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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses - Top 30 Publications

Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017.

The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Since 2016, confirmed cases of monkeypox have occurred in Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, and Sierra Leone and in captive chimpanzees in Cameroon. Many countries with endemic monkeypox lack recent experience and specific knowledge about the disease to detect cases, treat patients, and prevent further spread of the virus. Specific improvements in surveillance capacity, laboratory diagnostics, and infection control measures are needed to launch an efficient response. Further, gaps in knowledge about the epidemiology and ecology of the virus need to be addressed to design, recommend, and implement needed prevention and control measures.

Delivering at the country level: the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision and its impact in 2016 and 2017.

Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

Low humoral responses to human cytomegalovirus is associated with immunological treatment failure among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the opportunistic infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients especially before introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little is known regarding the humoral immune response against HCMV in relation to CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals. A total of 90 achieved sera from HIV infected patients attending Bugando Medical centre care and treatment centre (CTC) aged 18 years and above were retrieved and analyzed. Sociodemographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of specific HCMV antibodies was done using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using STATA version 11. A total of 90 HIV infected patients were enrolled in the study whereby 36(40%) had immunological treatment failure. The mean age of the study participants was 39±12.3 years. The Prevalence of specific HCMV IgG antibodies was 84(93.3%, 95% CI: 88-98.5) while the prevalence of specific HCMV IgM antibodies was 2(2.3% 95% CI: 0.8-5.4). The median CD4 counts at 6 months and 12 months on HAART were significantly high in treatment success group. At 12 months of HAART as CD4 counts increases the HCMV IgG index value was also found to increase significantly, p=0.04. Significant proportion of HIV infected individuals was infected with HCMV. Higher median HCMV IgG titers were observed among patients with immunological treatment success. There is a need to investigate humoral immune responses in HIV infected individuals in relation to CD4 counts against various infectious diseases in developing countries where most of these infections are endemic.

Meningococcal infections associated with febrile purpura among children hospitalized in a Moroccan Hospital: incidence and associated clinical factors.

Febrile purpura (FP) is suggestive of meningococcal disease, requiring almost always further investigations and a treatment based on broad spectrum antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the incidence of meningococcal infections as well as their associated clinical signs in children with febrile purpura hospitalized in the emergency department.

Estimation of seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis among blood donors in the hospital of Aïoun, Mauritania.

To estimating the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis among blood donors in the Aïoun hospital.

Full median sternotomy approach for treatment of upper thoracic vertebral tuberculosis in a developing country: case report and short literature review.

Direct anterior approach to the cervicothoracic spine (C7-T4) poses a technical challenge in neurosurgery, due to the presence of important neurovascular structures anterior to the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ). Median Sternotomy approach is a surgical option that allows for direct anterior exposure of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. We report the first case from Ghana, West Africa of a young man who developed post-tuberculosis osteomyelitis of upper thoracic (T1-2) vertebrae with cord compression after spinal tuberculosis in childhood. He underwent a full median Sternotomy for Anterior Decompression and Fusion of C7-T2 with autologous iliac crest bone graft. We detail our operative procedure and review the relevant literature.

Bullous pemphigoid and Parkinson's disease: about a case.

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease which can be associated with many pathologies including degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Studies have suggested the possibility of cross-immune responses through "epitope spreading". Bullous dermatosis has been reported to be secondary to neurological disease, at intervals ranging from a few months to a maximum of a few years. Then is it an unusual association or a causation? It has been suggested that drug consumption, decubitus lesions, traumatic events as well as reduced immunity can be triggers for BP in patients with neurological disease. We report the case of a 93-year old patient with a 10-year history of advanced Parkinson's disease, hospitalized for the treatment of a common bullous pemphigoid confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids. After a week of treatment, the patient died due to septic shock. Neurological disorders represent a real risk factor for BP. BP could be considered as a marker for neurological disorder. These associations are of broad interest, because they can play a role in the etiopathogenesis of BP and contribute to a complete understanding of the causes of these neurodegenerative diseases.

Factors associated with cholera in Kenya, 2008-2013.

