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Bacterial Infections and Mycoses - Top 30 Publications

Updated Recommendations for Use of MenB-FHbp Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2016.

Two serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines are currently licensed for use in persons aged 10-25 years in the United States. The two vaccines are MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Pfizer, Inc.) (1) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Inc.) (2). In February 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of MenB vaccines among certain groups of persons aged ≥10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease* (Category A) (3), and in June 2015, ACIP recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16-23 years may be vaccinated with MenB vaccines to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (Category B(†)) (4). Consistent with the original Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure for the two available MenB vaccines, ACIP recommended either a 3-dose series of MenB-FHbp or a 2-dose series of MenB-4C. Either MenB vaccine can be used when indicated; ACIP does not state a product preference. The two MenB vaccines are not interchangeable; the same vaccine product must be used for all doses in a series. In April 2016, changes to the dosage and administration of MenB-FHbp were approved by FDA to allow for both a 2-dose series (administered at 0 and 6 months) and a 3-dose series (administered at 0, 1-2, and 6 months) (5,6). In addition, the package insert now states that the choice of dosing schedule depends on the patient's risk for exposure and susceptibility to serogroup B meningococcal disease. These recommendations are regarding use of the 2- and 3-dose schedules of MenB-FHbp vaccine (Trumenba) and replace previous ACIP recommendations for use of MenB-FHbp vaccine published in 2015 (3,4). Recommendations regarding use of MenB-4C (Bexsero) are unchanged (3,4).

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Among Pregnant Women and Care of Infants of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive Mothers - Guam, 2014.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic among adults in the U.S. territory of Guam (1,2). Perinatal HBV transmission, which occurs at birth from an infected mother to her newborn infant, is a major mode of HBV transmission and maintains HBV endemicity (3). Approximately 90% of HBV-infected infants will develop chronic HBV infection, and approximately 25% of those will die prematurely from liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (4,5). Since 1988, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), an indicator of HBV infection, and that infants of women who screen positive (HBsAg-positive women) receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG]). When received within 12 hours of birth, PEP is 85%-95% effective in preventing perinatal HBV transmission (5,6). Hepatitis B vaccine provides long-term active immunity to HBV infection and HBIG provides short-term passive immunity to HBV infection until the infant responds to the vaccine (5). Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced into the routine universal infant vaccination schedule in Guam in 1988 (1).

Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Women Giving Birth - Tennessee and United States, 2009-2014.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 3.5 million persons in the United States (1), making it the most common bloodborne infection in the country. Recent surveillance data showed increased rates of HCV infection among adolescents and adults who are predominantly white, live in nonurban areas, and have a history of injection drug use.* U.S. birth certificate data were used to analyze trends and geographic variations in rates of HCV infection among women giving birth during 2009-2014. Birth certificates from Tennessee were used to examine individual characteristics and outcomes associated with HCV infection, using a multivariable model to calculate adjusted odds of HCV-related diagnosis in pregnancy among women with live births. During 2009-2014, HCV infection present at the time of delivery among pregnant women from states reporting HCV on the birth certificate increased 89%, from 1.8 to 3.4 per 1,000 live births. The highest infection rate in 2014 (22.6 per 1,000 live births) was in West Virginia; the rate in Tennessee was 10.1. In adjusted analyses of Tennessee births, the odds of HCV infection were approximately threefold higher among women residing in rural counties than among those in large urban counties, 4.5-fold higher among women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, and nearly 17-fold higher among women with concurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HCV infection among pregnant women is an increasing and potentially modifiable threat to maternal and child health. Clinicians and public health officials should consider individual and population-level opportunities for prevention and risk mitigation.

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Cholera Vaccine.

Cholera, caused by infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteria of serogroup O1 (>99% of global cases) or O139, is characterized by watery diarrhea that can be severe and rapidly fatal without prompt rehydration. Cholera is endemic in approximately 60 countries and causes epidemics as well. Globally, cholera results in an estimated 2.9 million cases of disease and 95,000 deaths annually (1). Cholera is rare in the United States, and most U.S. cases occur among travelers to countries where cholera is endemic or epidemic. Forty-two U.S. cases were reported in 2011 after a cholera epidemic began in Haiti (2); however, <25 cases per year have been reported in the United States since 2012.

