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Cardiovascular Diseases - Top 30 Publications

Cardiovascular risk factors in a child population: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

The main aim of the present study was to investigate the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome in a large, healthy representative Norwegian child population.

Pulmonary vein signal in mitral regurgitation.

Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Hip or Knee Arthroplasty.

Inadvertent defibrillator lead placement into the left ventricle after MitraClip implantation: A case report.

Inadvertent pacemaker/defibrillator lead placement into the left ventricle is an unusual cardiac device-related complication and its diagnosis is not always easy and often misunderstood. Thromboembolic events are frequently associated with this procedural complication. Percutaneous lead extraction should be performed when diagnosis is made early after device implantation while long-life oral anticoagulation is a wise option when the diagnosis is delayed and the lead is not removed.

Recurrent pulmonary embolism associated with deep venous thrombosis diagnosed as protein s deficiency owing to a novel mutation in PROS1: A case report.

Protein S (PS) deficiency that can be inherited or acquired is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Associations of common variants at ALDH2 gene and the risk of stroke in patients with coronary artery diseases undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Limited data are available about the role of common variants at the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) on the clinical outcome in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the present study, a total of 1089 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2012 and July 2013. Six common variants at ALDH2 gene, including rs2339840, rs4648328, rs4767939, rs11066028, rs16941669, and rs671, were selected to test the associations of those polymorphisms with the cardiovascular outcome in patients with CHD after PCI. The clinical endpoints included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The composite of clinical endpoints was defined as the primary endpoint, and every endpoint alone was considered as the secondary endpoints. The median follow-up time was 38.27 months. Our results showed that the common variant rs2339840 was independently associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with CHD after PCI (codominant model, HR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.11-0.91, P = .074 for heterozygotes; HR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.06-1.14, P = .033 for homozygotes; dominant model, HR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.14-0.74, P = .007). However, no significant associations were found between other 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the clinical endpoints. For the first time, the common variant rs2339840 was reported to be a protective factor against stroke in CHD patients with PCI.

Complications in transorbital penetrating injury by bamboo branch: A case report.

Wooden transorbital penetrating injury is an uncommon and serious trauma that may cause multiply complications.

Arterial spin labeling MR imaging aids to identify cortical venous drainage of dural arteriovenous fistulas.

Cortical venous drainage (CVD) increases the probability of intracranial hemorrhage and mortality rate of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF). Although digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the most accurate method to determine CVD in DAVFs, this modality has limitations due to its invasive nature and radiation issues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of arterial spin-labeling perfusion-weighted images (ASL-PWI) to identify CVD in patients with DAVF.The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. ASL-PWI features of 22 patients with DAVF were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of bright signal intensity in cortical veins and brain parenchyma. DAVF with bright signal intensity in cortical veins and/or brain parenchyma was regarded as having CVD. Using DSA as a reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ASL-PWI for detecting CVD were calculated.Based on DSA features, 11 (11/22, 50%) patients were classified as having "aggressive" pattern with CVD. Eleven (11/22, 50%) patients also showed bright signal intensity in cortical veins (9/22, 41%) and/or brain parenchyma (4/22, 18%) on ASL-PWI. The 11 patients who had "Aggressive" pattern on DSA were the same 11 patients who were classified as having "aggressive" pattern on ASL-PWI. ASL-PWI showed perfect diagnostic performance for identifying CVD with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% for all.Thus, ASL-PWI could be used as a noninvasive mean to predict the presence of CVD in patients with DAVFs. It has the potential as a screening tool to evaluate DAVF prior to invasive DSA.

Symptom clusters and treatment time delay in Korean patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction on admission.

