A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Chemically-Induced Disorders - Top 30 Publications

Hospitalizations for Endocarditis and Associated Health Care Costs Among Persons with Diagnosed Drug Dependence - North Carolina, 2010-2015.

Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4). In addition to infections from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), injecting drug users are at increased risk for acquiring invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis (5,6). Evidence that hospitalizations for endocarditis are increasing in association with the current opioid epidemic exists (7-9). To examine trends in hospitalizations for endocarditis among persons in North Carolina with drug dependence during 2010-2015, data from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge database were analyzed. The incidence of hospital discharge diagnoses for drug dependence combined with endocarditis increased more than twelvefold from 0.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 persons per year over this 6-year period. Correspondingly, hospital costs for these patients increased eighteenfold, from $1.1 million in 2010 to $22.2 million in 2015. To reduce the risk for morbidity and mortality related to opioid-associated endocarditis, public health programs and health care systems should consider collaborating to implement syringe service programs, harm reduction strategies, and opioid treatment programs.

Synergistic protective effect of picrorhiza with honey in acetaminophen induced hepatic injury.

Rhizome of picrorhiza along with honey prevents hepatic damage and cure the acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity by modulating the activity of hepatic enzymes. Here, we studied the in vivo effects of Picrorhiza kurroa and honey on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity Balb/c mice model. Hepatic histopathological observations of acetaminophen fed (day-6) group showed more congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, distorted hepatic architecture and nuclear inclusion. Such damages were recompensed to normal by picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed increased activity of SGPT and SGOT in injured liver tissues, and that too was compensated to normal with picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed 1.27 and 1.23-fold enhanced activity of SGPT in serum and liver lysate, respectively while SGOT showed 1.66 and 1.11 fold enhanced activity. These two enzymes are signature enzymes of liver damage. Thus, our results support that honey may be used with drug picrorhiza due to its synergistic role to enhance hepatoprotective and hepatoregenerative ability along with allopathic drugs to mitigate the hepatotoxic effects.

Four phases of the Flint Water Crisis: Evidence from blood lead levels in children.

The Flint Water Crisis (FWC) is divisible into four phases of child water-lead exposure risk: Phase A) before the switch in water source to the Flint River (our baseline); Phase B) after the switch in water source, but before boil water advisories; Phase C) after boil water advisories, but before the switch back to the baseline water source of the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD); and Phase D) after the switch back to DWSD. The objective of this work is to estimate water-lead attributable movements in child blood lead levels (BLLs) that correspond with the four phases in the FWC. With over 21,000 geo-referenced and time-stamped blood lead samples from children in Genesee County drawn from January 01, 2013 to July 19, 2016, we develop a series of quasi-experimental models to identify the causal effect of water-lead exposure on child BLLs in Flint. We find that the switch in water source (transitioning from phase A to B) caused mean BLLs to increase by about 0.5μg/dL, and increased the likelihood of a child presenting with a BLL ≥ 5μg/dL by a factor of 1.91-3.50, implying an additional 561 children exceeding 5μg/dL. We conservatively estimate cohort social costs (through lost earnings alone) of this increase in water-lead exposed children at $65 million, contrasted with expected annual savings of $2 million from switching water source. On the switch from Phase B to C, we find BLLs decreased about 50% from their initial rise following boil water advisories and subsequent water avoidance behaviors by households. Finally, the return to the baseline source water (Phase D) returned child BLLs to pre-FWC levels further implicating water-lead exposure as a causal source of child BLLs throughout the FWC.

Neonatal Discontinuation Syndrome in Serotonergic Antidepressant-Exposed Neonates.

To determine whether infants exposed in utero to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants or a DSM-IV-TR-defined mood disorder have significantly more neonatal discontinuation signs compared to an unexposed group of infants at 2-4 weeks after birth.

Amanita phalloides Mushroom Poisonings - Northern California, December 2016.

