A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Chemically-Induced Disorders - Top 30 Publications

Tobacco Product Use Among Military Veterans - United States, 2010-2015.

In 2015, an estimated 18.8 million U.S. adults were military veterans (1). Although the prevalence of tobacco-attributable conditions is high among veterans (2), there is a paucity of data on use of tobacco products, other than cigarettes, in this population. To monitor tobacco product use among veterans, CDC analyzed self-reported current (i.e., past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars [big cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars], roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco [chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or snus]) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Overall, 29.2% of veterans reported current use of any of the assessed tobacco products. Cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product (21.6%), followed by cigars (6.2%), smokeless tobacco (5.2%), roll-your-own tobacco (3.0%), and pipes (1.5%); 7.0% of veterans currently used two or more tobacco products. Within subgroups of veterans, current use of any of the assessed tobacco products was higher among persons aged 18-25 years (56.8%), Hispanics (34.0%), persons with less than a high school diploma (37.9%), those with annual family income <$20,000 (44.3%), living in poverty (53.7%), reporting serious psychological distress (48.2%), and with no health insurance (60.1%). By age and sex subgroups, use of any of the assessed tobacco products was significantly higher among all veteran groups than their nonveteran counterparts, except males aged ≥50 years. Expanding the reach of evidence-based tobacco control interventions among veterans could reduce tobacco use prevalence in this population.

HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - 20 Cities, United States, 2015.

In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%. In a behavioral analysis of HIV-negative persons who inject drugs, an estimated 27% receptively shared syringes and 67% had condomless vaginal sex in the previous 12 months. During the same period, 58% had tested for HIV infection and 52% received syringes from a syringe services program. Given the increased number of persons newly injecting drugs who are at risk for HIV infection because of the recent opioid epidemic (2,4), these findings underscore the importance of continuing and expanding health services, HIV prevention programs, and community-based strategies, such as those provided by syringe services programs, for this population.

Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial - Authors' reply.

Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial.

Favism and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

Patient safety incident reports related to traditional Japanese Kampo medicines: medication errors and adverse drug events in a university hospital for a ten-year period.

Kampo medicine is traditional Japanese medicine, which originated in ancient traditional Chinese medicine, but was introduced and developed uniquely in Japan. Today, Kampo medicines are integrated into the Japanese national health care system. Incident reporting systems are currently being widely used to collect information about patient safety incidents that occur in hospitals. However, no investigations have been conducted regarding patient safety incident reports related to Kampo medicines. The aim of this study was to survey and analyse incident reports related to Kampo medicines in a Japanese university hospital to improve future patient safety.

Time to development of adverse drug reactions and associated factors among adult HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia.

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are harmful and unintended reactions to medicines given at standard doses. Although the antiretroviral treatment (ART) changed the global HIV epidemic significantly, it's associated adverse events is huge. Therefore, investigating the rate and development of ADRs of ART provides vital information for monitoring risks.

Prevalence and Disparities in Tobacco Product Use Among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2010-2015.

An overarching goal of Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health among all groups.* Although significant progress has been made in reducing overall commercial tobacco product use,† disparities persist, with American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) having one of the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking among all racial/ethnic groups (1,2). Variations in cigarette smoking among AI/ANs have been documented by sex and geographic location (3), but not by other sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, few data exist on use of tobacco products other than cigarettes among AI/ANs (4). CDC analyzed self-reported current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types among AI/AN adults from the 2010-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); results were compared with six other racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic; non-Hispanic white [white]; non-Hispanic black [black]; non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NHOPI]; non-Hispanic Asian [Asian]; and non-Hispanic multirace [multirace]). Prevalence of current tobacco product use was significantly higher among AI/ANs than among non-AI/ANs combined for any tobacco product, cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Among AI/ANs, prevalence of current use of any tobacco product was higher among males, persons aged 18-25 years, those with less than a high school diploma, those with annual family income <$20,000, those who lived below the federal poverty level, and those who were never married. Addressing the social determinants of health and providing evidence-based, population-level, and culturally appropriate tobacco control interventions could help reduce tobacco product use and eliminate disparities in tobacco product use among AI/ANs (1).

Whole genome microarray analysis of neural progenitor C17.2 cells during differentiation and validation of 30 neural mRNA biomarkers for estimation of developmental neurotoxicity.

Despite its high relevance, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is one of the least studied forms of toxicity. Current guidelines for DNT testing are based on in vivo testing and they require extensive resources. Transcriptomic approaches using relevant in vitro models have been suggested as a useful tool for identifying possible DNT-generating compounds. In this study, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on the murine progenitor cell line C17.2 following 5 and 10 days of differentiation. We identified 30 genes that are strongly associated with neural differentiation. The C17.2 cell line can be differentiated into a co-culture of both neurons and neuroglial cells, giving a more relevant picture of the brain than using neuronal cells alone. Among the most highly upregulated genes were genes involved in neurogenesis (CHRDL1), axonal guidance (BMP4), neuronal connectivity (PLXDC2), axonogenesis (RTN4R) and astrocyte differentiation (S100B). The 30 biomarkers were further validated by exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of two DNT-inducing compounds (valproic acid and methylmercury) and one neurotoxic chemical possessing a possible DNT activity (acrylamide). Twenty-eight of the 30 biomarkers were altered by at least one of the neurotoxic substances, proving the importance of these biomarkers during differentiation. These results suggest that gene expression profiling using a predefined set of biomarkers could be used as a sensitive tool for initial DNT screening of chemicals. Using a predefined set of mRNA biomarkers, instead of the whole genome, makes this model affordable and high-throughput. The use of such models could help speed up the initial screening of substances, possibly indicating alerts that need to be further studied in more sophisticated models.