Kenya experienced widespread cholera outbreaks in 1997-1999 and 2007-2010. The re-emergence of cholera in Kenya in 2015 indicates that cholera remains a public health threat. Understanding past outbreaks is important for preventing future outbreaks. This study investigated the relationship between cholera occurrence in Kenya and various environmental and demographic factors related to water, sanitation, socio-economic status, education, urbanization and availability of health facilities during the time period 2008-2013.

Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

Tenofovir versus Placebo to Prevent Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis B.

Pregnant women with an elevated viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a risk of transmitting infection to their infants, despite the infants' receiving hepatitis B immune globulin.

Skipped multifocal extensive spinal tuberculosis involving the whole spine: A case report and literature review.

Skipped multifocal extensive spinal tuberculosis (TB) involving the whole spine is very rare. So far, only 3 cases have been reported.

Household tuberculosis contact investigation in a tuberculosis-prevalent country: Are the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay enough in elderly contacts?

The high background rates of positive results on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) sometimes confuse the investigation of tuberculosis (TB) contact in TB-prevalent countries, particularly in elderly contacts. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of TST and IGRA for diagnosing latent TB infection (LTBI) in elderly household contacts in South Korea.In this retrospective study, TST and IGRA results of household contacts of suspected pulmonary TB patients were reviewed according to the index patient's final diagnosis (TB group: culture-confirmed pulmonary TB, non-TB group: pulmonary disease other than TB).A total of 249 contacts were included in the analysis (188 in the TB group and 61 in the non-TB group). In the TB group, TST and IGRA were positive in 42.6% and 45.7% of contacts, respectively. In the non-TB group, TST and IGRA were positive in 32.8% and 23.0% of contacts, respectively. TST did not show any differences between the TB and non-TB groups for any age group, whereas IGRA showed differences between the 2 groups for those ages 18 to 39 and 40 to 59 years. However, there were no significant differences between the groups for the ≥60 years old group.In elderly contacts, neither TST nor IGRA showed clear discrimination of positivity between the groups. Further studies are needed to predict which elderly contacts are at risk for progression to active TB as well as to accurately detect recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in this vulnerable population.

Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with pulmonary tuberculosis: Two case reports.

Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is characterized by contiguous inflammatory lesions of spinal cord extending to ≥3 vertebral segments. The etiology of LETM is complicated, including various infection, autoimmune disease, and so on. Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the most common cause of LETM. Several case reports have suggested the associations between NMOSD and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Fungemia caused by Penicillium marneffei in an immunocompetent patient with COPD: A unique case report.

This report describes a rare case in Wenzhou city of Zhejiang province that a non-HIV infected male recovering from fungemia caused by Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei). Interestingly, it's very easy to misdiagnose with aspergillosis, a fungal disease prevalent in Wenzhou, during the whole procedure.

The role of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of bacterial infection after major abdominal surgery: Advantage from daily measurement.

Postsurgical infections represent an important cause of morbidity after abdominal surgery. The microbiological diagnosis is not achieved in at least 30% of culture with consequent worsening of patient outcome. In this study, procalcitonin measurement, during the first 3 days after abdominal surgery, has been evaluated for the early diagnosis of postsurgical infection.Ninety consecutive patients subjected to major abdominal surgery at the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, have been included. PCT concentrations were measured by time-resolved amplified cryptate emission (TRACE) assay at admission and at the first, second, and third day after surgery. PCT levels were compared using the Mann-Whitney test and by ANOVA test for variance analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to define the diagnostic ability of PCT in case of postsurgical infections.PCT values resulted significantly different between patients developing or not developing postsurgical infections. PCT >1.0 ng/mL at first or second day after surgery and >0.5 ng/mL at third day resulted diagnostic for infectious complication, whereas a value <0.5 ng/mL at the fifth day after surgery was useful for early and safety discharge of patients.In conclusion, PCT daily measurement could represent a useful diagnostic tool improving health care in the postsurgical period following major abdominal surgery and should be recommended.

Application of vascularized fibular graft for reconstruction and stabilization of multilevel cervical tuberculosis: A case report.