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Comparing the curative efficacy of topical treatment with thiamphenicol and oxytetracycline on digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cattle.

The efficacy of two topically applied antibiotics for the treatment of painful ulcerative stage of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) lesions was compared in a clinical trial conducted on five dairy farms in the Netherlands during the autumn of 2015. A total of 109 cows with an ulcerative (M2) stage of BDD were randomly appointed a treatment with an antibiotic-based spray. One treatment contained thiamphenicol as active ingredient (TAF). The other treatment had oxytetracycline as active ingredient (ENG). The experimental unit for this study was the hind claw with the presence of an ulcerative BDD lesion. On day 0, claws with ulcerative BDD lesions were trimmed, cleaned, photographed and thereafter treated randomly either with TAF or ENG. Cure was defined as the transition of an ulcerative lesion into a non-painful chronic (M4) or into a healed (M0) stage of BDD at day 28 post-treatment. The cure rate at day 28 of M2 BDD lesions treated with TAF was 89 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.78 to 0.94), and for ENG 75 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.67 to 0.86). So the difference in cure rate was 14 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.00 to 0.27), which was statistically significant. The P value in this experiment is very close to 0.05 indicating that the effect is quite small. If a two-sided test would be used, the small significant effect, in this experiment, will disappear. Overall, the significant better curative effect of TAF on BDD M2 lesions was small, compared with ENG.

Characterisation of clinically isolated Streptococcus pyogenes from balanoposthitis patients, with special emphasis on emm89 isolates.

Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, this bacterium is a causative agent of balanoposthitis. To reveal the bacteriological characteristics of the isolates from balanoposthitis patients, we analysed 47 isolates. In addition, novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes isolates have been reported to be spreading worldwide recently. Hence, we further analysed eight emm89 isolates.

Accuracy of diagnostic tests for Legionnaires' disease: a systematic review.

Rapid and effective diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases is extremely important so that timely and appropriate therapy can be provided, thereby lowering the morbidity and mortality rates and reducing the health and economic costs associated with this disease.

Importance of adhesins in the recurrence of pharyngeal infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

Pharyngo-amygdalitis is the most common infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Reinfection with strains of different M types commonly occurs. However, a second infection with a strain of the same M type can still occur and is referred to as recurrence. We aimed to assess whether recurrence of S. pyogenes could be associated to erythromycin resistance, biofilm formation or surface adhesins like fibronectin-binding proteins and pilus proteins, both located in the fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T-antigen (FCT) region.

Prevalence of Burkholderia species, including members of Burkholderia cepacia complex, among UK cystic and non-cystic fibrosis patients.

We aimed to establish the prevalence of different Burkholderia species among UK cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients over a 2 year period.

Group B streptococcal bacteriuria during pregnancy as a risk factor for maternal intrapartum colonization: a prospective cohort study.

Current evidence is inconclusive regarding the intrapartum administration of chemoprophylaxis, merely based on the presence of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria of any colony count, in the prevention of early-onset neonatal GBS infection. The aim of this study was to assess whether GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for intrapartum colonization (IPC) regardless of urinary concentration or the results of late third-trimester rectovaginal screening cultures (RVSCs).

Bactericidal mechanisms and effector targets of TiO2 and &nbsp;Ag-TiO2 against Staphylococcus aureus.

In our previous study, Ag+-loaded TiO2 and Ag+-loaded SiO2 coatings for tracheal intubation were prepared to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), but the antimicrobial targets and the underlying mechanisms of TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 (Ag+) are still unclear. We attempted to elucidate the antimicrobial activity and potential mechanisms against Staphylococcus aureus.

Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion.

Although antibiotics are widely used during pregnancy, evidence regarding their fetal safety remains limited. Our aim was to quantify the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion.