Most patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) experience more than one symptom at onset. Although symptoms are an important early indicator, patients and physicians may have difficulty interpreting symptoms and detecting AMI at an early stage. This study aimed to identify symptom clusters among Korean patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), to examine the relationship between symptom clusters and patient-related variables, and to investigate the influence of symptom clusters on treatment time delay (decision time [DT], onset-to-balloon time [OTB]). This was a prospective multicenter study with a descriptive design that used face-to-face interviews. A total of 342 patients with STEMI were included in this study. To identify symptom clusters, two-step cluster analysis was performed using SPSS software. Multinomial logistic regression to explore factors related to each cluster and multiple logistic regression to determine the effect of symptom clusters on treatment time delay were conducted. Three symptom clusters were identified: cluster 1 (classic MI; characterized by chest pain); cluster 2 (stress symptoms; sweating and chest pain); and cluster 3 (multiple symptoms; dizziness, sweating, chest pain, weakness, and dyspnea). Compared with patients in clusters 2 and 3, those in cluster 1 were more likely to have diabetes or prior MI. Patients in clusters 2 and 3, who predominantly showed other symptoms in addition to chest pain, had a significantly shorter DT and OTB than those in cluster 1. In conclusion, to decrease treatment time delay, it seems important that patients and clinicians recognize symptom clusters, rather than relying on chest pain alone. Further research is necessary to translate our findings into clinical practice and to improve patient education and public education campaigns.

Pituitary apoplexy following lumbar fusion surgery in prone position: A case report.

Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland, generally within a pituitary adenoma. PA following spinal surgery is a very rare complication and may be difficult to diagnose. However, early diagnosis of PA is essential for the timely treatment of pan-hypopituitarism and prevention of severe neurologic complications.

Giant malignant pheochromocytoma in an elderly patient: A case report.

Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare disease and surgical resection is the only curative treatment.

A rare case report of one stage surgical treatment for left renal cell carcinoma with level IV intravenous tumor thrombus combined with severe coronary artery stenosis.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a natural tendency to extend from the kidney into inferior vena cava (IVC) and growing into the right atrium is a rare complication. We report a 65-year-old patient with an RCC with intravascular extension through renal vein into the IVC and right atrial combined with severe coronary artery disease. This case has not been described in the literature and there is no treatment guideline for it.

Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery-incidence and predictors from a prospective observational cohort study at an Indian tertiary care centre.

Asymptomatic myocardial injury following noncardiac surgery (MINS) is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality and may go unrecognized based on standard diagnostic definition for myocardial infarction (MI). Given lack of published research on MINS in India, our study aims to determine incidence of MINS in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery at our tertiary care hospital, and evaluate the clinical characteristics including 30-day outcome.The prospective observational study included patients >65 years or >45 years with either hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or peripheral arterial disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. MINS was peak troponin level of ≥0.03 ng/dL at 12-hour or 24-hour postoperative. All patients were followed for 30 days postoperatively. Predictors of MINS and mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients categorized based on peak troponin cut-off values determined by receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed by Kaplan-Meir test to compare the survival of patients between the groups.Among 1075 patients screened during 34-month period, the incidence of MINS was 17.5% (188/1075). Patients with DM, CAD, or who underwent peripheral nerve block anaesthesia were 1.5 (P < .01), 2 (P < .001), and 12 (P < .001) times, respectively, more likely to develop MINS than others. Patients with heart rates ≥96 bpm before induction of anesthesia were significantly associated with MINS (P = .005) and mortality (P = .02). The 30-day mortality in MINS cohort was 11.7% (22/188, 95% CI 7.5%-17.2%) vs 2.5% (23/887, 95% CI 1.7%-3.9%) in patients without MINS (P < .001). ECG changes (P = .002), peak troponin values >1 ng/mL (P = .01) were significantly associated with mortality. A peak troponin cut-off of >0.152 ng/mL predicted mortality among MINS patients at 72% sensitivity and 58% specificity. Lack of antithrombotic therapy following MINS was independent predictor of mortality (P < .001), with decreased mortality in patients who took post-op ASA (Aspirin) or Clopidogrel. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op ASA intake is 6.7% vs 12.1% among MINS patients without post-op ASA intake. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op Clopidogrel intake is 10.5% vs 11.8% among MINS patients without post-op Clopidogrel intake.A higher (17.5%, 95% CI 15-19%) incidence of MINS was observed in our patient cohort with significant association with 30-day mortality. Serial postoperative monitoring of troponin following noncardiac surgery as standard of care, would identify "at risk" patients translating to improved outcomes.

Thrombectomy for Stroke with Selection by Perfusion Imaging.

Maternal Sirolimus Therapy for Fetal Cardiac Rhabdomyomas.

Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Hip or Knee Arthroplasty.