Multilevel cervical reconstruction and fusion after cervical tuberculosis has always been a challenge. The current implantation materials for cervical fusion, including titanium mesh, cage, and plate are limited by its inferior biological mechanical characteristics and the properties of the metallic material. This has led to the increased risk of recurrent infection after surgery. In addition, the unique nature of tuberculosis infection results in the low rate of cervical fusion and high risk of recurrence. This case report presents 1 patient who suffered from long segmental cervical tuberculosis and had reconstruction surgery using a vascularized fibula graft. The patient had successful graft incorporation 3 months postsurgery and was followed-up for 30 months. In this review, we detail the advantages of using vascularized fibular grafts and compare it with other types of grafts.

Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

Infection after orthopedic procedures is a devastating and serious complication associated with significant clinical and financial challenges to the health care system and unfortunate patient. The time and resource-intensive nature of treating infection after orthopedic procedures has turned attention toward enhancing prevention and establishing quality improvement measures. Prevention strategies throughout the perioperative period include host optimization, risk mitigation, reducing bacterial burden and proper wound management. Understanding the most common offending organisms of the shoulder, Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, and their hypothesized mechanism of infection is crucial to selecting appropriate preventative measures.

Antimicrobial efficacy of corneal cross-linking in vitro and in vivo for Fusarium solani: a potential new treatment for fungal keratitis.

Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. However, the effectiveness of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for fungal keratitis remains controversial. In this study, we developed an in vitro and an in vivo models to assess the efficacy of CXL for Fusarium keratitis.

Hydrocortisone plus Fludrocortisone for Adults with Septic Shock.

Septic shock is characterized by dysregulation of the host response to infection, with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic abnormalities. We hypothesized that therapy with hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone or with drotrecogin alfa (activated), which can modulate the host response, would improve the clinical outcomes of patients with septic shock.

A Role for Hydrocortisone Therapy in Septic Shock?

An Unexpected Expectoration.

Rhinofacial Entomophthoromycosis.

Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding: Case report and literature review.

Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding is an important reason for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) , in addition to tumor and vascular diseases. Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding is difficult to detect by barium meal and angiographic methods and has been regarded as an important cause of obscure gastrointestinal tract bleeding in adolescents. Because of its complicated etiology and non-specific clinical manifestations, it is relatively difficult to detect small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding, especially in patients with a large amount of bleeding and hemodynamic instability.

The clinical and laboratory features of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study in 92 patients.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is an important component of central nervous system diseases among HIV-infected patients. However, its characteristics are not very clear. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was performed in 92 NS patients with HIV infection from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. The patients had a median age of 38 years and a median CD4 count of 198 cells/μL. In all, 44.6% (41/92) were diagnosed as asymptomatic NS (ANS), 23.9% (22/92) as syphilitic meningitis, 17.4% (16/92) as cerebrovascular NS, and 14.1% (13/92) as parenchymal syphilis. A quarter of patients (23/92) complicated with ocular syphilis (OS), 60.9% (14/23) of which were ANS. The serum tolulized red unheated serum test (TRUST) titers were ≤1:8 in 15 patients (16.3%), 1:16-1:128 in 51 patients (55.4%), and ≥1:256 in 26 patients (28.3%). Sixty-nine patients (75.0%) had both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle assay reactive. CSF pleocytosis and protein elevation were found in 58.7% and 53.3% of patients, respectively. Syphilitic meningitis was more likely to present with CSF pleocytosis than ANS (P = .001), cerebrovascular NS (P < .001), and parenchymal NS (P < .001). The proportion of patients with CSF elevated protein was lower in ANS group than that in syphilitic meningitis (P = .003), cerebrovascular NS (P = .001), and parenchymal NS groups (P = .025), and was higher in sero-TRUST titers ≤1:8 group than that in 1:16-1:128 (P = .01) and 1:256-1:1024 groups (P = .005).This study revealed that ANS was the most common clinical type of NS in HIV-infected patients, which should be considered in HIV and syphilis co-infection patients without neurologic symptoms, especially in those with OS. Different patterns of NS might have different CSF features which may also vary with sero-TRUST titers.