The clear and present danger of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in New Zealand: time for a national response plan.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence). Although to date in New Zealand, nearly all CPE have been imported from overseas, this situation appears to be changing, with evidence of secondary spread in both households and healthcare facilities over the last year. In this article, we argue that CPE should be regarded as the foremost AMR threat currently facing New Zealand, and highlight the need for a comprehensive national response plan, analogous to plans for other emerging transmissible infections, such as pandemic influenza and Ebola. We also make recommendations about the components of such a plan and advocate that CPE should be recognised as a key priority in New Zealand's national AMR strategy, due to be published in May 2017.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Associated With Biomass Fuel Use Among Rural Women in Pakistan: An Age- and Residence-Matched Case-Control Study.

Facility-based, age- and residential area-matched case-control study was conducted in Sindh, Pakistan to determine association between biomass fuel use for cooking and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Cases were women with pulmonary TB, and controls were those suffering from other diseases. Current users of biomass fuel were at higher risk of pulmonary TB (adjusted matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9) compared with nonusers. In comparison with former biomass users (women not using biomass for >10 years), recent biomass users (women who switched from biomass to nonbiomass ≤10 years ago), and current (lifetime) users were at a higher risk in a dose-response manner (adjusted mOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 0.9-8.2 and adjusted mOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4-10.7, respectively). Population attributable fraction for TB related to biomass fuel use was 40.6% (95% CI = 35.5%-45.7%). This study strengthens the evidence that biomass fuel use for cooking is associated with pulmonary TB and risk increases with duration of exposure.

Hepatitis B During Pregnancy in Endemic Areas: Screening, Treatment, and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission.

The proper management of pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and to protect the baby from HBV infection. In the majority of cases, vertical transmission can be prevented with a universal screening program, HBV vaccine immunoprophylaxis, and administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) for babies born to mothers with HBV. However, in mothers with a high viral load (>200,000 or >1,000,000 IU/ml, depending on the guideline), the chance of immunoprophylaxis failure remains high. The standard recommendation is to give an antiviral agent during the third trimester in these patients. US FDA pregnancy category B agents such as tenofovir and telbivudine are allowed through all trimesters of pregnancy. Breastfeeding for patients who receive antiviral agents can be allowed after a risk-benefit discussion with the patient.

In vitro and in vivo assessments of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract as an alternative anti-streptococcal agent in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).

Rhodomyrtustomentosa is a Thai medicinal plant that has been attracting attention for its remarkable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of R. tomentosa leaf extract against Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae isolated from infected tilapia.

Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and sputum smear-negative pulmonary suspects using Xpert MTB/RIF.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).

Bacterial screening of platelet components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant, an effective risk reduction measure.

Bacterial contamination of blood components remains a major cause of sepsis in transfusion medicine. Between 2006 and 2010 in the 5 years before the introduction of bacterial screening of platelet (PLT) components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), seven cases of PLT component-associated transmission of bacterial infection were recorded for 10 patients, three of which were fatal.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

The Role of Doctors and Patients in Appendicitis Perforation.

In this study, we aimed to determine factors that cause appendix perforations and to identify the role of physicians and patients in contributing to the cause of these perforations. This study was conducted between April 2010 and May 2015 and included 64 patients with perforated appendicitis. Patients' medical records were examined for factors that might have contributed to perforation, and the roles of patients and physicians in perforation appendicitis were evaluated. The perforation rate of patients with appendicitis was 16.0 per cent. The average duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was 4.4 days (29 patients were admitted to hospital within two days, 35 were admitted later). In total, 38 patients had visited a different hospital before admission. Furthermore, six out of 26 patients who had not visited any other hospital had consumed analgesics. Factors contributing to appendix perforation included misdiagnosis at the patient's initial visit (56.0%), delayed admission to hospital (11.0%), and use of analgesics (9.0%). The cause of perforation was mostly physician-related in children and adults, and patient-related in older adults.