Assessment of capillary dropout in the superficial retinal capillary plexus by optical coherence tomography angiography in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy.

To assess capillary dropout in the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Pharmacomechanical Therapy for Deep-Vein Thrombosis.

Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy: a report of 2 cases.

Pregnant women with severe mitral stenosis tend to experience clinical decompensation with approximately 50% mortality and they may experience adverse effects of the medication they are taking, notably congenital malformations from warfarin exposure. Corrective heart surgery may increase the risk of pregnancy loss. We present 2 cases of RHD in pregnancy. The first case was a 27-year-old patient in her first pregnancy with severe mitral stenosis. Caesarean section was done for foetal distress and she delivered a small for gestational age baby. She was closely monitored postpartum and was stable on discharge. She presented with supraventricular tachycardia and died in the coronary care unit 4 weeks postpartum. The second case was a 28-year-old who was on warfarin for a mechanical mitral valve. A foetal anomaly scan done at 20 weeks showed severe congenital malformations which were not compatible with extra-uterine life. The pregnancy was terminated and she recovered well. The first case illustrates the significant mortality risk with uncorrected severe rheumatic heart disease. The second case highlights the risks of warfarin on the foetus and the need to avoid mechanical heart valves if possible in young women. RHD patients require preconception counselling so they can make informed reproductive choices.

Pharmacomechanical Therapy for Deep-Vein Thrombosis.

Clinical Assessment of Peripheral Arterial Disease of the Lower Limbs.

Optimal nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant therapy in a warfarin-sensitive patient after left atrial appendage closure: A case report.

Developing an optimal medication strategy poses a challenging task in fragile patients after left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). We report an optimal nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy in a warfarin-sensitive patient after LAAC.

Transradial percutaneous coronary intervention for left main bifurcation lesions using 7.5-Fr sheathless guide catheter.

Recent studies have shown sheathless guide catheters (GCs) to be safe and effective during complex lesions such as bifurcations, chronic total occlusion (CTO), and/or calcified lesions. We investigated the feasibility and safety of using 7.5-Fr sheathless GC for transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat left main bifurcation lesions.A total of 82 patients were consecutively enrolled from March 2013 to February 2016. They underwent transradial PCI for left main bifurcation lesions using the 7.5-Fr sheathless GC.The mean syntax score was 28.1 ± 6.1, and the majority (n = 55, 67.1%) was intermediate scores (23∼32). The unprotected LM disease was present in 67 of 82 patients (81.7%), and true bifurcation (Medina 1, 1, 1) was present in 46 of 82 patients (56.1%). The 2-stent technique was used in 62 of 82 patients (75.6%). The 2-stent technique included 31 cases (37.8%) of "Crush," 18 cases (22.0%) of "Cullote," and 13 (15.8%) cases of "T stent and modified T stent" (T stent). Immediate angiographic success rate was 100% (82/82), and procedural success rate was 97.6% (80/82). The vascular complications occurred in 3 patients (3/82, 3.7%).The use of 7.5-Fr sheathless GC is safe and allows PCI for complex bifurcation lesions located in the distal of left main to be performed transradially with a high success rate.

Delayed intracranial subdural empyema following burr hole drainage: Case series and literature review.

A subdural empyema (SDE) following burr hole drainage of a chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) can be difficult to distinguish from a recurrence of the CSDH, especially when imaging data is limited to a computed tomography (CT) scan.

Mode of initiation and clinical significance of malignant rapid ventricular arrhythmias: An observational study.

The purpose of this study was to explore the modes of initiation and clinical significance of malignant rapid ventricular arrhythmias (MRVAs).The surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) or sustained electrocardiomonitor graph was analyzed in 79 patients. All patients had at least 1 MRVA after being admitted to the hospital.According to the length of coupling interval of the initial premature ventricular contraction of MRVA, the modes of initiation of MRVA were divided into the following types: those initiated by premature ventricular contraction with short coupling intervals in patients with normal Q-T interval, and for which short-long-short sequences before MRVA precipitation were not observed; those initiated following short-long-short sequences, which were divided into 2 types according to the length of Q-T interval: a normal Q-T interval and a long Q-T interval. On the basis of the different modes of onset, treatments of MRVA were different.MRVAs have different modes of onset depending on the patients' underlying condition. Prompt recognition of the mode of onset is necessary to facilitate appropriate management. These findings could have important pathophysiologic and clinical implications.