Amanita phalloides, colloquially known as the "death cap," belongs to the Phalloideae section of the Amanita family of mushrooms and is responsible for most deaths following ingestion of foraged mushrooms worldwide (1). On November 28, 2016, members of the Bay Area Mycological Society notified personnel at the California Poison Control System (CPCS) of an unusually large A. phalloides bloom in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, coincident with the abundant rainfall and recent warm weather. Five days later, CPCS received notification of the first human A. phalloides poisoning of the season. Over the following 2 weeks, CPCS was notified of an additional 13 cases of hepatotoxicity resulting from A. phalloides ingestion. In the past few years before this outbreak, CPCS received reports of only a few mushroom poisoning cases per year. A summary of 14 reported cases is presented here. Data extracted from patient medical charts revealed a pattern of delayed gastrointestinal manifestations of intoxication leading to dehydration and hepatotoxicity. Three patients received liver transplants and all but one recovered completely. The morbidity and potential lethality associated with A. phalloides ingestion are serious public health concerns and warrant medical provider education and dissemination of information cautioning against consuming foraged wild mushrooms.

Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations - Putting the Potential Benefits into Perspective.

The Other Victims of the Opioid Epidemic.

A 1980 Letter on the Risk of Opioid Addiction.

Endoscopic management of massive mercury ingestion: A case report.

Ingestion of a massive amount of metallic mercury was thought to be harmless until the last century. After that, in a number of cases, mercury ingestion has been associated with appendicitis, impaired liver function, memory deficits, aspiration leading to pneumonitis and acute renal failure. Treatment includes gastric lavage, giving laxatives and chelating agents, but rapid removal of metallic mercury with gastroscopy has not been used.

False positive 18FDG PET-CT results due to exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to oily drug inhalation: A case report.

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare condition due to abnormal presence of oily substances in the lungs. It is a rarely known cause for false positive FDG PET-CT results and can sometimes lead to invasive investigations. Searching and finding the source of the oily substance is one of the keys to the diagnosis. Inhalation of oily drugs during snorting has rarely been described.

sourceR: Classification and source attribution of infectious agents among heterogeneous populations.

Zoonotic diseases are a major cause of morbidity, and productivity losses in both human and animal populations. Identifying the source of food-borne zoonoses (e.g. an animal reservoir or food product) is crucial for the identification and prioritisation of food safety interventions. For many zoonotic diseases it is difficult to attribute human cases to sources of infection because there is little epidemiological information on the cases. However, microbial strain typing allows zoonotic pathogens to be categorised, and the relative frequencies of the strain types among the sources and in human cases allows inference on the likely source of each infection. We introduce sourceR, an R package for quantitative source attribution, aimed at food-borne diseases. It implements a Bayesian model using strain-typed surveillance data from both human cases and source samples, capable of identifying important sources of infection. The model measures the force of infection from each source, allowing for varying survivability, pathogenicity and virulence of pathogen strains, and varying abilities of the sources to act as vehicles of infection. A Bayesian non-parametric (Dirichlet process) approach is used to cluster pathogen strain types by epidemiological behaviour, avoiding model overfitting and allowing detection of strain types associated with potentially high "virulence". sourceR is demonstrated using Campylobacter jejuni isolate data collected in New Zealand between 2005 and 2008. Chicken from a particular poultry supplier was identified as the major source of campylobacteriosis, which is qualitatively similar to results of previous studies using the same dataset. Additionally, the software identifies a cluster of 9 multilocus sequence types with abnormally high 'virulence' in humans. sourceR enables straightforward attribution of cases of zoonotic infection to putative sources of infection. As sourceR develops, we intend it to become an important and flexible resource for food-borne disease attribution studies.

Estimation of the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention portfolios for people who inject drugs in the United States: A model-based analysis.

The risks of HIV transmission associated with the opioid epidemic make cost-effective programs for people who inject drugs (PWID) a public health priority. Some of these programs have benefits beyond prevention of HIV-a critical consideration given that injection drug use is increasing across most United States demographic groups. To identify high-value HIV prevention program portfolios for US PWID, we consider combinations of four interventions with demonstrated efficacy: opioid agonist therapy (OAT), needle and syringe programs (NSPs), HIV testing and treatment (Test & Treat), and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

New Warnings About Protecting Children from Dangerous Substances.

Nurses can lead the way with education and advocacy.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities at the End of an HIV Epidemic: Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City, 2011-2015.

To examine whether racial/ethnic disparities persist at the "end of the HIV epidemic" (prevalence of untreated HIV infection < 5%; HIV incidence < 0.5 per 100 person-years) among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City.

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in Correctional Institutions-United States, 1998-2014.

To present the first update on the epidemiology of US foodborne correctional institution outbreaks in 20 years.

Patient-Centric Side Effect Risk Assessment for Medications Used During Aeromedical Evacuations.

