurrent bronchiectasis is completely unknown.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season.

Pregnant women and their infants are at increased risk for severe influenza-associated illness (1), and since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of the trimester of the pregnancy (2). To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during March 28-April 7, 2017. Among 1,893 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2016-January 2017, 53.6% reported having received influenza vaccination before (16.2%) or during (37.4%) pregnancy, similar to coverage during the preceding four influenza seasons. Also similar to the preceding influenza season, 67.3% of women reported receiving a provider offer for influenza vaccination, 11.9% reported receiving a recommendation but no offer, and 20.7% reported receiving no recommendation; among these women, reported influenza vaccination coverage was 70.5%, 43.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. Among women who received a provider offer for vaccination, vaccination coverage differed by race/ethnicity, education, insurance type, and other sociodemographic factors. Use of evidence-based practices such as provider reminders and standing orders could reduce missed opportunities for vaccination and increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women.

Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni Associated with Consuming Undercooked Chicken Liver Mousse - Clark County, Washington, 2016.

On July 13, 2016, Clark County (Washington) Public Health (CCPH) received a report of diarrheal illness in four of seven members of a single party who dined at a local restaurant on July 6, 2016. The report was received through an online/telephone system for reporting food service-associated illness complaints. Members of the five households in the party reported that their only shared exposure was the restaurant meal. CCPH ordered closure of the restaurant kitchen on July 13, 2016, and began an investigation to identify the source of diarrheal illness and implement additional control measures.

Profile of leprosy in children under 15 years of age monitored in a Brazilian referral center (2004-2012).

Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability.

Etanercept in erythema nodosum leprosum.

One of the biggest challenges in treating leprosy is the control of reaction events. Patients with lepromatous leprosy may present reaction type II, or erythema nodosum leprosum, during treatment, and this reaction can remain in a recurrent form after being released from the hospital, requiring the use of thalidomide and/or prednisone for long periods of time, in turn increasing the risk of side effects. Two reports of the use of antiTNF to treat erythema nodosum leprosum were found in the literature. A good response was found after an assay with infliximab and etanercept. This study reports on a patient with lepromatous leprosy and recurrent reaction, controlled by using etanercept and a 10-month follow-up, with the interruption of thalidomide and the maintenance of prednisone at 10 mg/day.