Candida Esophagitis.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Bezlotoxumab and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Innate immune response to lipooligosaccharide: pivotal regulator of the pathobiology of invasive Neisseria meningitidis infections.

Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis afflict more than one million people worldwide annually and cause death or disability in many survivors. The clinical course of invasive infections has been well studied, but our understanding of the cause of differences in patient outcomes has been limited because these are dependent on multiple factors including the response of the host, characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the host and the bacteria. The meningococcus is a highly inflammatory organism, and the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) on the outer membrane is the most potent inflammatory molecule it expresses due to the interactions of the lipid A moiety of LOS with receptors of the innate immune system. We previously reported that increased phosphorylation of hexaacylated neisserial lipid A is correlated with greater inflammatory potential. Here we postulate that variability in lipid A phosphorylation can tip the balance of innate immune responses towards homeostatic tolerance or proinflammatory signaling that affects adaptive immune responses, causing disease with meningitis only, or septicemia with or without meningitis, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that studies of the relationship between bacterial virulence and gene expression should consider whether genetic variation could affect properties of biosynthetic enzymes resulting in LOS structural differences that alter disease pathobiology.

The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract.

Comorbidities of rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the non-RA population. The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assesses the general health status of populations in South Korea using interviews and basic health assessment, was analyzed retrospectively. Weighted prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of comorbidities were analyzed in patients with RA compared with the non-RA population. The overall weighted (n = 37,453,158) prevalence of RA was 1.5%. Patients with RA were older and more female predominant than subjects without RA. The prevalence of living in an urban area, college graduation, alcohol consumption and smoking was lower in patients with RA than non-RA. Patients with RA had more comorbidities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction (MI) or angina, stoke, osteoarthritis, lung cancer, colon cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, depression, thyroid disease and chronic kidney disease. After adjusting socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, RA was associated with an increased prevalence of MI or angina (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.96, p = 0.009), pulmonary TB (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24-3.09, p = 0.004), asthma (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.71, p = 0.036), thyroid disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.77), depression (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.47-3.85, p < 0.001) and hepatitis B (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.80, p = 0.020) compared with the non-RA population. Prevalence of solid cancer was not significantly associated with RA after adjustment.

Case report: The first case of Achromobacter xylosoxidans-related tunnel infection in a patient receiving peritoneal dialysis.

Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection is mostly reported in immunocompromised patients. Until now, it is still rarely reported in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

A simple scoring algorithm predicting extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: Matters of frequent emergency department users.

The incidence of community-onset bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) producers is increasing. The adverse effects of ESBL production on patient outcome have been recognized and this antimicrobial resistance has significant implications in the delay of appropriate therapy. However, a simple scoring algorithm that can easily, inexpensively, and accurately be applied to clinical settings was lacking. Thus, we established a predictive scoring algorithm for identifying patients at the risk of ESBL-producer infections among patients with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia (CoMEB).In a retrospective cohort, multicenter study, adults with CoMEB in the emergency department (ED) were recruited during January 2008 to December 2013. ESBL producers were determined based on ESBL phenotype. Clinical information was obtained from chart records.Of the total 1141 adults with CoMEB, 65 (5.7%) caused by ESBL producers were identified. Four independent multivariate predictors of ESBL-producer bacteremia with high odds ratios (ORs)-recent antimicrobial use (OR, 15.29), recent invasive procedures (OR, 12.33), nursing home residents (OR, 27.77), and frequent ED user (OR, 9.98)-were each assigned +1 point to obtain the CoMEB-ESBL score. Using the proposed scoring algorithm, a cut-off value of +2 yielded a high sensitivity (84.6%) and an acceptable specificity (92.5%); the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92.In conclusion, this simple scoring algorithm can be used to identify CoMEB patients with a high ESBL-producer infection risk. Of note, frequent ED user was firstly demonstrated to be a crucial predictor in predicting ESBL-producer infections. ED clinicians should consider adequate empirical therapy with coverage of these pathogens for patients with risk factors.