Real-time PCR assays for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

It is difficult to diagnose brucellar spondylitis because of its nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics. This study aimed to determine whether real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was superior to conventional serum-based methods for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis.This retrospective study included 31 patients with brucellosis and a control group of 20 people with no history of brucellosis or exposure to Brucella spp. Samples from all patients with brucellar spondylitis were evaluated using Giemsa staining, the standard tube agglutination (STA) test, blood culture, and real-time PCR.The brucellar spondylitis was acute in 7 patients (22.6%), subacute in 15 patients (48.4%), and chronic in 9 patients (29%). Serological assays provided positive results for 25 patients (80.1%), real-time PCR provided positive results for 29 patients (93.5%), and blood cultures provided positive results for 11 patients (35.5%). The real-time PCR provided sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The corresponding values for the STA test were 80.1%, 100%, 100%, and 76.9%, respectively. Real-time PCR provided better sensitivity than Giemsa staining, the STA test, and blood culture, although the difference between PCR and STA was not statistically significant (P = .22). B melitensis was the only pathogen that was detected in patient with brucellar spondylitis using real-time PCR.These results suggest that real-time PCR provides a high sensitivity for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis. Furthermore, the real-time PCR results indicate that B melitensis was the causative pathogen in these cases.

An innovative method for placing a double-lumen irrigation-suction tube in the management of abdominal infection: A case report.

Currently, the use of double-lumen irrigation-suction tube for drainage has become increasingly more common. However, the insertion process is complex, and the position of the double cannula placed in this manner is not accurate. We developed a method for placing the drainage tube and use it in the treatment of an abdominal infection.

rpoB gene mutations among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from extrapulmonary sites.

The aim of this study was to analyze mutations occurring in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from clinical samples of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and fresh tissue samples from confirmed EPTB cases were analyzed. Nested PCR based on the rpoB gene was performed on the extracted DNAs, combined with cloning and subsequent sequencing. Sixty-seven (95.7%) samples were positive for nester PCR. Sequence analysis of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene demonstrated mutations in 41 (61.2%) of 67 sequenced samples. Several point mutations including deletion mutations at codons 510, 512, 513 and 515, with 45% and 51% of the mutations in codons 512 and 513 respectively were seen, along with 26% replacement mutations at codons 509, 513, 514, 518, 520, 524 and 531. The most common alteration was Gln → His, at codon 513, presented in 30 (75.6%) isolates. This study demonstrated sequence alterations in codon 513 of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene as the most common mutation occurred in 75.6% of molecularly confirmed rifampin-resistant strains. In addition, simultaneous mutation at codons 512 and 513 was demonstrated in 34.3% of the isolates.

The association of IgA deficiency on infection rate, self-perceived health, and levels of C-reactive protein in healthy blood donors.

The clinical importance of immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals is not well described. We aimed to investigate the self-reported mental and physical health and the risk of infection in IgA-deficient blood donors compared to healthy control blood donors. Infectious events, recorded in public health registries either as prescriptions filled of any antimicrobial medicine or as hospital infections, were compared between 177 IgA-deficient blood donors and 1770 control blood donors. A subset of the IgA-deficient donors were further characterized by self-reported health (Short Form-12, n = 28) and circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 10). IgA-deficient individuals had lower self-reported mental health (p = 0.01) and higher CRP (p < 0.05). A strong trend was found regarding prescription of antimicrobial medicine (hazard ratio = 1.19, p = 0.05). No association was found with hospital infections (hazard ratio = 1.02, p = 0.95) or self-reported physical health (p = 0.86). IgA-deficient blood donors have impaired self-reported mental health, enhanced inflammation and possibly an increased risk of infection. Despite these findings, this study does not provide sufficient evidence to warrant specific health precautions for donors with IgA deficiency.

Candida pneumonia with severe clinical course, recovery with antifungal therapy and unusual pathologic findings: A case report.

Candida is frequently isolated from the respiratory tract and usually reflects airway colonization. True Candida pneumonia is rare. Our aim is to document a case of Candida pneumonia confirmed by cultures, molecular techniques, and surgical lung biopsy, and to highlight a previously unreported pathologic manifestation of this infection.