Mixed methods inquiry into traditional healers' treatment of mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders in rural South Africa.

Traditional healers are acceptable and highly accessible health practitioners throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Patients in South Africa often seek concurrent traditional and allopathic treatment leading to medical pluralism.

Hand-Foot Syndrome and Post-Progression Treatment Are the Good Predictors of Better Survival in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Sorafenib: A Multicenter Study.

To determine the relationship between treatment outcomes and hand-foot syndrome (HFS), and the relationship between survival rate and post-progression treatment after sorafenib therapy.

Propofol Related Infusion Syndrome: Ultrastructural Evidence for a Mitochondrial Disorder.

The objective of this report of a fatal propofol-related infusion syndrome in a young adult was to present-to our knowledge for the first time-direct ultrastructural evidence for the central role of mitochondrial damage in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.


Alcohol and other drug use are almost synonymous with increased risky sexual activity in young people (12-25 years). There is a direct correlation between initiation into methamphetamine use and an increase in sexual risk behaviours (Hoenigl et al. 2015).


Drug and alcohol dependence continues to ignite the interest of the media. The 'epidemic' of methamphetamine use, the controversy of private residential rehabs and the burden of substance use on the healthcare system are prominent in the news and across social media.


Approximately 4.2% of pregnant women consume illicit drugs during pregnancy (AIHW, 2011). Drug exposed infants are more likely to be born small for gestational age, be pre-term, and be admitted to special care or intensive care nurseries (AIHW, 2007).


Substance use (illicit and licit) in pregnant women has consistently increased over the past 50 years, more recently with an escalation of opioid use.


A new study in Melbourne aims to assess knowledge, skills and attitudes of mental health nurses employed in a large mental health service. The study will use an observation as well as surveys and interviews to explore knowledge, skills, and attitude of nurses towards consumers with comorbid substance use.


In Australia 67% of prisoners report previous illicit drug use (AIHW, 2015) with 39% reporting high risk of alcohol-related harm. The links between effective ATOD health programs and outcomes are clearly linked to reduced recidivism (Ombudsman report, 2015) and better biopsychosocial determinates. Correctional nurses' work in challenging environments but their adaptability and passion are key to the provision of community equivalent care.


Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) presentations are common in the Emergency Department (ED) especially on weekends (Parkinson et al. 2016) and the presence of AOD use can account for substantial healthcare costs (Butler et al. 2016).


Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with detrimental health and social consequences, yet this modifiable and preventable risk factor for serious non-communicable diseases remains an unmet challenge (Spanagel et al. 2013; WHO, 2014, 2016).


Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a term used to describe withdrawal symptoms of infants who became physically dependent on drugs of addiction while in utero (Prabhakar, 2014).

A rare case of methimazole-induced cholestatic jaundice in an elderly man of Asian ethnicity with hyperthyroidism: A case report.

Methimazole is an antithyroid drug that is widely used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. As an inhibitor of the enzyme thyroperoxidase, methimazole is generally well-tolerated. However, there have been increasing reports of methimazole-induced liver damage, although this effect of methimazole has been limited by the absence of objective diagnosis of the liver condition or the inappropriate use of the Naranjo scale. We present the case of an elderly man with hyperthyroidism, gastritis, and epilepsy who developed liver damage after administration of multiple drugs.

Copper-associated hepatitis in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case report.

We report a complicated case of cholestatic hepatitis with suspected autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and copper toxicity syndrome after HSCT and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI).

Higher efficacy of direct hemoperfusion using coated activated-charcoal column for disopyramide poisoning: A case report.

Cases of severe disopyramide poisoning are rare and few have been reported. We report a case in which activated-charcoal column hemoperfusion was dramatically effective for life-threatening disopyramide poisoning.

Comparing Methods for Estimating Direct Costs of Adverse Drug Events.

To estimate how direct health care costs resulting from adverse drug events (ADEs) and cost distribution are affected by methodological decisions regarding identification of ADEs, assigning relevant resource use to ADEs, and estimating costs for the assigned resources.

Alcohol is an Unsafe Product.

Alcohol is a hazardous product. Its consumption depends on the society's drinking norms. These are set by advertising industries on the one hand, and forces of public health and medical services on the other hand. Germany is one of the countries with high alcohol consumption. According to epidemiological evidence, alcohol-attributable diseases include more than 200 diagnostic entities. Medical practitioners may help to reduce alcohol consumption. Data revealed that brief intervention, including computer-generated feedback in medical practice, is efficient in reducing consumption. It relieves the physician of counseling responsibilities.

Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use.

While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.

DUI offenders may have multiple health and social problems - doctors play a central role in monitoring the use of medications affecting the central nervous system.

While the overall number of driving under the influence (DUI) cases has reduced, the proportion of drivers under the influence of medications or illicit drugs has increased. In studies based on Finnish register data sets, the factors involved in DUI have been examined with the conclusion that drunk driving may be an indication of multiple health or social problems. According to several measures, DUI offenders who had used medications, especially benzodiazepines, were ill and disadvantaged. Doctors play a central role in reducing the number of DUI cases, e.g. by treating substance abuse problems and by monitoring the use of drugs which affect the central nervous system. It is possible that a DUI offender has accumulated a number of different problems at the same time, which is why the treatment of DUI offenders should pay attention to a comprehensive mapping of the situation and the use of multidisciplinary cooperation.

The soluble mannose receptor (sMR) is elevated in alcoholic liver disease and associated with disease severity, portal hypertension, and mortality in cirrhosis patients.

Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently been identified in humans. We aimed to study plasma sMR levels and its correlation with disease severity and survival in ALD patients.

Drug Companies' Liability for the Opioid Epidemic.