The U.S. Air Force performs more than 6000 aeromedical transport flights annually, both internationally and domestically. Many of these flights include patients requiring pain relief medications. The risk of side effects from such medications administered at altitude is unknown, but understanding these risks is vital when selecting the safest pain management strategies to achieve optimal postflight outcomes.

Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking.

Evaluation of the Safety of Drugs and Biological Products Used During Lactation: Workshop Summary.

This report serves as a summary of a 2-day public workshop sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the safety of drugs and biological products used during lactation. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the collection of data to inform the potential risks to breastfed infants with maternal use of medications during lactation. Discussions included the review of current approaches to collect data on medications used during lactation, and the considerations for future approaches to design and guide clinical lactation studies. This workshop is part of continuing efforts to raise the awareness of the public for women who choose to breastfeed their infants.

Increased use of police and health-related services among those with heavy drinkers in their lives in New Zealand.

To report population estimates of service use because of someone else's drinking in New Zealand, investigate whether greater exposure to heavy drinkers relates to greater service use and examine demographic predictors of such service use.

Current and Binge Drinking Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2015.

Excessive drinking accounted for approximately 4,300 deaths each year among persons aged <21 years during 2006-2010,* and underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion in 2010 (1). CDC analyzed data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) for the years 1991-2015 to examine trends in drinking by U.S. high school students, and from the 2015 YRBS to assess the usual source of alcohol consumed(†) and binge drinking intensity (i.e., the average number of drinks consumed per binge drinking occasion).(§) During 1991-2007, the prevalence of current drinking(¶) among high school students declined significantly, from 50.8% (1991) to 44.7% (2007), and then significantly declined to 32.8% in 2015. The prevalence of binge drinking** increased from 31.3% in 1991 to 31.5% in 1999, and then significantly declined to 17.7% in 2015. Most high school students who drank were binge drinkers (57.8%), and 43.8% of binge drinkers consumed eight or more drinks in a row. Despite progress, current drinking and binge drinking are common among high school students, and many students who binge drink do so at high intensity (i.e., eight or more drinks in a row). Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws) could help reduce underage drinking and related harms.(††).

State HCV Incidence and Policies Related to HCV Preventive and Treatment Services for Persons Who Inject Drugs - United States, 2015-2016.

Hepatitis C is associated with more deaths in the United States than 60 other infectious diseases reported to CDC combined. Despite curative hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies and known preventive measures to interrupt transmission, new HCV infections have increased in recent years (1,2). Injection drug use is the primary risk factor for new HCV infections (2). One potential strategy to decrease the prevalence of HCV is to create and strengthen public health laws and policies aimed specifically at reducing transmission risks among persons who inject drugs. To evaluate factors affecting access to HCV preventive and treatment services, CDC assessed state laws governing access to safe injection equipment and Medicaid policies related to sobriety requirements for approval of HCV treatment for persons who inject drugs. Acute HCV incidence rates were obtained from CDC's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). States were categorized based on analysis of laws related to access to clean needles and syringes and Medicaid HCV treatment policies associated with sobriety requirements. In 2015, HCV incidence remained high in the United States, with rates in 17 states exceeding the national average. Three states were determined to have state laws and Medicaid policies capable of comprehensively preventing and treating HCV among persons who inject drugs. Opportunities exist for states to adopt laws and policies that could help increase access to HCV preventive and treatment services reducing the number of persons at risk for HCV transmission and disease.

Methods for safety signal detection in healthcare databases: a literature review.

With increasing availability, the use of healthcare databases as complementary data source for drug safety signal detection has been explored to circumvent the limitations inherent in spontaneous reporting. Areas covered: To review the methods proposed for safety signal detection in healthcare databases and their performance. Expert opinion: Fifteen different data mining methods were identified. They are based on disproportionality analysis, traditional pharmacoepidemiological designs (e.g. self-controlled designs), sequence symmetry analysis (SSA), sequential statistical testing, temporal association rules, supervised machine learning (SML), and the tree-based scan statistic. When considering the performance of these methods, the self-controlled designs, the SSA, and the SML seemed the most interesting approaches. In the perspective of routine signal detection from healthcare databases, pragmatic aspects such as the need for stakeholders to understand the method in order to be confident in the results must be considered. From this point of view, the SSA could appear as the most suitable method for signal detection in healthcare databases owing to its simple principle and its ability to provide a risk estimate. However, further developments, such as automated prioritization, are needed to help stakeholders handle the multiplicity of signals.