Ventricular arrhythmia as an initial sign in acute Kawasaki disease: A case report.

Coronary artery lesion is the most prominent cardiac manifestation in Kawasaki disease. However, few cases of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia were reported in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease.

Effects of slow breathing rate on heart rate variability and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.

This study is to investigate the effects of slow breathing on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.We studied 60 patients with essential hypertension and 60 healthy controls. All subjects underwent controlled breathing at 8 and 16 breaths per minute. Electrocardiogram, respiratory, and blood pressure signals were recorded simultaneously. We studied effects of slow breathing on heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory peak, high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, and LF/HF ratio of HRV with traditional and corrected spectral analysis. Besides, we tested whether slow breathing was capable of modifying baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects.Slow breathing, compared with 16 breaths per minute, decreased the heart rate and blood pressure (all P < .05), and shifted respiratory peak toward left (P < .05). Compared to 16 breaths/minute, traditional spectral analysis showed increased LF power and LF/HF ratio, decreased HF power of HRV at 8 breaths per minute (P < .05). As breathing rate decreased, corrected spectral analysis showed increased HF power, decreased LF power, LF/HF ratio of HRV (P < .05). Compared to controls, resting baroreflex sensitivity decreased in hypertensive subjects. Slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects (from 59.48 ± 6.39 to 78.93 ± 5.04 ms/mm Hg, P < .05) and controls (from 88.49 ± 6.01 to 112.91 ± 7.29 ms/mm Hg, P < .05).Slow breathing can increase HF power and decrease LF power and LF/HF ratio in essential hypertension. Besides, slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects. These demonstrate slow breathing is indeed capable of shifting sympatho-vagal balance toward vagal activities and increasing baroreflex sensitivity, suggesting a safe, therapeutic approach for essential hypertension.

Neurological symptoms and spinal cord embolism caused by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices: A case report and literature review.

Spinal cord embolism is a rare complication of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS).

Basal ganglion hematoma evacuation and clipping of middle cerebral artery aneurysm by neuroendoscopy: A case report.

Basal ganglia hematomas resulting from the rupture of aneurysms of the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) are extremely rare and are usually treated by craniotomy. To date, only 5 cases of MCA aneurysm have been treated using neuroendoscopy, and none of these cases involved hematomas. For the first time, we report a special case in which neuroendoscopy was used to evacuate a hematoma and clip an aneurysm at the same time.

High red cell distribution width at the time of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction is better at predicting diastolic than systolic left ventricular dysfunction: A single-center prospective cohort study.

Multiple studies have demonstrated the association of red cell distribution width (RDW) with the ultrasound parameters of both systolic and diastolic heart dysfunction. We aimed to further investigate the clinical associations of RDW in the setting of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to comparatively evaluate its predictive properties regarding systolic and diastolic dysfunction.A total of 89 patients with STEMI were prospectively analyzed. RDW was obtained at the time of STEMI and compared to the parameters of systolic and diastolic dysfunction obtained by transthoracic heart ultrasound on the 5th through 7th day post-STEMI.The median RDW was 13.9%, and among other factors, RDW was significantly associated with older age (P < .001), arterial hypertension (P = .017), hyperlipoproteinemia 2, nonsmoking (P = .027), increased thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score (P = .004), and multivessel disease (P = .007). A higher RDW was observed in patients with parameters that indicated systolic and diastolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of the left ventricle < 50% [P = .009], early/late diastolic filling wave ratio [E/A] < 1 [P = .001], ratio of peak early transmitral velocity and early diastolic annular velocity [E/E'] >10 [P < .001], and combined E/A < 1 and E/E' > 10 [P < .001]). The best discriminatory properties were observed for combined E/A < 1 and E/E' > 10. RDW remained significantly associated with the aforementioned parameters in a series of multivariate regression models.Elevated RDW is significantly associated with the parameters of systolic and diastolic dysfunction even after adjusting for several confounding factors in the setting of STEMI and subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention. RDW seems to be better at discriminating patients with diastolic rather than systolic dysfunction.