A preliminary study in the alterations of mitochondrial respiration in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning measured in blood cells.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas responsible for poisoning mortality and morbidity in the United States. At this time, there is no reliable method to predict the severity of poisoning or clinical prognosis following CO exposure. Whole blood cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and platelets, have been explored for their potential use to act as sensitive biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction which may have a role in CO poisoning.

When the Treatment Becomes the Problem.

A 47-year-old white male with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to clinic with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, weight loss, and body aches that impeded his ability to work and sleep. He had initially controlled his diabetes successfully with weight loss and exercise. However, in the previous 6 months he had noticed unintentional weight loss. He was evaluated at another clinic where he was prescribed sitagliptin/metformin (Janumet) for his uncontrolled hyperglycemia. After 6 weeks his blood glucose had not significantly improved, and an endocrinologist prescribed insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin aspart (NovoLog). About 3 days later he developed migratory joint pains and myalgias. After some weeks his insulin regimen was changed to insulin detemir (Levemir), and his myalgia symptoms briefly improved but then worsened. He experienced tingling of his feet that caused increasing difficulty sleeping. His review of systems was remarkable for fatigue, weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, myalgias and arthralgias, numbness and tingling of both feet, and difficulty sleeping.

Identification of Datura Species Involved in a Food-Poisoning Case Using LC-MS/MS and DNA Barcording.

A food-poisoning case due to eating the roots of Datura occurred in Kawasaki City, Japan in 2014. The Datura plant was mistakenly collected instead of burdock in a domestic garden. The roots of these plants are quite similar to each other. We presumed that the specimen was the root of Datura, but it was difficult to classify it only from the morphology. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected atropine and scopolamine from the remaining plant specimen. Therefore, we applied the DNA barcoding method. The results showed that the specimen was classified into Solanaceae family, but not Asteraceae family. Thus, the specimen was confirmed to be Datura species based on both chemical and genetic analyses.

Effects of monocrotophos pesticide on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems during early development in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

During early development in sea urchins, classical neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), play important roles in the regulation of morphogenesis and swimming behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of how organophosphate pesticides cause developmental neurotoxicity by interfering with different neurotransmitter systems are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide on the activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase, the concentration of DA, dopamine transporter, and the transcription activity of DA receptor D1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, during critical periods in cholinergic and dopaminergic nervous system development in sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) embryos and larvae. At the blastula stages, MCP disrupted DA metabolism but not 5-HT metabolism, resulting in abnormal development. High ChAT and AChE activity were observed at the gastrulation-completed stage and the two-armed pluteus stage, respectively, MCP inhibited ChAT activity and AChE activity/distribution and resulted in developmental defects of the plutei. From the gastrula stage to the two-armed pluteus stage, we found ubiquitous disrupting effects of MCP on ACh, DA, and 5-HT metabolism, particularly at critical periods during the development of these neurotransmitter systems. Therefore, we propose that this disruption is one of the main mechanisms of MCP-related developmental neurotoxicity, which would contribute better understanding insight into the mechanism of MCP pesticide's toxic effects.

Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine: Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity.

Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. However, the inactivation of the reactive QIs by detoxifying enzymes such as human glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreducatase 1 (NQO1) has not been characterized yet. In the present study, the activities of 15 recombinant human GSTs and NQO1 in the inactivation of reactive QIs of AQ and its pharmacological active metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) were investigated. The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of AQ and DEAQ. Additionally, NQO1 was shown to inactivate these QIs by reduction. Simulation of the variability of cytosolic GST-activity based on the hepatic GST contents from 22 liver donors, showed a large variation in cytosolic inactivation of QIs by GSH, especially at a reduced GSH-concentration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a low hepatic expression of the active GSTs and NQO1 may increase the susceptibility of patients to AQ idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.

HLA-A*24:02 as a common risk factor for antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions.

To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci in aromatic antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions.

Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy.

Imaging of hepatic toxicity of systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer centre: chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, molecular targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure. The recent arrival of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncology has introduced a new range of immune-related adverse events, with differing mechanisms of liver toxicity and varied imaging presentation of liver injury. High-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are associated with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Management of hepatic toxicity depends on the clinical scenario, the drug in use, and the severity of the findings. In this article, we will (1) present the most common types of oncological drugs associated with hepatic toxicity and associated liver injuries; (2) illustrate imaging findings of hepatic toxicities and the possible differential diagnosis; and (3) provide a guide for management of these conditions.